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Making the Internet disappear: (The Hindu, Editorial)

Context

  • Courts must take into account the exceptional character of Net shutdowns and their impact on civil liberties

What does the law states?

  • The High Court of Gujarat set the precedent by invoking Section 144 of the Code of Criminal Procedure (CrPC) to uphold an Internet shutdown.
  • Section 144, which has its roots in the colonial-era British police-state, authorizes prohibitory orders to “prevent obstruction, annoyance or injury to any person lawfully employed, or danger to human life, health or safety, or a disturbance of the public tranquility, or a riot, of an affray.

Is the ban on the Internet legit?

  • Perhaps realizing that Section 144 of the CrPC was a poor peg on which to hang Internet shutdowns, in August 2017, the government notified certain “Suspension Rules”, taking the cover of yet another colonial law — the Telegraph Act of 1885.
  • While these rules were meant to bring transparency and clarity to the procedure through which Internet services were suspended, they remain deeply problematic in themselves.

How often has the government banned internet so far?

Jammu and Kashmir

  • The valley has led the list in facing the most number of internet shutdowns in India.
  • In total the valley has seen around 40 internet shutdowns since 2011.

Rajasthan

  • India’s largest state by area and known for its forts and palaces has seen 3 internet shutdowns so far in 2017.

Haryana

  • The state has seen 5 shutdowns so far in 2017.

Uttar Pradesh

  • Internet services have so far been suspended for 2 times in the state. In June 2017, after the main accused of the Saharanpur violence was arrested, internet services were shut down across the entire district for two days.

Odisha

  • So far internet services have been taken down 2 times in 2017.

What are the new rules legislated that allow Internet ban?

  • The communication ministry has issued new rules that allow the government to temporarily shut down phone and internet services during a “public emergency” or for “public safety”
  • The new rules were notified by the Department of Telecommunications on August 8. They don’t clearly define “public emergency” or “public safety”.

What can be the consequences of such bans in a democracy?

  • The Constitution of India provides the right to freedom of speech and expression in Article 19 of the constitution.
  • The constitution of India does not specifically mention the freedom of press. Freedom of press is implied from the Article 19(1)(a) of the Constitution. Thus the press is subject to the restrictions that are provided under the Article 19(2) of the Constitution..
  • However, Freedom of speech and expression is not absolute. As of now, there are 8 restrictions on the freedom of speech and expression. These are in respect of the sovereignty and integrity of the country. These 8 restrictions were:
    Security of the state
    Friendly relations with foreign states
    Public Order
    Decency or morality
    Contempt of Court
    Defamation
    Incitement to offence
    Sovereignty and integrity of India.
  • A blanket ban on the internet infringes the Right to expression as guaranteed under the constitution of India.
  • Moreover, the constitutional validity of imposing internet shutdowns, especially under Section 144 of the CrPC is not legit since it does not contain the appropriate legal power to order a suspension of Internet services
  • In that context, any internet shutdown should really take place under Section 5(2) of the Telegraph Act and Section 69A of the Information Technology Act.
  • Such a ban contradicts with the very essence of the Indian democracy

What is the suggested way ahead?

  • The courts must take into account the exceptional character of Internet shutdowns and their impact on core civil liberties before validating them.
  • The notion that the government must have the ability to control the Internet in order to preserve law and order further disempower the individual against the state, and achieve a temporary illusion of security at the cost of a permanent loss of freedom.
  • Designating certain officers who can authorize Internet shutdowns and form a “review committee”, whose scope shall be limited to deciding whether the declaration was valid or not shall make the ban more legit

Gone girl: (Indian Express, Editorial)

SC verdict on child marriage makes a break with cultural norms. Now, back it with policy to restore childhoods.

Context:

  • The recent Supreme Court verdict provides short term relief to the female victims of early marriage.

What is the verdict?

  • The verdict says that a man who has sex with a wife less than 18 years can be charged of rape.

Section 375 vs the Constitution

  • Exception 2 to Section 375 (which defines rape) of the IPC (as amended by the Criminal Law (Amendment) Act, 2013), as violative of Articles 14, 15 and 21 of the Constitution

Article 14 in the Constitution of India

Equality before law

  • The State shall not deny to any person equality before the law or the equal protection of the laws within the territory of India Prohibition of discrimination on grounds of religion, race, caste, sex or place of birth

Article 15 in the Constitution of India

  • Prohibition of discrimination on grounds of religion, race, caste, sex or place of birth
  • The State shall not discriminate against any citizen on grounds only of religion, race, caste, sex, place of birth or any of them
  • No citizen shall, on grounds only of religion, race, caste, sex, place of birth or any of them, be subject to any disability, liability, restriction or condition

Article 21 in the Constitution of India

  • “No person shall be deprived of his life or personal liberty except according to a procedure established by law.”
  • Article 21 can only be claimed when a person is deprived of his “life” or “personal liberty” by the “State” as defined in Article 12.

Article 21 secures two rights:

  • Right to life
    Right to personal liberty

Child Marriage: in the Indian context:

  • Today, the decline in child marriage is hardly impressive.
  • For, census data shows the continued prevalence of child marriage.
  • For example, in states as different as Bengal and Rajasthan, marriage of girls as young as 14 is far from rare.

The conflict:

  • The Supreme Court’s verdict has achieved two potential breaks in the steady flow of cultural norms.
  • Firstly, by stating that marital sex with a child bride will constitute rape, the court has dissociated matrimony from reproduction.
  • Secondly, the verdict seeks to establish an extra benefit for girls in the general framework of laws that define child rights.

Reason for child marriage in India:

  • Poverty and marriage expenses such as dowry may lead a family to marry off their daughter at a young age to reduce these costs.
  • Poor educational opportunities for girls, especially in rural areas increase the vulnerability of a girl child to be married off early.
  • One of the leading causes of early marriage is the over-emphasized fertility rate.
  • Societies such as India’s, specific roles are assigned to women traditionally and such societies tend to facilitate these through practices like early marriage which reinforce prescribed gender roles.

What is marital rape?

  • Marital rape or spousal rape is the act of sexual intercourse with one’s spouse without the consent of the spouse.
  • It is a form of domestic violence and sexual abuse..
  • There are several questions that remain unanswered by those demanding a new law to deal specifically with marital rape.
  • As to what constitutes marital rape and what would constitute marital non-rape needs to be defined precisely before a view on its criminalization is taken.

What is the way ahead?

  • The Indian society needs to upgrade itself with more concrete educational schemes for women in particular.
  • The society also needs to change its patriarchal outlook for women and their marraige parameters.
  • The issue of child marriage by large still remains open as the court refrained from dealing with the issue of marital rape of a woman aged above 18.
  • The SC verdict on marital rape focused solitarily on married women below the age of 18.Thus a large part of marital rape law is still open.
  • The government authorities need to ensure that child marriage is abolished at all cost.

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Rohingya crisis worse than Syria’s, says UN: (The Hindu)

Context:

  • In the case of Rohingya, a balance has to be struck between national interest and human rights as the issue involved national security, economic interests and humanity.

Who are the Rohingyas?

  • The Rohingya are an ethnic Muslim minority group living primarily in Myanmar’s western Rakhine state.
  • They practice a Sufi-inflected variation of Sunni Islam.
  • The estimated one million Rohingya in Myanmar account for nearly a third of Rakhine’s population.
  • The Rohingya differ from Myanmar’s dominant Buddhist groups ethnically, linguistically, and religiously.

What is the crisis?

  • The Rohingya crisis is a human rights crisis.
  • Large number of Muslim Rohingya have fled Myanmar, many crossing by land into Bangladesh, while others take to the sea to reach Indonesia, Malaysia, and Thailand.
  • The unfair policies of the Myanmar government in Rakhine state have resulted hundreds of thousands of Rohingya to flee since the late 1970s.

Why India – Myanmar relation is important?

  • Myanmar is critical for maintaining stability and peace in Northeast India.
  • Some Northeast Indian insurgent groups operate out of bases across the border. Therefore, responding to the groups mandates cooperation and consent of the Myanmar army.
  • The current Indo-Myanmar meeting is an attempt to assuage above concerns and ensure continued cooperation between the two militaries on counter-insurgency issues.
  • In addition to security issues, Myanmar is a fast growing economy and is a land bridge to Southeast Asia is prompting Indian leaders to reach out to the country.

International Organization for Migration

  • The International Organization for Migration (IOM) is an intergovernmental organization.
  • It provides services and advice concerning migration to governments and migrants, including internally displaced persons, refugees, and migrant workers.
  • It is the principal intergovernmental organization in the field of migration.
  • IOM’s stated mission is to promote humane and orderly migration by providing services and advice to governments and migrants.

Rohingya and IOM: a critical condition of the Rohingyas

  • According to International Organization for Migration (IOM) about 18,000 Rohingya Muslims are estimated to have crossed into Bangladesh in the last week.
  • Bangladesh, IOM and its partners are now struggling to provide adequate shelter, food, clean water, healthcare and protection to hundreds of thousands camped out over the vast muddy sites that now dot Cox’s Bazar.
  • The IOM has appealed to the international community for USD 120 million.
  • Without it, families continue to suffer in the open or under inadequate plastic sheeting under daily, heavy rain.
  • The lack of clean water and sanitation, which has already led to fecal contamination of water sources, will lead to outbreaks of water-borne diseases, including cholera.
  • And a lack of protection will make the refugees – particularly women and children – targets for human traffickers.

The Supreme Court judgment:

  • The Supreme Court has deferred the deportation of Rohingya Muslim refugees from India till its next hearing on November 21.
  • Till then, the Rohingya petitioners can approach the Supreme Court in case of any contingency.
  • The Supreme Court reminded the government that it has multiple responsibilities, and must balance national and humanitarian values.
  • It said the Rohingya Muslims issue is of great magnitude and the state has a big role to play.

What is the way forward?

  • There is a need to support the efforts of the Bangladesh Government to provide immediate aid to the half million people.
  • There is also an urgent need to reverse the situation, stabilize the region and help them to return home.

Possibilities amidst flux in South Asia: (Indian Express, Editorial)

Context

  • The new South Asia policy of US towards Pakistan might be more apparent than real

Indo-Afghanistan Cooperation:

Areas of Cooperation:

Economic Cooperation:

  • India is the second largest destination for Afghanistan exports.
  • Afghanistan possess many minerals like gold, iron, copper etc. Indian companies have invested in its mining sector
  • More than 100 companies have invested in various sectors of its economy including agriculture, communications, Information Technology etc.
  • The proposed TAPI (stands for Turkmenistan Afghanistan Pakistan and India) pipeline passes through Afghanistan. It is for importing Natural Gas from Turkmenistan to India.
  • India, Iran and Afghanistan have jointly signed a trade deal. The deal aims at investment in Chabahar port for accessing landlocked Afghanistan by circumventing Pakistan.

India’s Development Programs in Afghanistan:

  • India continues to assist Afghanistan in its reconstruction program by providing a bilateral assistance of 2 Billion USD. India has also completed many infrastructure projects in Afghanistan. Some notable examples are
    • Salma Dam in Herat Province
    • Parliament Building in Kabul
    • Road project in Nimroz Province
    • A power project near Kabul
    • India also has established hospitals and runs midday meal schemes for Afghan school children

Defence Cooperation:

  • India has contributed to the Afghan defence forces in the following ways
  • India provides training to Afghanistan military officers in Indian military academies
  • In 2014 India signed an agreement with Afghanistan and Russia. According to this agreement Russia will provide all military equipments needed by Afghanistan and India will pay for it
  • India has directly provided three Russian-made Mi-25 attack helicopters to Afghan Air Force in 2015

Cooperation through Conferences:

  • India and Afghanistan work cooperatively in various associations.

Terrorism:

  • India wants a democratic and peaceful Afghanistan for stability in its relations. But the country faces terror threats in the following ways
  • Afghani Taliban is a major terrorist group. They are attempting to take over the democratically elected Government in Afghanistan
  • Al Qaeda and many other terrorist groups like Haqqani Network etc. are very active in Afghanistan
  • The recent rise of Islamic State terrorists may have spillover effects on India in future
  • All these terror groups are involved in deadly attacks in Afghanistan. These factors concerns India because the terror in Afghanistan has the following implications

Regional security is threatened

  • It can affect the good relations between India and Afghanistan.
  • Internal security of India can be threatened as there is link between these Afghan terror networks and terrorists in Jammu and Kashmir

The Role of Pakistan

  • Pakistan has always attempted to thwart the good relationship between India and Afghanistan. Pakistan also attempts to derail peace in Afghanistan in the following ways
  • Pakistan has supported many Afghan terrorists by providing funding and refuge especially the Taliban and Haqqani Network
  • Pakistan has been known to meddle in the internal affairs of Afghanistan

Way forward

  • Delhi must find ways to effectively intervene in the limited but inviting strategic space that is opening up between America, Pakistan and Afghanistan.
  • India’s renewed economic assistance to Afghanistan constitutes one set of tools. Expanded military assistance is another.

The right balance: (Indian Express, Editorial)

Context:

The Supreme Court’s observation that there is a need to balance human rights with national interest in the Rohingya case, and that there is a case for   “holistic” hearings, is most welcome.

Introduction

  • India ought to engage Myanmar on the Rohingya crisis; expelling refugees will diminish its stature on the global stage.
  • Even after LTTE was banned as a terrorist group in India following the 1991 Rajiv Gandhi assassination, there were several influxes of Sri Lankan Tamils through the Tamil Nadu coast.
  • No Rohingya presently living in India has been blamed for any terrorist act.
  • Indian security agencies believe the Arakan Rohingya Salvation Army (ARSA)-Myanmar began referring to it officially as a terrorist group only at the beginning this year’s violence in August- has links with Pakistani jihadi groups, but they have not said the group is operational in India, unlike the LTTE, which was present and operating out of several places in the country.

The Supreme Court judgment:

  • The Supreme Court has deferred the deportation of Rohingya Muslim refugees from India till its next hearing on November 21.
  • Till then, the Rohingya petitioners can approach the Supreme Court in case of any contingency.
  • The Supreme Court reminded the government that it has multiple responsibilities, and must balance national and humanitarian values.
  • It said the Rohingya Muslims issue is of great magnitude and the state has a big role to play.

Illegal immigrants:

  • There are thousands of illegal Indian immigrants in Europe and the US today, but the term cannot be legally or morally applied to people fleeing Myanmar’s Rakhine State.
  • Crossed international borders without documents, looking for better economic opportunities.
  • If there was no military operation in Rakhine, and Rohingya were flooding India, arguably a case could be made out for using the term, applied usually to those who have crossed international borders without documents, looking for better economic opportunities.
  • The Rohingya have never had papers as they have been denied citizenship of the country where they lived, they fled to save their lives.
  • In May 2012, there were clashes between Rohingya and Rakhine Buddhists, in which thousands of Rohingya had to abandon their burning villages.

Why Myanmar is important?

  • Myanmar is critical for maintaining stability and peace in Northeast India.
  • Some Northeast Indian insurgent groups operate out of bases across the border.
  • Therefore, responding to the groups mandates cooperation and consent of the Myanmar army.
  • The current Indo-Myanmar meeting is an attempt to assuage above concerns and ensure continued cooperation between the two militaries on counter-insurgency issues.
  • In additional to security issue, Myanmar is a fast growing economy and is a land bridge to Southeast Asia is prompting Indian leaders to reach out to the country.

Conclusion:

There is a need to support the efforts of the Bangladesh Government to provide immediate aid to the half million
people. There is also an urgent need to reverse the situation, stabilize
the region and help them to return home.

U.S. ploy against Iran: envoy: (The Hindu)

Context

  • Iranian Ambassador Gholamreza Ansari accuses the U.S. of trying to ensure that India reduced oil imports from his country.

Some facts

  • India has cut its oil imports from Iran by approximately 20% in 2017, though its global imports have risen by 5.4%.  to “diversify” its imports so as to get more competitive rates.
  • In June 2016, India committed to invest $500 million, including $85 million in developing two container berths and three multi-cargo berths at the Chabahar port, as well as about $1.6 billion to build the Chabahar-Zahedan railway line, which will facilitate trade to Afghanistan.

India-Iran relationship

India and Iran have friendly relations in many areas, despite India not welcoming the 1979 Revolution. There are significant trade ties, particularly in crude oil imports into India and diesel exports to Iran. Iran frequently objected to Pakistan’s attempts to draft anti-India resolutions at international organisations such as the OIC and the Human Rights Commission.

India welcomed Iran’s inclusion as an observer state in the SAARC regional organisation.

  • A growing number of Iranian students are enrolled at universities in India, most notably in Pune and Bengaluru.
  • highway between Zaranj and Delaram (Zaranj-Delaram Highway) is being built with financial support from India.The Chabahar port has also been jointly financed by Iran and India. India is helping develop the Chabahar Port, which will give it access to the oil and gas resources in Iran and the Central Asian states. By so doing, India hopes to compete with the Chinese, who are building Gwadar Port, in Pakistani Baluchistan. Iran plans to use Chabahar for transshipment to Afghanistan and Central Asia, while keeping the port of Bandar Abbas as a major hub mainly for trade with Russia and Europe.
  • The North–South Transport Corridor is the ship, rail, and road route for moving freight between India, Russia, Iran, Europe and Central Asia. The route primarily involves moving freight from India, Iran, Azerbaijan and Russia via ship, rail and road.] The objective of the corridor is to increase trade connectivity between major cities such as Mumbai, Moscow, Tehran, Baku, Bandar Abbas, Astrakhan, Bandar Anzali and etc.
  • The world’s largest population of Zoroastrians are the Parsi community in India. When the Islamic Arabs invaded Persia, the local population which was unwilling to convert to Islam or accept dhimmi status were persecuted to different regions of the world with western India being the most significant. They sought refuge in the western coast of India and subsequent the country has the largest population of Zoroastrians in the world. In the modern era, the Parsi community have contributed significantly to India and Pakistan in the areas of politics, industry, science and culture. Prominent Indian Parsis include Dadabhai Naoroji (three times president of Indian National Congress), Field Marshal Sam Manekshaw, nuclear energy scientist Homi Bhabha, industrialist JRD Tata and the Tata family.

Cause of concern

  • India’s decision to import its first shipment of crude oil from the U.S., with an order of 8.45 million barrels, giving rise to speculation that New Delhi’s new policy will come at the cost of imports from Iran.

Both need each other

  • Both need stabilized Afghanistan. The return of Taliban in Kabul would affect key interests of both.
  • Iran is the only country without the US dominance which stands between India and the West.
  • It also large reserves of both oil and gas India could also be a source of important defense equipment and technologies for Iran. India’s hesitation may be related to the sensitivities of Israel (which is a friend of India).

GS-3


Retrench India’s farm economy to sustain it: (Live Mint, Editorial)(summary,mamta)

Context:

Improving farmer efficiency and productivity requires a second level of reforms aimed at inputs.

Introduction:

  • In 2007-08, Madhya Pradesh government announced a bonus of Rs150 above the minimum support price (MSP) per quintal of wheat. A large segment of farmers in the state shifted to the crop.
  • With Madhya Pradesh’s Bhavantar Bhugtan Yojana scheme being launched on Monday,
  • The policies of the agriculture sector have created artificial incentives that are unsustainable, an inefficient drain on public funds , or both.

Bhavantar Bhugtan Yojana:

  • It is being implemented as a pilot scheme for eight crops.
  • If successful ,the scheme could end up being replicated across India, replacing the old model of minimum support prices.
  • The scheme was launched on Monday.
  • Farmers across the state will be taking their produce to agricultural markets in the hope that the government will ensure that they get remunerative prices.
  • The scheme is being launched four months after farmers in the state went on a strike, leading to a police crackdown that resulted in the deaths of five farmers in Mandsaur district.
  • The scheme aims to address the main source of farmer anger: low prices prevailing in agricultural markets and the failure of the government to cushion the losses of farmers.
  • Through the scheme, the state government is experimenting with a different model of price support.
  • The state government will not buy farm produce from farmers but it will pay them the difference between the market price and the minimum support price.
  • Loopholes:
  • Lack of government storage facilities and supply chain logistics to the fact that despite the government declaring MSPs for 25 crops, it largely procures only rice and wheat.
  • It will be less distortionary, freeing up space for the market to set rates.

Solutions:

Transformative agricultural reforms will require work on three levels:

1– The benighted mandi system has come in for a fair heap of justified abuse here. With the 2003 and 2017 versions of the model Agricultural Produce Market Committee (APMC) Act, successive National Democratic Alliance administrations have attempted to liberalize this system, providing for private markets and integrated state markets as a step towards a national market facilitated by the National Agriculture Market (eNAM).

  • What is needed is for the government to get out of the business altogether—and that is only possible with a switch from the public distribution system to direct benefit transfers.
  • But, this will affect only farmer remuneration.

2-   Improving farmer efficiency and productivity requires a second level of reforms aimed at inputs.

  • The Pradhan Mantri Krishi Sinchayee Yojana aims to extend irrigation cover to all forms and maximize water-use efficiency over a period of five years with an outlay of Rs50,000 crore.
  • In a water-stressed yet groundwater-dependent country like India, this is only possible with comprehensive rural electrification, allowing for techniques such as drip irrigation.
  • The other major reform needed here is access to formal credit.
  • The current dependence on informal credit leaves farmers beholden to middlemen and traders who are often the credit suppliers, thus undercutting the former’s bargaining power.

3-   The number of people participating in it must be drastically reduced and the entire endeavour must be corporatized to the extent possible. As per the last Agriculture Census, the average farm holding in India is a minuscule 1.15 hectares, with 85% of the holdings in the marginal and small categories. Their number has been on the rise since the 1970s and is expected to touch 91% by 2030

4-  Relaxing the rules for foreign direct investment in retail to improve agricultural logistics.

5-  Measures such as enabling large-scale contract farming and corporate farming will help here.

6-  job creation in non-agricultural sectors

7-  Rolling back the tradition of marginal farming will in turn allow for the dismantling of the MSP system—instituted in the 1960s to facilitate the Green Revolution and long past its sell-by date.

8-  Improve its efficiency and allow the market to operate unfettered to the largest extent possible.

Minimum Support Price (MSP):

  • Minimum Support Price (MSP) is a form of market intervention by the Government of India to insure agricultural producers against any sharp fall in farm prices.
  • The minimum support prices are announced by the Government of India at the beginning of the sowing season for certain crops on the basis of the recommendations of the Commission for Agricultural Costs and Prices (CACP).
  • MSP is price fixed by Government of India to protect the producer – farmers – against excessive fall in price during bumper production years.
  • The minimum support prices are a guarantee price for their produce from the Government.
  • The major objectives are to support the farmers from distress sales and to procure food grains for public distribution.
  • In case the market price for the commodity falls below the announced minimum price due to bumper production and glut in the market, government agencies purchase the entire quantity offered by the farmers at the announced minimum price.

Conclusion:

Our agriculture policy needs to focus on improving productivity instead of price support

Prelims Related News

Sawfish more threatened than tigers:

Context:

  • Today, the sawfish is seen to have a population of less than 10 times in over a decade and they appear to be more threatened than tigers and elephants.

What are Sawfishes?

  • Sawfishes, also known as carpenter sharks.
  • The sawfish’s most distinctive feature is the saw-like rostrum, covered with electro-sensitive pores that allow the sawfish to detect slight movements of prey hiding in the muddy sea floor.
  • There are only five species of the sawfish ever identified — dwarf sawfish, knifetooth sawfish, smalltooth sawfish, largetooth sawfish and green sawfish.
  • These fishes are found in parts of the Atlantic Ocean, Gulf of Mexico, Mediterranean Sea, Black Sea and Indo-Pacific.

Why are Sawfishes important?

  • Sawfishes are important members of tropical and subtropical estuarine communities.
  • Like other top predators, sawfishes perform a valuable function in culling out sick or injured prey species such as schooling fishes, crustaceans, and cephalopods.
  • In addition, sawfishes have for centuries been important to humankind both as valuable food and medicinal resources, and as religious and cultural symbols.

Sawfishes in the context of India:

  • The sawfish is included in Schedule I of the Indian Wildlife (Protection) Act 1972.
  • It is enacted to save them from exploitation.
  • The Wildlife Act was passed in 1972 to protect the wildlife and their habitats.
  • The habitat destruction due to agriculture, industries, urbanisation and other human activities had led to the erosion of the country’s wildlife.
  • Under the Act, comprehensive listing of endangered wildlife species was done for the first time and prohibition of hunting of the endangered species was mentioned.
  • But in spite of these legal protections, all species of sawfishes are listed as critically endangered or endangered, and risk extinction, as their populations have declined to less than 10%.

Why is it threatened?

  • Primarily, the sawfish reduced drastically due to overfishing and habitat loss.
  • Depressed population size, continued restricted range, and incidental captures add on to its threats.   
  • Natural threats to sawfishes are poorly known, but include predation by sharks and other large predators, and mortality attributable to red tide.

What are the necessary measures to be taken?

  • There is a need of a concrete research work and protection offered to these endangered species.
  • The government machinery, including the fisheries department and coastal police, should find out how these fishes are caught and if any illegal practice is followed, then it should take appropriate action because it is an endangered species.
  • Circulars are to provided to fishermen’s cooperatives to release such species if caught by accident
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