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Q.1) Where has the PwD Act, 1995 possibly lagged for which The Rights of Persons with Disabilities Bill – 2016 has been introduced? Mention the major provisions embodied in the new Act. (GS-2)

Introduction:

  • After Rajya Sabha, on 16th December, 2016, the Lok Sabha passed “The Rights of Persons with Disabilities Bill – 2016”.
  • The Bill replaces the existing PwD Act, 1995, which was enacted 21 years back.

Where did the PwD Act, 1995 possibly lag?

The PwD Act, 1995 had an array of limitations. They are as follows:

Absence of protection against discrimination:

  • The new “The Rights of Persons with Disabilities Bill – 2016” empowers the right to equality, preservation of dignity and personal liberty which was absent in the PwD Act, 1995.

Limitation in types of disability:

  • Disability being a dynamic concept needed an expansion in its types; the former act had incorporated only seven types of disability.

Absence of benchmark disabilities:

  • The 1995 Act had no special provision for persons with benchmark disabilities.

Limited social security:

  • The 1995 Act’s focus on social security was limited to financial assistance and insurance coverage-community participation.
  • The recreational approaches were ignored.

Weak enforcement:

  • Penal provisions for violating the provisions of the 1995 Act was weak.
  • Also the Officer of Chief Commissioner and State Commissioner for PwDs was not vested with enough strength and power.

The salient features of the “The Rights of Persons with Disabilities Bill – 2016” are:

The new “The Rights of Persons with Disabilities Bill – 2016” comes up with the following advantages for the differently-abled ones:

Addition in types of disability:

  • Disability has been defined based on an evolving and dynamic concept.
  • The types of disabilities have been increased from existing 7 to 21.
  • The Central Government will have the power to add more types of disabilities.

Education:

  • Every child with benchmark disability will get free education from 6 to 18 years of the age.

Reservation:

  • Reservation to the differently abled person in the education and government jobs has been increased from 3% to 4%.

Infrastructure:

  • An important distinguishing feature of the 2016 Act is that it provides for time limits within which existing infrastructure and premises should be made disabled friendly.
  • The obligations laid down in the Act are mandatory for both government and private establishments.

Fund:

  • Creation of National and State Fund will be created to provide financial support to the persons with disabilities.
  • The existing National Fund for Persons with Disabilities and the Trust Fund for Empowerment of Persons with Disabilities will be subsumed with the National Fund.

Grant of guardianship:

  • The Bill provides for grant of guardianship by District Court, under which there will be joint decision, making between the guardian and the persons with disabilities.

Persons with benchmark disabilities:

  • Additional benefits such as reservation in higher education, government jobs, reservation in allocation of land, poverty alleviation schemes etc. have been provided for persons with benchmark disabilities and those with high support needs.

Conclusion:

  • It becomes the duty of the Union, states as well as Union Territories to take up the matter.
  • Lastly, the citizens of the country should not leave any stone unturned to make the lives of the differently abled ones much easier.

Q.2) With a brief background on Make in India 2.0, explain the key areas where India should concentrate for a successful “Make in India 2.0”? (GS-2)

Introduction:

  • “Make in India” is a government flagship programme.
  • The first phase of the Make in India programme intended to ease the processes for businesses; while the second part will make it more of a people’s movement.
  • Make in India 2.0 will boost the manufacturing sector via the initiatives like Digital India, Skill India and soon to be launched Start-up India.
  • Department of Industrial Policy and Promotion is said to be drawing up the action plan for Start-up India initiative.

What are the key areas where should India concentrate for a successful “Make in India 2.0”?

The key areas to be focused on for a successful “Make in India 2.0” are as follows:

  • If the manufacturing in India needs to continue then there is a need to give a thrust to the exports.
  • Increasing the price of crude could reduce our competitiveness sizably and affect the export of the country.
  • The appreciation in the rupee takes its hit straight away on the exports while increasing the imports and widening the current account deficit.
  • Even though India has done well in Ease of Doing Business, but its cross border trade quantity is very low.
  • India should make a stronger bond with China for it is the chief supporter of free trade.
  • The Centre should also back labour-intensive sectors and it should be of low technology and low cost.
  • The real reforms for should be made in the district and state level that has to drive employment.
  • There should be a global brand for exports.
  • The government should also keep a strict check on price rise.

Conclusion:

  • For a succesful “Make in India 2.0”, the country needs to improve considerably in order to achieve world standards and be a part of the global supply chain.

Q.3) “Emission from airplanes is a new threat for earth’s Ozone layer.” Discuss. (GS 3)

Introduction:

  • The Ozone layer is a deep layer in earth’s atmosphere that contains ozone which is a naturally occurring molecule containing three oxygen atoms.
  • These ozone molecules form a gaseous layer in the Earth’s upper atmosphere called stratosphere.
  • This is the layer where most commercial airliners fly and weather balloons travel to.
  • With due course of time, aviation has experienced rapid expansion as the world economy has grown.
  • But along with the expansion the total aviation emissions have increased.

How Do Aircraft Affect Climate and Ozone?

  • Aircraft emit gases and particles directly into the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere where they have an impact on atmospheric composition. Their immediate adverse affects are as follows:
  • Aircraft emit gases and particles directly into the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere where they have an impact on atmospheric composition.
  • These gases and particles also alter the concentration of atmospheric greenhouse gases.
  • These gases may increase cirrus cloudiness-all of which contribute to climate change.

Black Carbon (BC):

  • Airplanes are subjected to eject significant amounts of Black Carbon (BC) — a pollutant which may be a contribution in depleting the ozone layer.
  • It can linger long enough to provide a fertile ground for other chemical reactions that can deplete the ozone layer.
  • Its particles strongly absorb solar and terrestrial radiation and heats up the atmosphere.
  • If deposited on snow, it could accelerate the heating of snow and quicken the melting of glaciers.
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