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Q.1) The proposed new industrial policy will completely revamp the Industrial Policy of 1991. In this context discuss the possible implications of new industrial policy on Indian industry. (GS-3)

Industrial policies are like booms which give a definite shape to industrialization through rules, policies, principles and procedures controlling industrial houses. It incorporates the fiscal policy, monetary policy, tariff policy, and labour policy etc.

There was a need for new industry policy because industry’s inadequate expenditure one research and development and micro, the small and medium enterprises sector facing tough competition from cheap imports from China and other countries with which India has free trade agreements.

The proposed new industry policy, which seeks to promote emerging sectors, will be released very soon. The new industrial policy will completely revamp the Industrial Policy of 1991.

Possible implications:

  • The new industrial policy would endeavor to reduce regulations and widen the purview to new industries currently in focus.
  • The draft industrial policy aims to create jobs over the next two decades, promote foreign technology transfer and attract $100 billion in FDI annually.
  • India will attain self sufficiency in a wider range of consumer goods.
  • Apart from generating employment, it will also help in reducing regional disparities and to alleviate poverty.
  • Now the entry of Multinational Company has posed a threat to our industries, so India need to gear up to face the future challenges.
  • This will lead India to the path of economic development and prosperity.
  • There may be decrease in the workforce per unit due to modernization.

Q.2)  Employment growth in India slowed down drastically as per the latest employment data collected by labour bureau. In this context highlight the reasons for low employment generation in India and suggest the measures to improve the same.(GS-3)

Employment growth in India slowed down drastically during 2012-16, after marginal improvement in 2010-12, as per the latest employment data collected by labour bureau.

Reasons for low employment generation in India:

  • Paucity of data
  • There is no correlation between GDP growth and employment rate.
  • Lack of planning
  • Credibility of labour bureau data. There are some issues with the data
  • Our youth are getting more and more educated but the growth of employment is not satisfactory.
  • Low growth in manufacturing sector.
  • Low participation of women workforce.
  • There is less number of government jobs in various fields like judges, teachers, doctors etc. There is need to generate more jobs in public sector.
  • Old industrial policy not able to address the problem of employment. There is need develop new industrial and trade policy. The proposed new industrial policy by the government is the right step in this direction.

Measures:

  • India needs to grow fast if it wants to absorb large number of labour force.
  • Increase in expenditure
  • Young’s are getting more and more educated. There is increase in secondary enrollment
  • Fiscal stimulus
  • Careful planning in schemes
  • Huge infrastructure to be created.
  • Economy cannot be run on single engine that is on public sector alone, so private sectors should come forward.
  • Agriculture sector have to sustain the growth of poor people.
  • Export need to enhance.
  • Export manufacturing sectors
  • Education system needs to be re-oriented towards vocational and practical teachings.
  • Participation of women in workforce.
  • Strengthen the ” make in India ” initiative
  • There is less number of government jobs in various fields like judges, teachers, doctors etc. There is need to generate more jobs in public sector.
  • Special packages are needed for labour-intensive industries to create jobs
  • There should be cluster development to support job creation in micro, small and medium enterprises (MSMEs).
  • An industrial and trade policy is needed. The Department of Industrial Policy and Promotion (DIPP) is preparing an industrial policy.

Conclusion:

Government schemes rarely create many jobs. International evidence is that when consumer demand grows constantly, whether from domestic or international markets, that is when jobs grow. That requires an industrial policy. Ease of doing business improvement and infrastructure investment increases should improve the economic environment. But most importantly India needs a robust industrial policy.

Q.3) Write a short note on any two of the following terms

a) Madhubani paintings (GS-1)

b) Medaram’s Jatara festival (GS-1)

c) Ozone layers hole (GS-3)

Madhubani paintings: 

In news:

The folk painting of Madhubani will soon be seen decorating the walls of various government buildings in Bihar, the eastern Indian state where the art hails from.

Madhubani paintings:

  •  Madhubani, which means ‘forest of honey’, is a style of folk painting old enough to find mention in some of the ancient Indian texts like the holy Ramayana. It is also known as Mithila, for its origin is said to be the Mithila region in Bihar.
  • Traditionally, the Madhubani paintings are created using fingers and twigs, and items like matchsticks have come to be used in their creation in recent times.
  • Their various styles include Bharni, Katchni, Tantrik, Godna, and Kohbar, which would historically be painted only by women from the upper strata in the caste system, who would make them on mud walls on special occasions.
  • The norms have now changed and the paintings can be enjoyed by anyone and in various forms.

Medaram’s Sammakka-Sarakka/Saralamma Jatara:

In news:

The government is likely to declare Medaram’s Sammakka-Sarakka/ Saralamma Jatara a national festival this year. Once declared a national festival, Jatara can be considered for ‘intangible cultural heritage of humanity’ tag of United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organisation (UNESCO).

Medaram’s Sammakka-Sarakka/Saralamma Jatara:

  • Sammakka-Sarakka Jatara held by forest dwelling Koya tribe of Telangana and surrounding States, is the biggest Tribal festival in Asia which is attended by one crore people on an average.
  • The event is held bi-annually to honour the twin goddesses Sammakka and her daughter Sarakka. Several communities in Telangana society support Jatara as it is also a mythical narrative of two tribal women leaders who fought against the Kakatiya rulers who tried to annex their land and forests. According to the myth it was Sammakka’s curse which caused gradual decline and death of Kakatiya rule.
  • Medaram is a remote place in the Eturnagaram Wildlife Sanctuary, a part of Dandakaranya, the largest surviving forest belt in the Deccan.

Ozone layers hole: 

  • The ozone hole is a region of depleted layers of ozone above the Antarctic region, whose creation is linked to increased cases of skin cancer.
  •  It is related to ozone depletion.
  •    Larger springtime decrease in stratospheric ozone around Earth’s polar regions.
  • The main cause of ozone depletion and the ozone hole is man-made chemicals, especially man-made halocarbon refrigerants, solvents, propellants, and foam-blowing agents (chlorofluorocarbon(CFCs), referred to as ozone-depleting substances(ODS).

 

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