Q.1) Uniform civil code is the proposal to replace the personal laws of India. What are these personal laws? Define with examples. what are the challenges in the effective implementation of Uniform civil code? (GS – 2)
- Uniform civil code is the proposal to replace the personal laws which are based on the scriptures and customs of each major religious community in India with a common set governing every citizen.
- Law that applies to a particular person or class of persons only wherever situated —distinguished from territorial law is called personal laws.
- Having a Uniform Civil Code will mean that all these laws will be replaced by a new law which will be applicable for all irrespective of their religions.
Some of these personal laws are as follows:
- Hindu Marriage Act: The Hindu Marriage Act is an Act of the Parliament of India enacted in 1955.
- The main purpose of the act was to amend and codify the law relating to marriage among Hindus and others.
- Muslim Personal Law (Shariat) Application Act: This Act makes provisions for the application of the Muslim Personal law (Shariat) to Muslims.
- Christian Marriage Act: This act consolidates and amends the law relating to the solemnization of the marriages of Christians
- Parsi Marriage and Divorce Act: This act Act directly relates to the constitution and powers of Parsi Matrimonial Courts.
- There is also a Special Marriages Act, 1954 under which people can perform marriage irrespective of the religion followed by either person.
- These laws deal with the matters involving marriage, divorce, inheritance, adoption, and maintenance of the respective religions.
Criticism of Uniform civil code:
- The vast diversity of the personal laws, along with the devotion to which they are adhered to, makes uniformity of any sort very difficult to achieve.
- Even under the Hindu Marriage Act, 1955, marriages may be solemnised in accordance with the rites and ceremonies of a variety of people who come under the definition of a Hindu.
- In the Muslim law too, though there are no elaborate rites or ceremonies, there exist some differences between the Sunni and Shia marriages
- Many people still do not know what the Uniform Civil Code really means.
- There are still false conceptions surrounding it, especially amongst the minorities, which make a rational debate on its implementation quite difficult.
- UCC is also sometimes perceived as the imposition of the Hindu code and procedures, and this adds to its opposition from the minorities.
- Some people also argue that it would lead to a loss of the culture and the identity of the minorities in the Indian society.
Q.2) Give an account of the Cyber terrorism in India. What are the causes and consequences of its rapid growth? (GS-3)
- Cyber terrorism refers to the use of the Internet to conduct violent acts that result in or threaten the loss of life or physical harm in order to achieve political gains through intimidation.
- Cyber terrorism not only affects the human beings but also cause threat to national security.
India on Cyber terrorism:
- According to some terrorism experts Internet has proven effective only at spreading ideology but has failed extensively when used as a planning and operational tool.
- On an instance of Mumbai terror attack in November 2008, the plan was carried out by the terrorist actually trained at physical camps.
- There is no law dealing with the prevention off any cyber-attack, except for an analogous provision, which is as follows:
- Protection available under the Constitution of India-
- A Supreme Court’s document providing protection is the strongest and safest.
- Protection available under other statues.
- Protection under the Indian Penal Code (I/P/C/0, 1860, and
- Protection under the Information Technology Act (ITA), 2000.
Causes of Cyber-terrorism
- The audience of websites through which cyber crime is practiced matters, because it is them who are enticed by what terrorists are trying to show
- These websites use their local language, slogans that are catchy, and hurt them in an area which is sacred to them for example religion.
- They target professional journalists as well; there are press releases on their websites.
- Their website portray that they are fighting a psychological warfare and use internet as a platform for their campaigns.
- People even who don’t believe in their agenda gets hitched to the very concept of terror website.
Solutions of Cyber terrorism:
- Defense mechanism dealing with internet based crime is broadly divided into two forms of defense, namely, passive and active defense.
- Passive defense uses various technologies and products such as firewalls, cryptography and procedures like dial-in to protect the Information Technology (IT) assets.
- Active defense imposes serious risks and penalty on the attacker. Risks can be in form of identification, exposure, investigations, exposure, prosecution, counter attacks.
- Individuals should avoid disclosing any personal information to strangers via e-mail or while chatting, they persuasive way of controller is to play with their mind.
- Parents need to keep a watch on the sites that their children are accessing. The targets nowadays are mostly teenagers.
- Web servers running public sites must be physically separately protected from internal corporate network.
- Strict statutory laws need to be passed by the Legislatures keeping in mind the interest of citizens.
- IT department should pass certain guidelines for the protection of computer system and should also bring out strict laws.
- Cyber terrorism is the problem affecting all the nations, there is need to arrange more of international forums like Global Counterterrorism Forum to avoid such cases.
- Rational and intelligent approach need to be engaged to avoid cyber terrorism. Government should come up with more stringent legislations in this regard.
Q.3 Write short notes on the following:
a) Lone-Wolf technique of terrorism (GS-3)
b) The African Development Bank (GS-3)
c) Agricultural and Processed Food Products Export Development Authority (APEDA) (GS-3)
a) Lone-Actor Terrorism:
- A lone wolf, lone-wolf terrorist or lone actor, is someone who prepares and commits violent acts alone, outside of any command structure and without material assistance from any group.
- He or she may be influenced or motivated by the ideology and beliefs of an external group and may act in support of such a group.
- Lone-actor terrorism may or may not have any remote source that is controlling them but there always remain a grey area.
- The question that becomes a matter of importance is when and where does the contact and control begins.
- Government fails to get hold of any lone-attacker as they commonly belong to the origin of the state.
- There is no record howsoever of any terrorist travelling across to carry an attack.
- Vehicles like Vans, trucks, a small gun can be carried easily to any public place, the attacks are unforeseen and therefore the panic and casualty is more.
b) The African Development Bank:
- Founded in 1948, ADB is a multilateral development finance institution.
- It provides finance to African governments and private companies investing in the Regional Member Countries (RMC).
- Its fundamental duty is to fight poverty and improve the standard of living of the continent by investing in projects and programs which uplifts the socio-economic conditions of the common mass.
- The primary function of AfDB is making loans and equity investments for the socio-economic advancement of the RMC.
- Secondly, the bank provides technical assistance for development projects and programs.
- Thirdly, it promotes investment of public and private capital for development.
- Fourthly, the bank assists in organizing the development policies of RMCs.
c) Agricultural and Processed Food Products Export Development Authority (APEDA):
- The Agricultural and Processed Food Products Export Development Authority (APEDA) was established by the Government of India under the Agricultural and Processed Food Products Export Development Authority Act passed by the Parliament in December, 1985.
- APEDA has marked its presence in almost all agro potential states of India and has been providing services to agri-export community through its head office, five Regional offices and 13 Virtual offices.
Duties of APEDA:
- Development of industries relating to the scheduled products for export by way of providing financial assistance or otherwise for undertaking surveys and feasibility studies, participation in enquiry capital through joint ventures and other reliefs and subsidy schemes.
- Registration of persons as exporters of the scheduled products on payment of such fees as may be prescribed.
- Fixing of standards and specifications for the scheduled products for the purpose of exports.