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Q.1) India, with a growing civil aviation market, has the potential to manufacture commercial aeroplanes, but funding issues and lack of leadership has been a hindrance to realizing this potential.Elaborate.  (GS – 3)

Introduction:

  • India is poised to become the world’s third-biggest aviation market in seven years with more than 20% growth, after China and the U.S.
  • With rising demand Indian carriers have placed orders for 1,000 aircraft worth more than Rs. 10 lakh crore; and, more than 6,000 planes would be needed by 2050.
  • This market is to grow to 250 million by FY23, according to CAPA, an aviation advisory firm
  • Boeing has forecast that the Indian market would need 2,100 new planes valued at $290 billion by 2036.
  • Airbus has said the Indian civil aviation market will grow by 8.1% for next 20 years which is above the world average of 4.4%.

Can India manufacture commercial civil airplanes domestically?

  • Yes, it is possible for India manufacture commercial civil airplanes domestically but it will need large funding in R&D, global partners and the highest commitment by the government.
  • The initiative also needs a serious and time-bound approach to encourage and develop a viable and futuristic aircraft manufacturing programme to at least reach the level achieved by Brazil which has developed and sustained the Embraer programme

India’s challenges in manufacturing commercial civil airplanes domestically:

  • No MROs (Maintenance, repair, and overhaul): We don’t have the aerospace grade of suppliers in India. Iran has far better local supplier base. Brazil developed its aerospace programme in the ’80s. In fifty years, our expertise is nearly zero. We need to be aerospace grade ready
  • Robust government-private collaboration: The government needs to enforce a robust government-private collaboration to take Indian aerospace manufacturing to the next level
  • Huge Entry barrier: So far, the world has had only two major manufacturers of commercial planes and less than a handful making small aircraft. Even the biggest aerospace powers do not have any aircraft that is 100% built in their country. The level of sophistication and specialisation that exists in aerospace requires sourcing of components and subsystems from all across the world.

Way forward:

  • Expansion of airport infrastructure
  • The Make in India incentive for manufacturing in India; and
  • To revitalise the MRO industry in India through fiscal incentives

Q.2) While India is on an intensive drive to promote cashless transactions and has been digitally providing various public services to its citizens, the government’s focus on Cyber security is   lacking.Discuss the measures to be taken for a better Cyber security in India. ( GS – 3)

Introduction:

  • As the world’s second-largest digital nation, India’s biggest risk in 2017, according to the FICCI–Pinkerton India Risk Survey 2017, was in the area of ‘information and cyber insecurity’ for business operations.
  • India was the third-worst affected country during the WannaCry ransomware attacks in May 2017
  • In June 2017, operations at one of the three terminals in India’s largest port, Jawaharlal Nehru Port Trust near Mumbai, was disrupted due to the Petyacyberattack
  • In October 2017, Seqrite Intelligence Labs discovered an advertisement announcing secret access to the servers and databases of over 6,000 Indian organisations.

Steps to protect India against cybercrimes:

  • India needs to have a legal framework that meets with the expectations, both legal and of a public nature, as prevail in the jurisdictions from which data is being shipped to India.
  • The law should ensure that the service providers providing a medium of exchange of data for personal reasons shall be bound not to disclose or use such information.
  • There is a need to have standards for maintenance of records with respect to processing of data, method of notification of data breach and standard operating procedure in case of such breaches.
  • If a person requires removal, alteration and correction of data, the same should be allowed.
  • Any contravention by entities (Government or Private) must be duly punished with imprisonment or hefty fines.
  • Mass surveillance and individual profiling without cause should be barred.
  • National interest should prevail over individual rights in narrowly defined exceptions where government can intervene.
  • Collection of data by governments and agencies, need to keep in mind that the Internet and the more virulent Darknet are being increasingly used these days by criminals for illegal trade, trafficking, and money laundering.

Conclusion:

  • Given the rising internet penetration and growing emphasis on Digital India, it is imperative to protect the sanctity of data generated by citizens.
  • Thus, a legislative framework to address the growing concerns around data protection and privacy is the need of present day.

Q.3) Write short notes on:

The National Council on Nutrition (NCN) (GS – 2)

  • The Government has recently approved the setting up of new National Nutrition Mission (NNM).
  • It aims to address the problem of malnutrition in the country.
  • There is a provision for setting up of a National Council on India’s Nutritional Challenges under the Chairmanship of Vice-Chairman NITI Aayog.
  • The Council which has been set up under POSHAN Abhiyaan is the apex body to formulate overall policies, guide and monitor all nutrition based schemes. The mandate of the Council is:
    • To provide policy directions to address India’s Nutrition Challenges through coordinated inter-sectoral action,
    • To coordinate and review convergence among ministries and
    • To review programmes for nutrition on a quarterly basis.
  • The Council will submit its report to the Prime Minister every six months.

Central Information Commission (GS – 2)

  • The Central Information Commission has been constituted with effect from 12-10-2005 under the Right to Information Act, 2005.
  • The jurisdiction of the Commission extends over all Central Public Authorities.
  • The Commission has certain powers and functions mentioned in sections 18, 19, 20 and 25 of the RTI Act, 2005.
  • These broadly relate to:
    • adjudication in second appeal for giving information;
    • direction for record keeping,
    • suo motu disclosures receiving and
    • enquiring into a complaint on inability to file RTI etc;imposition of penalties and Monitoring and Reporting including preparation of an Annual Report.
  • The decisions of the Commission are final and binding.
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