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1. Do you think that India is able to link its Sustainable Development Goals (SDG) efforts with its global ambitions? Discuss.(GS 3)

Live Mint

Introduction :-

  • India’s voluntary reporting at the High Level Political Forum (HLPF) on sustainable development was the perfect opportunity to not only present India’s commendable achievements since the SDGs were adopted in 2015 but also enhance India’s global standing and leadership credentials at the UN.
  • While India partly achieved the first objective of highlighting some of the progress it had made on select SDGs, it did not make as much of a convincing case of leading the world on SDGs.

India’s failure to link SDG with its global ambition based on the report are :-

  • The report also makes little effort to connect how India’s success in the SDGs would benefit not only India but also other developing countries.
  • The reports of the working of the SDG show India is lacking in many areas like poverty,education ,health etc without which it cannot reach its global ambitions.
  • Jobless growth and underemployment on rise.
  • Lack of financial resources for critical areas like education, health etc.
  • Lack of water efficiency and water crisis.
  • The report fails to mention South-North-South triangular cooperation entirely.
  • Goal 16—promotion of peaceful and inclusive societies is being completely missed out.
  • The report pleads for more overseas development assistance from the leading Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) donors. In doing so, it dents India’s case for taking on more global responsibility and also its burgeoning role as a donor.
  • States like China are using the SDG platform to link and sates their global ambition.
    • China in its voluntary highlighted its presidency of the G20 as being key for supporting industrialization in Africa
    • Also announced the setting up of the China-UN Peace and Development Fund to “finance projects concerning peace and development” .

The government is actively taking measures to link SDG with its global ambitions by

  • More focus on renewable energy – leadership role  in  International solar alliance formation – a step towards UNSC permanent membership.
  • Issues in WTO regarding good stockholding- gaining support from global south.
  • To become economic power what sustainable goals India is working on like skill development ,make in India etc.
  • To address gender parity and equity goal of SDG measures are being taken.Mention them.
  • Goal of connectivity and reducing inequalities addressed  via some international projects like BBIN,BCIM road.
  • Ratifying various international protocols and conventions keeping in mind the sustainable development goals.
  • Bring reforms in urban cities by smart cities programme,AMRUT etc

Conclusion:

Hence India must see the SDG as a chance to develop the nation and a tool to promote its global ambitions.For achieving this there needs to be

More focus on social infrastructure,eradication of poverty,making people self employed and reducing under employment etc .

 2. Discuss the impact of floods and other natural disasters on India’s GDP.  (GS 1)

Live Mint

Introduction :-

  • Natural disasters are becoming an increasing threat to the human civilization mostly due to the frequency of the occurrences
  • They are now being increasingly linked to man-induced events.
  • When disaster strikes,increased urbanization and human advancement has put a lot a stake as there is a significant impact on GDP.
  • In the recent floods of assam and Gujarat As per latest reports, 82 and over 100 flood-related deaths have been recorded in the states of Assam and Gujarat, respectively.
  • Floods and storms cost India more today than they did 30 years ago.

Impact on GDP due to:-

  • Damage to public utilities has acquired the biggest share in flood-related losses.
  • Urban floods, caused due to poor drainage and infrastructure are affecting economy more for instance Chennai floods in 2015 and the recent Mumbai floods
  • According to new analysis released by the UN office for disaster risk reduction (UNISDR) revealed,in 2015, economic damages worth $3.30 billion cost India.
  • For firms, natural disasters destroy tangible assets such as buildings and equipment – as well as human capital – and thereby deteriorate their production capacity. These adverse impacts may sometimes be fatal to the firms and result in them being forced to close down.
  • Financial resources needed adequately which could have otherwise been spent on social infrastructure.
  • The impact passes on to other sectors, including industry, through one or more of the following routes:
    • A shortage of raw material supplies to agro-based industries.
    • Reduced rural demand for industrial/consumer products due to reduced agricultural incomes.
    • Potential shift in public sector resource allocation from investment expenditure to financing of drought relief measures.
  • Flooding and tsunamis cause damage to the standing crops and also to the food supplies in the storage facilities.
  • The land may be rendered infertile due to salt water incursion from the sea.
  • Due to disasters, there is a reduction/ loss of output which affects GDP of the country.
  • Disasters cause adverse impacts on industries, business interruptions and loss of jobs. This gives rise to unemployment which may be temporary. The disaster such as drought causes unemployment in rural areas.
  • Disasters such as terrorism necessitate more funding for security aspects. However, longer- term costs of security involve the opportunity cost of spending additional money to fight terrorism.
  • Disasters hamper the business activity. The disasters such as earthquakes, floods, tsunamis etc. disrupt the businesses by destructing the communications, transportation and electricity / gas

    • They cause destruction of railway tracks, roads and bridges thereby causing hindrance to commercial activities.
  • Due to Manmade disasters,the infrastructure of railways and roads get affected due to the terrorist attacks and bomb blasts causing destruction.
    • During riots, buses and railways are set on fire which causes heavy
      loss and disruption to the activities.

Economic losses over the years reduced :-

  • The 1970s was the worst decade in terms of loss human and cattle lives due to floods in India. These losses have come down since then.
  • Although absolute economic losses have been increasing, the relative economic damage has come down. Floods resulted in loss of 0.86% of the total GDP in the 1970s and 1980s. In the present decade, this share has come down to 0.1% of the GDP.
  • States overestimate damages to gain relief funds from centre as well

What needs to be done?

  • Reducing greenhouse gases and adapting to climate change is vital for countries seeking to reduce disaster risk now and in the future
  • Impact can be reduced by increased monitoring and flow of information ,use of technology,urban planning,strong focus on preventive  a and early warning systems etc.

3. Discuss the role of women in the freedom struggle especially during the Gandhian phase. (GS 1)

UPSC Previous Year Question Paper

Introduction:

  • Hundreds  and thousands of women of India had participated in the freedom movement with courage. The entire history of the freedom movement is replete with the saga of bravery, sacrifice and political sagacity of women.
  • Some of the  important personalities are Lakshmi Bai,Sarojini Naidu, Aruna Asaf Ali, Bhikaji cama etc

Role of women:

  • Social and Women Mobilization:
    • Aruna Asaf Ali was the leading figure of Quit India movement and edited journal ‘inquilab’for mobilsation.
  • Raising voice of freedom at International level 
    • Bhikaji Kama organized free India Society in UK and called as Mother India’s first cultural representative of USA.
    • Vijay laxmi Pandit raised Indian voice at San Francisco UN meeting.
    • Sarojni Naidu participated in round table conference along with Gandhi and Nehru
  • Political:-
    • Anne Besant and Sarojani Naidu became women Presidents of INC
    • Non cooperation movement witnesses unprecedented women activism, especially of the educated and middle classes.
    • Women like kamla nehru and Kasturba Gandhi guided the quit india movement when all major leaders were behind the bars.
  • Mass mobilisation:
    • Women leaders like Sarojini Naidu mobilised women for the freedom struggle. Margaret cousins founded the All india Women’s conference which provided a collective platform.
    • countless women participated in boycotting liquor shops and foreign made goods.
  • Revolutionary leaders :
    • Kalapana datta was the prominent revolutionary leader and was part of Chittagong armoury raid.
    • Many women are part of revolutionary movement as well supported by Bhagat singh like leaders and organisation like HSRA.
  • Tribal leaders:
    • Rani Gaidineliu led the naga nationalist movement against British and known as ‘Queen of Naga’.
  • Role in developing communication and role in media :
    • Usha mehta started a secret radio service to update and formulate a plan of action
    • some of them were prolific writers and thus created awareness among mass and others
  • Mahatama Gandhi strongly supported social reform for the women like declaring child marriage as a social evil and the purdah culture so that women can come united for freedom struggle.

Conclusion:

  • Thus, the role of women has been instrumental as they not only evolve themselves out of the social bondage but also silently and actively take part in various struggle so that India can achieve freedom.

 

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