Facts in news is published on a weekly basis that consists a gist of all crucial news articles from ‘The Hindu’ that may bear relevance to Civil Services Preparation.
Here is the Summary of all current happenings from around the world for the Third week of December.
|Bills, Programs, Policies, Schemes, Orders, Judgments|
|Should adultery be a crime?||Context:
• Indian criminal law explicitly criminalizes acts that deceive a person.
Why in news?
• The criminalisation of an act that breaches the sanctity of a pure social institution such as marriage, by way of deceit and lies, is facing challenges.
• A constitutional bench held that Section 497 did not violate the right to equality as enshrined in Articles 14 and 15 of the Constitution.
What is Adultery?
• Adultery is extramarital sex that is considered objectionable on social, religious, moral, or legal grounds.
• In India the offence of adultery is punishable under Section 497 of the Indian Penal Code (IPC), 1860.
• The Report of the Malimath Committee on Criminal Justice Reforms and the 42nd Report of the Law Commission of India recommended redefining Section 497 to make women also punishable for adultery.
Section 497 of the IPC:
• Section 497 penalizes sexual intercourse of a man with a married woman without the consent of her husband when such sexual intercourse does not amount to rape.
• It does not penalize the married woman when her husband consents to it.
• Husband cannot prosecute his unfaithful wife but can only prosecute her adulterer.
• The Constitutionality of Section 497 was challenged before the Supreme Court under Article 14 on the grounds that it makes an arbitrary discrimination based on sex in the cases of Yusuf Aziz , Sowmithri Vishnu and V. Revathi.
Article 14 of the Constitution:
• Article 14 of the Constitution of India provides for equality before the law & equal protection within the territory of India.
• It prohibits discrimination on grounds of religion, race, caste, sex or place of birth, or any of them.
About Article 15 of the Constitution:
• Article 15 of the Constitution provides “The State shall not discriminate against any citizen on grounds only of religion, caste, sex, place of birth or any of them.”
• No citizen shall, on grounds only of religion, race, caste, sex, place of birth or any of them , be subject to any disability, liability, restriction or condition with regard to:
1- Access to shops, public restaurants, hotels and places of public entertainment; or
2- The use of wells, tanks, bathing ghats, roads and places of public resort maintained wholly or partly out of State funds or dedicated to the use of the general public.
3- Nothing in this article shall prevent the State from making any special provision for women and children.
4- Admission to educational institutions including private educational institutions, whether aided or unaided by the State, other than the minority educational institutions referred to in clause (1) of article 30.
|Amendment Bill on IBC tabled in LS||Context:
• The Bill seeks to repeal and replace an Ordinance promulgated last month to bar willful defaulters from indirectly regarding control of their company.
• The government has introduced the Insolvency and Bankruptcy Code (Amendment) Bill, 2017 in Lok Sabha.
• The Bill was introduced to prohibit willful defaulters and those associated with non-performing assets (NAPs).
• The Bill seeks to repeal and replace the IBC (Amendment) Ordinance, 2017 as well as proposes to make certain modifications to the Ordinance.
Insolvency and Bankruptcy Code(Amendment)Bill 2017:
• The Lok Sabha has passed the Insolvency and Bankruptcy Code (Amendment) Bill 2017 for tightening loopholes in existing code.
• The Bill amends the Insolvency and Bankruptcy Code (IBC), 2016, and replaces an ordinance promulgated in November 2017.
Key Features of Bill Resolution applicant:
• The Bill redefines resolution applicant mentioned in code as a person who submits a resolution plan after receiving an invite by the insolvency professional to do so.
• It prohibits certain persons from submitting resolution plan in case of defaults. These include:
1- Wilful defaulters
2- Promoters or management of the company if it has outstanding non-performing debt for over years and
3- Disqualified directors, among others.
• The bill bars the sale of property of a defaulter to such persons who is ineligible to be a resolution applicant during liquidation.
• The Bill inserts provision to specify that person contravening any provisions of IBC, for which no penalty has been specified, will be punishable with fine ranging between Rs. 1 lakh to Rs. 2 crore
|We are against illegal Bangladeshis, says AGP||Context:
• Ruling coalition member Asom Gana Parishad (AGP) said it will oppose any move to grant citizenship to Hindu Bangladeshis.
• By giving citizenship to Hindu Bangladeshis, the Citizenship (Amendment) Bill, 2016, not only violates the Assam Accord, but also brings in a threat to the peaceful secular fabric of the State.
The Citizenship (Amendment) Bill, 2016:
• The Bill amends the Citizenship Act, 1955 to make illegal migrants who are Hindus, Sikhs, Buddhists, Jains, Parsis and Christians from Afghanistan, Bangladesh and Pakistan, eligible for citizenship.
• The Bill provides that the registration of Overseas Citizen of India (OCI) cardholders may be cancelled if they violate any law.
|Bill to criminalise triple talaq passed in Lok Sabha||Context:
• The Lok Sabha passed the Bill that makes instant triple talaq or talaq-e-biddat a criminal offence, with a jail term of up to three years.
• The proposed law would be applicable to the entire country, except in Jammu and Kashmir.
• It would make instant talaq punishable and would be cognizable, non-bailable offence.
• The Muslim Women (Protection of Rights on Marriage) Bill, 2017 will act as a deterrent.
The Muslim Women (Protection of Rights on Marriage) Bill, 2017:
• The Bill makes all declaration of talaq, including in written or electronic form, to be void and illegal.
• It defines talaq as talaq-e-biddat or any other similar form of talaq pronounced by a Muslim man resulting in instant and irrevocable divorce.
• Talaq-e-biddat refers to the practice under Muslim personal laws where pronouncement of the word ‘talaq’ thrice in one sitting by a Muslim man to his wife results in an instant and irrevocable divorce.
|Taking on the gatekeepers||Context:
• The Central Board of Film Certification (CBFC) announced that a six-member panel was being constituted to review the film Padmavati.
• Members of the panel include historians as well as representatives of the royal family of Mewar.
• The task of the Censor Board is to ensure that a film complies with the laws of the land.
Central Board of Film Certification (CBFC):
• The Central Board of Film Certification (CBFC) is a statutory censorship and classification body under the Ministry of Information and Broadcasting, Government of India.
• It is tasked with "regulating the public exhibition of films under the provisions of the Cinematograph Act 1952".
• Films can be publicly exhibited in India only after they are certified by the Board, including films shown on television.
|Lok Sabha amends bankruptcy law||Context:
• The Lok Sabha amended the Insolvency and Bankruptcy Code law .
• It was amended to prevent willful defaulters and existing promoters from taking part in insolvency proceedings of stressed assets of companies unless they make their bad loans operational by paying up interest.
• The Bill will replace an ordinance to prevent unscrupulous promoters from misusing the provisions of the Insolvency and Bankruptcy Code (IBC).
Insolvency and Bankruptcy Code (IBC):
• The code will be able to protect the interest of small investors and make the process of doing business a cumbersome-less process.
|How India rejects bad patents||Context:
• In 2005, India made some remarkable amendments to the Indian Patents Act of 1970, to keep medicines affordable in the country.
• There are strong standards for patents which India introduced to promote genuine innovation across all field to technology, in compliance with the World Trade Organization (WTO) norms.
• India rejects bad patents in far greater number than developed countries.
World Trade Organization :
• The World Trade Organization (WTO) is an intergovernmental organization that regulates international trade.
• The WTO commenced on 1 January 1995 under the Marrakesh Agreement, signed by 123 nations, replacing the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade(GATT), which commenced in 1948.
• It is the largest international economic organization in the world.
• The WTO deals with regulation of trade in goods, services and intellectual property between participating countries.
Indian Patents Act:
• Section 3(d) of the Indian Patents Act, a provision introduced to restrict the patenting of new forms of known pharmaceutical substances.
• The Indian Patent Office is administered by the Office of the Controller General of Patents, Designs & Trade Marks.
• This is a subordinate office of the Government of India and administers the Indian law of Patents, Designs and Trade Marks.
|An amendment to allow NRIs to vote by proxy||Context:
• The Representation of the People (Amendment) Bill of 2017, introduced proposes to allow non-resident Indians (NRIs) to emerge as a decisive force in the country’s electoral politics on their own terms.
• The amendment paves the way to remove an “unreasonable restriction” posed by Section 20A of the Representation of the People Act.
• Section 20A of the Act provides for registration and inclusion of overseas electors in the electoral rolls.
The Representation of the People (Amendment) Bill, 2017:
• The Bill seeks to amend the Representation of People Act, 1950 and the Representation of People Act, 1951 to allow for proxy voting and to make certain provisions of the Acts gender-neutral.
• The 1950 Act provides for allocation of seats.
• It provides for delimitation of constituencies for elections, qualifications of voters, and preparation of electoral rolls.
• The 1951 Act provides for the conduct of elections and offences and disputes related to elections.
• India and China will hold the 20th round of negotiations on the border issues.
• The meeting, will comes four months after the forces of the two side confronted each other at the Doklma plateau, will be headed by Special representative from both sides.
• Various issues like the One Belt One Road initiative , China’s opposition to India membership at the Nuclear Suppliers Group (NSG) and Indian opposition to China-Pakistan Economic Corridor (CPEC)
China-Pakistan Economic Corridor (CPEC):
• CPEC is a collection of infrastructure projects that are currently under construction throughout Pakistan.
• CPEC is intended to rapidly modernize Pakistani infrastructure and strengthen its economy by the construction of modern transportation networks, numerous energy projects, and special economic zones.
• The Silk Road Economic Belt and Maritime Silk Road, or One Belt and One Road Initiative (OBOR), the Belt and Road and the Belt and Road Initiative (BRI) is a development strategy proposed by China’s President Xi, Jinping.
• It focuses on connectivity and cooperation between Eurasian countries, primarily the People’s Republic of China (PRC), and land-based Silk Road Economic Belt(SREB) and the oceangoing Maritime Silk Road (MSR).
|China moots Afghan entry into CPEC||Context:
• China flagged the possible inclusion of Afghanistan in the China- Pakistan Economic Corridor- a move that is likely to irk India.
• India has opposed CEPC, which passes through Pakistan-occupied Kashmir (PoK), on the grounds that is infringes on its sovereignty.
China-Pakistan Economic Corridor (CPEC):
• CPEC is a collection of infrastructure projects that are currently under construction throughout Pakistan.
• CPEC is intended to rapidly modernize Pakistan infrastructure and strengthen its economy by the construction of modern transportation network, numerous energy projects, and special economic zones.
|Loans for employment schemes expedited||Context:
• The sanctioning of loans to youths for employment oriented schemes is being expedited in Rajasthan.
• Two schemes are emphasized here includes:
1- The Prime Minister’s Employment Generation Programme and
2- The State government’s Bhamashah Employment Generation Scheme.
About Prime Minister’s Employment Generation Programme:
• The Scheme is implemented by Khadi and Village Industries Commission (KVIC), as the nodal agency at the National level.
• At the State level, the Scheme is implemented through State KVIC Directorates, State Khadi and Village Industries Boards (KVIBs) and District Industries Centres (DICs) and banks.
About State government’s Bhamashah Employment Generation Scheme.
• The objective of the Scheme is financial inclusion, women empowerment and effective service delivery Bank Account.
• Bhamashah Card to be made in the name of the lady of the house for effective use of all cash and non-cash benefits.
|India leads in global milk production||Context:
• India has outpaced the global milk production with an annual growth rate of 5.53% compared with the 2.09% achieved globally.
• India has been the largest producer of milk in the world for the past 15 years.
• Milk production, which was around 17-22 million tonnes in the 1960’s has increased to 163.7 million tonnes in 2016-17.
• It has increased by 19% during the 2016-17 in comparison to the year 2013-14.
• Per capita availability of milk has increased from 307 grams in 2013-14 to 351 grams in the year 2016-17.
|CARE downgrades HNGIL rating||Context:
• Rating agency CARE has downgraded bank facilities and non-convertible debentures (NDCs) of city-based Hindusthan National Glass and Industries Ltd. (HNGIL).
Non Convertible debentures:
• Nonconvertible debentures are unsecured bonds that cannot be converted to company equity or stock.
• Nonconvertible debentures usually have higher interest rates than convertible debentures.
• A fixed deposit is an arrangement with a bank where a depositor places money in the bank and is paid a regular fixed profit.
• A credit rating agency (CARE), is a company that assigns credit ratings, which rate a debtor’s ability to pay back debt by making timely interest payments and the likelihood of default.
• An agency may rate the creditworthiness of issuers of debt obligations, of debt instruments.
• The Centre is not ready with the rules to implement the Compensatory Afforestation Fund Act, 2016 .
• The government’s resolve to meet a variety of environmental objectives, including major commitments under the Paris Agreement on climate change and the Sustainable Development Goals, remains woefully weak.
• The evidence on compensatory afforestation in a big project such as the Sardar Sarovar Dam, is not encouraging.
About Compensatory Afforestation Fund Act, 2016 :
• In August this year, the Compensatory Afforestation Fund Act, 2016 has come into force.
• This act provides for setting up Compensatory Afforestation Fund Management and Planning Authority (CAMPA) at both central and state level to ensure expeditious and transparent utilization of amounts realised in lieu of forest land diverted for non-forest purpose.
• The utilization of funds is expected to mitigate the impact of diversion of such forest land.
• Levies are imposed on development projects that seek land inside a Reserved Forest or a Protected Area (PA) in a sanctuary or a national park.
• These collected levies are accrued in the CAMPA Funds which are to be utilised to plant trees elsewhere in order to ostensibly compensate the loss of forest due to development projects.
• Adhoc CAMPA was created on the order of the Supreme Court in October 2002.
• The Ad-hoc CAMPA decides the procedure of per-verification of credits of levies in the State-wise accounts.
|SEBI tightens rating agency, MF norms||Context:
• The Securities and Exchange Board of India (SEBI) has tightened the norms for credit rating agencies (CRAs) and mutual funds (MFs) to reduce instances of conflict of interest.
• CRAs have also been barred from holding more than 10% in a peer rating agency.
• SEBI gave its nod for existing bourses to introduce equity or commodity trading facilities as they deem fit.
• BSE and NSE can now unveil commodity trading while Multi Commodity Exchange (MCX) and National Commodity and Derivatives Exchange (NCDEX) can start offering equity trading facilities.
• The regulator has also relaxed certain regulatory norms for easing investments by foreign portfolio investors (FPIs) and facilitating growth of Infrastructure Investment Trusts (InvITs) and Real Estate Investment Trusts (REITs).
Multi Commodity Exchange of India :
• Is an independent commodity exchange based in India.
• It was established in 2003 and is based in Mumbai.
• MCX offers futures trading in bullion
|India to become fifth largest economy in 2018’||Context:
• India is set to overtake the United Kingdom and France to become the world’s fifth largest economy next year.
• Presently ranked seventh, India will move up to fifth place in 2018 and vault to third spot by 2032, the Centre for Economics and Business Research (CEBR), a London based consultancy.
• Indian economy hit a three-year low in the first quarter of the current financial year, after PM Narendra Modi’s snap decision last year to scrap high-value bank banknotes and following a tax overhaulafter.
• Centre for Economics and Business Research is a leading independent economics consultancy based in UK
|Finance Ministry follows RBI, warns about cryptocurrencies||Context:
• The government has joined the Reserve Bank of India in cautioning potential customers about investing in cryptocurries like bitocin.
• There has been a phenomenal increase in recent times in the prices of virtual currencies’ (VC).
• A Cryptocurrency is a digital asset designed to work as a medium of exchange that uses cryptography to secure its transactions, to control the creation of additional unit and to verify the transfer of assets.
• Cryptocurrencies are classified as a subject of digital currencies and are also classified as a subset of alternative currencies and virtual currencies.
• Bitcoin, created in 2009, was the first decentralized cryptocurrency
|Countering growing inequality||Context:
• The World Inequality Report 2018 released recently.
• It has bought into focus an aspect of economic progress in India.
• The World Development Indicators data released by the World Bank show that per capita income in China was five times that of India in 2016.
• The percentage of population living on less than $1.90 a day was about 10 times less at the beginning of this decade
|The rise and fall of the WTO||Context:
• The future of WTO as a body overseeing multilateral trade rules is in doubt.
• The failure of the recent ministerial meeting at Buenos Aires is only symptomatic of a decline in its importance.
• The WTO was born in 1995, replacing the General Agreement on Tariff and Trade (GATT).
• It was also given powers to punish countries which violated these rules
|Financial Resolution and Deposit Insurance Bill (FRDI Bill)||Context:
• The Trinamool Congress (TMC) is protesting against the proposed Financial Resolution and Deposit Insurance Bill.
Financial Resolution and Deposit Insurance Bill, 2017:
• The FRDI Bill is part of a larger, more comprehensive approach by the Centre towards systematic resolution of all financial firms.
• The Bill comes together with the Insolvency and Bankruptcy Code.
• It aims at finding and finalising a resolution plan to get a troubled company back on track, or, in the event of failure, ensure a quick winding up.
|Panel exhorts Centre to contain bank NPAs||Context:
• Concerned over rising NPAs of banks, a Parliamentary panel asked the government to take urgent remedial measures to reduce the volume of stressed assets in the system.
What is NPA?
• A Non-performing asset (NPA) is defined as a credit facility in respect of which the interest and or installment of principal has remained ‘past due’ for a specified period of time.
• An asset is tagged as non-performing when it ceases to generate income for the lender.
• NPA is used by financial institutions that refer to loans that are in jeopardy of default the so called NPL.
• It can also be termed as “Bad loans”.
• NPAs are classified into the following three categories:
1- Sub-standard assets: a sub standard asset is one which has been classified as NPA for a period not exceeding 12 months
2- Doubtful Assets: a doubtful asset is one which has remained NPA for a period exceeding 12 months.
3- Loss assets: where loss has been identified by the bank, internal or external auditor or central bank inspectors. But the amount has not been written off, wholly or partly.
|Health related issues|
|The lowdown on diphtheria and its resurgence||Context:
• Diphtheria is a highly infectious disease, which usually shows up a sore throat and difficulty in breathing.
• It spreads through contact or coughs or sneeze droplets.
• It is caused by the bacterium Corynebacterium diptheriae.
• In many cases, the toxin secreted by this bacterium kills cells in the throat and debris forms a wing shaped grey membrance, dispruting breatheningand earning diphtheria the name “The Strangled Angel.
How did it come about?
• India has had a diphtheria vaccination programme since the 1980s.
• Under the Universal Immunization Programme (UIP), all children disease, which usually shows up a sore throat and difficulty in breathing.
Universal Immunization Programme:
• It is a vaccination program launched by the Government of India in 1985.
• It became a part of Child Survival and Safe Motherhood Programme in 1992.
• It is currently one of the key areas under National Rural Health Mission (NHRM) since 2005.
• The program now consists of vaccination for 12 diseases- tuberculosis, diphtheria, pertusis, tetanus, poliomyelitis, measles, Hepatitis B, Diarrhoea, Japanese Encephalitis, rubella, Pneumonia and Pneumococcal diseases.
• Hepatitis B and Pneumococcal disease was added to the UIP in 2007 and 2017 respectively.
|Gaming addiction classified as disorder by WHO.||Context:
• Gaming addiction is to be listed as a mental health condition for the first time by the World Health Organisation.
• Its 11th International Classification of Diseases (ICD) will include the condition "gaming disorder".
• Some countries had already identified it as a major public health issue.
impaired control over gaming (frequency, intensity, duration)
increased priority given to gaming
continuation or escalation of gaming despite negative consequences
|Science and Technology|
|Mars absorbed water like sponge||Context:
• Previous research has suggested that the majority of the water was lost to space as a result of the collapse of the planet’s magnetic field, when it was either swept away by high intensity solar winds or locked up as sub-surface ice.
Why in news?
• Scientists from the Oxford University in the U.K. applied modeling methods used to understand the composition of Earth rocks.
• The purpose was to calculate how much water could be removed from the Martian surface through reactions with rock.
• Mars is the fourth planet from the Sun and second-smallest planet in the Solar System after Mercury.
• It is also called “Red Planet” because the reddish iron oxide prevalent on its surface gives it a reddish appearance that is distinctive among the astronomical bodies visible to the naked eye.
• Mars is a terrestrial planet with a thin atmosphere, having surface features reminiscent both the impact craters of the Moon and the valleys, deserts, and polar ice caps of Earth.
|ISRO to launch 31 satellites in one go aboard PSLV on Jan. 10||Context:
• The Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) said it would launch 31 satellites, including India’s Cartosat-2 series earth observation space craft, in a single mission on January 10.
• The mission will be the first ‘Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle(PSLV) mission after the unsuccessful launch of the navigation satellite IRNSS-IH in August this year.
• The mission’s main payload would be India’s Cartosat-2 series earth observation satellite.
• The high-profile Mission Readiness Review committee and Launch Authorisation Board is scheduled to meet soon to take the final call.
• PSLV-C40 will be used for the launch from the spaceport in Andhra Pradesh’s Sriharikota, about 100 kilometres from Chennai.
• On August 31, India’s mission to launch its backup navigation satellite IRNSS-1H on board PSLV-C39 was unsuccessful after a technical snag on the final leg.
• In February this year, PSLV-C37 launched the first Cartosat-2 series satellite along with 103 co-passenger satellites in a single flight.
• Cartosat-2 is an Earth observation satellite in a sun-synchronous orbit and the second of the Cartosat series of satellites.
• The satellite was built, launched and maintained by the Indian Space Research Organisation.
• Weighing around 680 kg at launch, its applications will mainly be towards cartography in India.
• It was launched by the PSLV on 10 January 2007.
|Now, a big bubble theory||Context:
• Scientists have said that the solar system could have formed in the bubbles produced by a giant, long-dear star, which was 40 to 50 times the size of the Sun.
• Scientists are yet to come to a consensus about the birth story of the solar system.
• The prevailing theory is that the solar system formed billions of years ago near a supernova.
• They burn the hottest of all stars, producing tonnes of elements which are flung off the surface in an intense stellar wind.
|Interceptor missile successfully tested||Context:
• India successfully test-fired an Advanced Air Defence (AAD) interceptor missile, capable of destroying enemy ballistic missiles at low altitude, from a test range in Odisha.
• It was the third successful test this year.
• The test was carried out from Abdul Kalam Island off the Odisha coast in response to an incoming ‘enemy’ missile which was fired from launch complex 3 of the Integrated Test Range (ITR) in Chandipur.
• The missile is being developed as part the Ballistic Missile Defence (BMD) system .
• The BMD consists of two interceptor missiles, the Prithvi Defence Vehicle (PDV) for exo-atmospheric ranges and the Advanced Area Defence (AAD) missile for endo-atmosphere or lower altitudes.
• The missile is at the terminal stage of its flight and is at maximum velocity. The endo-atmospheric missile is capable of intercepting missiles at altitudes of 15-30 km.
|Dhanush’s induction into Army delayed||Context:
• After accidents during the final phase of user exploitation trials, the induction of the Dhanush artillery gun into the Army has been delayed.
• The Dhanush is an upgraded version of the Swedish 155-mm Bofors howitzers, which India procured in the mid-1980s, based on its original designs.
• The upgrade is being done by the Ordnance Factory Board (OFB) based on the requirements of the Army.
• Dhanush is a 155-mm, 45-calibre gun with a maximum range of 40 km in salvo mode compared to the 39-calibre, 27-km range of the original guns.
|Majuli island to be protected from erosion, says Gadkari||Context:
• Union Minister Nitin Gadkari expressed hope that people living on the shrinking Majuli island will be able to put their worries to rest once the Central and State government schemes to prevent the isle from erosion are successfully implemented.
• Through this project, it will be able to reclaim lost land.
About Majuli island:
• Majuli island is surrounded by the Brahmaputra on the south and the Kherkatia Suti, Luit Suti and Subansiri rivers on the North.
• The Assam government had in the past constructed embankments to protect the island from floods
|India yet to find reason for darkening Siang||Context:
• The Union government has conveyed its view and concerns to the Chinese authorities, on the unusual darkening of the Siang River in Arunachal Pradesh.
• The people of Arunachal Pradesh are facing a crisis as fish die and the river seems to too polluted to use due to high turbidity and iron levels in the usually crystal clear Siang.
• The reason for change in water of River Siang may possible be because of any landslide, earthquake, and any other activity in upstream region of Tuting site across the international border with China.
• The Siang enters India from Tibet, where it flows for about 1,500 km as the Tsangpo and becomes the Brahmaputra after it flows into Assam.
|Narcondam Hornbills edge back from the brink||Context:
• There is a growing population of the endangered Narcondam Hornbill
• The Narcondam Hornbill and its remote habitat were the centre of a controversy following a 2014 proposal to install a Defence Ministry listening post on the remote island in the Andaman and Nicobar chain.
• The 7 sq. km. island, a declared wildlife sanctuary is near Myanmar’s Coco island, where the Chinese have a military presence.
• The bird considered endangered by the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) and on the Red List of threatened species.
International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN):
• The IUCN is an international organization working in the field of nature conservation and sustainable use of natural resources.
• It is involved in data gathering and analysis, research, field projects, advocacy and education.
• IUCN was established in 1948.
• It was previously called the International Union for the Protection of Nature (1948–1956) and the World Conservation Union (1990–2008).