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1. Critically examine the provisions of the National IPR Policy. Mention some benefits of this policy.

Synopsis:

  • In the introduction write about the national IPR policy and why was it framed. Points in this regard are :-
    • Lays the future roadmap of intellectual property rights in India
    • Provides synergies amongst IP,agencies etc.
    • Reiterates India’s commitment to the Doha Development Agenda.
    • creation of an innovation-conducive environment.
  • In the body start writing the provisions of the policy in detail like
    • Creating public awareness about IPR’s
    • Generation of IPR’s
    • Sets a legal framework that will encourage the IPR regime
    • Reduce the time taken by the government to approve a trademark
    • Realises IPR’s as a marketable financial asset
    • Plan will be reviewed every five years
    • Making the Department of Industrial Policy and Promotion (DIPP) the nodal agency for all IPR issues
    • Promote research and development
    • Commercialization of IPRs
    • Combating IPR infringements
    • Implementation,Monitoring and review mechanism
  • Then try to write the benefits of this policy as following:-
    • Likely bring India’s IP regime in line with global standards
    • Help improve its ranking in the World Bank’s Ease of Doing Business index.
    • Identifies IP as a strategic tool for furthering India’s economic goals.
    • Cut the time taken on clearing the backlog of intellectual property rights (IPR)
    • Focuses on enhancing access to multiple fields.
    • Shall weave in the strengths of multiple organisations
    • Lots of steps for Start-Ups had been recommended in the policy
  • Concerns with the policy need to be listed as well :-
    • Mention of Doha Declaration and flexibility would mean there would be attempts to find loopholes in TRIPS in order to favour pharmaceutical companies.
    • Silence on the issue of traditional knowledge
    • No evidence to show that the modern utility model and trade secret laws are useful
    • Failed to address the question of whether a strong IP in itself was sufficient enough to attract foreign direct investment.
    • Lacks specifics
    • Doubts about its applicability to informal sector in rural areas.
  • Then try to write some suggestions on how to improve this policy like much more awareness about the creation, protection and enforcement of IPRs would go a long way .

Sources:

http://www.thehindu.com/business/all-you-need-to-know-about-the-intellectual-property-rights-policy/article8600530.ece

https://thewire.in/37795/who-gains-from-the-modi-governments-intellectual-property-rights-policy/


2. Discuss briefly the location and significance of Mangroves in India.

Synopsis:

  • Write in the introduction about what are mangroves and add some facts if possible.
  • You can roughly draw a map showing important mangroves in India as well.
  • Mention the locations of mangroves in India .Try to atleast mention the most important ones like
    • Sunderbans in West Bengal
    • Bhitarkanika in Odisha
    • Pichavaram in Tamilnadu
    • Godavari Krishna mangroves
    • Bartang island mangroves in Andaman and nicobar etc .
  • Try to elaborate the significance in multiple dimensions i.e, Socio culturally ,economic, environmental  etc.
    • Socio culturally they are worshipped by the inhabitants .
    • Economically
      • It has wide range of ecosystem goods and services
      • Recreation and tourism
      • Support system to coastal inhabitants
      • Renewable resource
    • Environment
      • Nature’s shield against cyclones
      • Stabilizes the coastline
      • Prevents soil erosion
      • Recycles nutrients
      • breeding grounds
      • Shelter to a large number of endangered species
  • In the conclusion add how government initiatives like mangroves for the future need to be made effective ,any other measures needed to ensure protection of mangroves.

Sources:

https://blogs.wsj.com/indiarealtime/2013/04/30/the-importance-of-mumbais-mangroves/

http://wwf.panda.org/about_our_earth/blue_planet/coasts/mangroves/mangrove_importance/


3. Discuss the consequences of Climate Change on agriculture and food security.

Synopsis:

  • In the Introduction try to show how climate change is bringing in extreme weather tendencies which affect the world especially India when it is still largely dependant on agriculture.
  • In the body try to elaborate consequences on agriculture and food security from multiple dimensions like
    • Magnitude of the impact like it’s  impact on crops, livestock, forestry, fisheries and aquaculture.
    • How it affects trade and income.
    • Affects food production.
    • Impact on water availability
    • Impact on groundwater resources
    • Reduce improvements in food security and nutrition.
    • Impact on livelihood of people depend on agriculture.
    • How it impacts the cropping season.
    • Leads to erratic monsoon and its impact .
  • You need not focus on only negative consequences there are some benefits to some crops in Indian agriculture as well due to climate change like
    • There might be some improvement in yields of chickpeas, rabi maize, sorghum and millets and coconut on the west coast
    • Less loss in potatoes, mustard and vegetables in north-western India due to reduced frost damage.
  • Then in the end while concluding the answer try to elaborate on the suggestions like
    • Increase in public investment
    • Better management of water resources
    • Irrigation infrastructure needs to be upgraded
    • Effective public distribution systems etc.

Sources:

https://www.wfp.org/climate-change/climate-impacts

http://www.cseindia.org/userfiles/VUM-CSE-Delhi-16-11-12.pdf

https://intpolicydigest.org/2016/08/22/climate-change-and-indian-agriculture/

 


 

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