1. Critically examine the working of various crop insurance schemes. (GS 3)



  • In the introduction you can start with why crop insurance is very necessary for agriculture and why government implements crop insurance schemes
  • What are the crop insurance schemes launched so far.Mention the names of important schemes like
    • Weather based national crop insurance scheme
    • NAIS
    • MNAIS
    • Pradhan Mantri fasal bhima yojana and write a few words on the importance of these schemes
      • PMFBY proposes better use of technology to speed up the claim process.
      • Promises to address the issues of high premium, linkage to crop loans and cap on claims.
      • Incorporate technology in agriculture.
      • Lowering premium rates
    • Elaborate on the failure of these schemes.The following issues can be probed like
      • Implementation problems
      • Delays in financial aid and the states role in it.
      • Institutional problems where you can analyse the role of Agricultural Insurance Company of India Limited (AIC) as well.
      • Lack of proper maintenance of records
      • The intended beneficiaries did not receive the benefits.
      • Small farmers are not effectively covered.
      • Farmers suicides are still very rampant.
      • One of the main reasons for overall agrarian crisis in India.
      • Lack of adequate funds
      • Inadequacy of compensation when there is crop failure
      • Lack of awareness about these schemes
      • NAIS and MNAIS had failed to address the issues of high premium.
      • PMFBY:-
        • Ambiguity over unit of insurance
        • Lack of clarity on who is covered in the scheme
        • Only covers weather risks
      • Write note on the measures needed for the success of these schemes like
        • Social audits
        • Digital transfer of money
        • Cross checks by various authorities
        • Integration and consolidations of schemes etc are needed.

2. Discuss the role of embankments in prevention of floods. Suggest measures needed to manage the embankments effectively.(GS 1)

The Hindu


  • In the Introduction you can mention what is embankment and situation of floods in India.
  • Elaborate on the role of embankments in the prevention of floods.
    • Restricting the floodwater to a narrow stretch.
    • Help due to markings of the embankments.
    • How people living near embankments get benefitted.
    • How it can mend the river to flow along a desired course.
    • How the velocity of flow of river water can be controlled.
  • How can embankments be managed effectively suggest various measures like
    • Involve the community that is close to the embankment
    • Mention how embankment management committees should be empowered.
    • Role of technology
    • Plantations near embankment
  • In the conclusion you can mention the way ahead needed and can also show how participatory embankment management is a future forward.

3. Discuss India’s achievements in the field of Space Science and Technology. How the application of this technology has helped India in its socio-economic development?(GS 3)

(UPSC Previous Year Question Paper)

PIB Business Standard


  • In the introduction elaborate why space science has become so important in India and India’s standing at the international level with respect to space science.
  • Now elaborate in details the various achievements of India in the field of space science by mentioning successful missions from various perspectives like international, economic, technological etc like:
    • Mangalyaan
    • Successful launch of GSLV with Indigenous Cryogenic Stage
    • Development of Next Generation Geo-Synchronous Satellite Launch Vehicle Mk III
    • GAGAN (GPS Aided GEO Augmented Navigation)
    • Chandrayaan
    • IRNSS etc
  • Now answer the question showing the space technology role in socio economic development.In economic development the following areas can be emphasised in detail:
    • Agriculture
      • Precision farming
      • Identification of diseases of crops
      • Wasteland mapping etc
    • Employment opportunities
    • Resources
    • Development of both scientific and space manufacturing industry and bring in more investment
    • Satellite communication-providing alerts and position location services for aircraft and ships in distress.
  • In social development the following areas can be covered:-
    • Disaster management
    • Ignite young minds
    • Finding prospective groundwater zones
    • Tele fishery
    • Biodiversity information system
    • Tele medicine
  • In the conclusion. end on a positive note showing the further potential of this technology.


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