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GS 2

Contested numbers on overstayers


  1. Indian professionals protest against allegedly unfair VISA rules, outside UK Parliament in London recently.

Important facts:

2. The controversy has affected India-U.K ties in a series of events such as:

  • Britain has not relaxed visa rules for Indian’s since very long.
  • U.K crackdown on “bogus colleges” that enrolled international students.
  • Figures from exit checks revealed that around 4,700 international students had overstayed their visas in 2016-2017.
  • Memorandumof Understanding (MoU) on the return of illegal was signed during PM Modi’s this year visit to the U.K.
  • In June Britain excluded India from relaxed visa norms for students.


Quad countries discuss ocean security


  1. Report on regional stability launched

Important facts:

2. Key highlights of the report:

  • Maintaining high –level consultations among the Quad countries aiming at free and open Indo-Pacific region.
  • Australia, Japan, India and the US should work with countries in the IOR.
  • Four countries Quad countries should work to oppose “the establishment of permanent Chinese military bases “in the IOR.
  • The report calls the four countries to enhance sea land defencecapabilities. For this naval fleet should evolve long range operations.
  • This may require consideration in Japan of new options such as nuclear propulsion for its submarines

3. On the sidelines of the launch of a report by four think tanks from the Quad countries, Japanese diplomat highlighted the following points:

  • The Quad grouping should not be in an exclusive context. It is one of the grouping for interaction.
  • There are various modalities where Quad countries interact on bilateral and trilateral basis.
  • Japan’s Indo-Pacific policy is open and inclusive
  • All four countries have used the word inclusive and so all are in agreement of the inclusiveness of the Indo-Pacific.

4. Other think tanks include-

  • Australia National University,
  • Sasakawa Peace Foundation, Japan
  • Sasakawa Peace Foundation, USA,
  • VIF formed the Quadripartite Commission on Indian Ocean Regional Security, which provides recommendations for stability in the Indian Ocean Region(IOR).

5. On the sidelines of the East Asia Summit in Manila last year, the Quad countries held discussion on reviving the grouping.


Tilting at windmills


  1. Ravi Arvind Palat, has talked about structural issues associated with USA economy.

Important Analysis:

2. Donald trump has imposed tariff on main trading partner e.g. Canada, China, the European Union, and Mexico.
3. Why USA has imposed:

  • Due to industrial structures wages in USA has stagnated for almost 40 years.
  • Trade Deficit – China exported $505 billion worth of goods to the U.S and imported only $130 billion.
  • Extreme Inequalities in income and wealth – due to Focus on trade and ignoring changes in the U.S. corporate structure and industrial relations and labor reforms.

4. USA claiming by increasing the tariffs it will help in reducing U.S. trade deficits, bring back well-paying manufacturing jobs

5. Facts about USA trade relations with other countries

  • It is estimated that 87% of computers and electronics, which constitute the largest share of Chinese exports to the U.S., includes parts from other countries like South Korea, Japan, and the U.S. itself.
  • Exports from China account for 3% of Chinese manufacturing revenue.
  • USA imports from china also include products from other countries.
  • Non-Chinese owned companies account for almost 60% of Chinese exports to the U.S ranging from boat motors to Computer products.

6. Impact of the measurement

  • The net result is that the burden of the tariffs will be felt by consumers in the U.S. (e.g. Increase in price of Washing Machine in USA).
  • Declined in South Korea’s car export to China.
  • Depreciation of Chinese currency by 7 % due to declined export.
  • German car producers in USA faced negative impact after china retaliated with high tariff on USA.

7. According to author, skilled labor play an important role in an economy with increasing involvement of computers and numerical controlled machine.

8. Constant upgrading of labor skill is vital and Washington has made no effort.

9. He has cited the example of Tim cook who has shifted his company in China not because of cheap labor but because of wider pool of skilled labor.


GS 3

‘State can stop voluntary retirement of doctors’


  1. Recently, the Supreme Court has ruled that the State can stop government doctors from taking voluntary retirement in public interest.

Important facts:

2. The verdict was based on an appeal by the Uttar Pradesh government against the Allahabad High Court’s decision in case of voluntarily retirement of a doctor.

3. The court held that :

  • The fundamental right to retire is not above the right to save lives in a country where government hospitals cater to the poorest.
  • The concept of public interest can also be invoked by the government when voluntary retirement sought by an employee will be against public interest.
  • Public health was suffering from a scarcity of doctors.
  • Qualified doctors did not join the public service at first, even if they did so, they chose voluntary retirement and went into lucrative private practice.
  • The court held that poor could not be put in difficult situation by a paucity of specialists in government hospitals.

4. The State government had an obligation “to make an endeavour under Article 47 to look after the provisions for health and nutrition.”

5. The doctor, as citizens had certain fundamental duties under Article 51(A) towards their fellow citizens.

6. The right to practice a profession under Article 19(1)(g) was subject to the interest of the general public.


Pulling back from the brink


  1. Scientist Sujatha Byravanin her findings has shown concern over extreme form of climate change.

Important Analysis:

2. All climate change started from Holocene period when development in Agriculture and Technology brought social and economic transformation.

3. Holocene period was followed by Anthropocene period during which humans plays an important role shaping the climate change.

4. This has led the scientist to discuss on how the planet may move into high temperature “Hothouse Earth”.

Hothouse Earth– Is a period with no continental glaciers, the levels of carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases (such as water vapor and methane) are high, with high sea surface temperatures and uncontrollable warning.

5. Several factors are responsible for increase in GHGs (Green House Gases) leading to global warming like burning of fossil fuels, deforestation and increasing human activity.

6. Global warming led to increase in open water due to melting of ice. Open water absorb more sunlight and further cause warming.

7. Atmospheric concentrations of CO2 (now over 400 ppm) are responsible for global average temperatures that are about a degree Celsius higher than at pre-industrial times.

8. Increase in CO2 level enhances chemical weathering which depletes CO2 from atmosphere and cools the atmosphere.

9. Changes beyond tipping point is a major concern.

Tipping Points – Geophysical tipping point is a threshold beyond which a system moved from one stable state to another

10. Scientist have found crossing a threshold (roughly determined to be about 2º Celsius warmer than pre-industrial times) would lead to series of tipping points which will lead to

  • The destruction of the Amazon forest due to wildfires.
  • The loss of permafrost with warming.
  • The weakening of CO2 absorption by the oceans.
  • Melting of polar ice caps

11. Research says that global target of 1.5-2 degree Celsius to control the global warmingmay not be able to control the earth entering into Hothouse path.

12. Amajor change in technological innovation, behavior, values and governance are need of an hour to control climate change


Retrograde move


  1. Life term imprisonment for Sacrilege of religious text.

Important facts:

2. Punjab cabinet approves life term imprisonment for sacrilege of religious books/texts.

Sacrilegeviolation or misuse of what is regarded as sacred.

3. Though center has returned the bill and aiming at providing protection to Bible, Koran and Bhagwat Gita as well.

4. Developing arguments against new proposed law.

  • Protecting Holy book of one religion is anti-secular and discriminatory against other religion.
  • Section 295-A is already in Place which makes deliberate attempt to hurt religious sentiments a punishable offence with imprisonment of 3 years.
  • Most importantly, section 295-A of IPSC deals with religion and religious beliefs, punishment under section 295-AA explicitly for religious text would be disproportionate.
  • Misuse of law in guise of protecting religion sentiments.
  • Against the spirit of right to free speech.

5. To prosecute someone, amendment in CrPC is also required with prior permission from state and center.

6. Thorough reading of section 295-A and section 153-A of IPC is required before prosecuting people in the name of protecting the feelings of society.


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