- Marriage certificate mandatory in Meghalaya.
2. In the back drop of broken or failed marriages Meghalaya government has made it mandatory to produce certificates for all official purposes.
3. Government jobs has been denied to men who have abandoned their families and not provide maintenance.
4. Increasing number of broken marriages has forced government to take this step.
5. Impact on women are major and they have to look after themselves and their children.
6. Hike in school dropout and juvenile crime as an impact is seen when men leave their families.
7. An NGO in a memorandum has requested Chief Minister to implement Meghalaya Compulsory Registration of Marriage Act, 2012.
8. Though government order may not stop divorce but it will help abandoned women to avail maintenance for their children.
- Neera Chandhoke, a former Professor of Political Science has talked about the role of civil society in modern democratic state.
2. Author has acknowledged the concern posed by the modern democratic state armed with technologies used for surveillance and control the induvial rights.
3. When democratic state decide to terrorise and kill, rights-bearing citizen are more vulnerable.
4. Civil society plays an important role between suffering citizens and the democratic state.
5. Role of Civil Societies
- Civil societies have become the custodian of fundamental rights.
- In a form of association drives their power through petitions, protest and judicial activism.
- Civil society efforts enable citizen access rights and privileges.
- All democratic associations are important but civil liberty and human rights groups are essential for human wellbeing.
- Civil liberty or human rights activists are lawyers, academics, journalists and public minded citizens of India and protect the moral conscience of our society.
- Protected the rights of vulnerable section (e.g. Adivasis, Muslims and Dalits).
- During the emergency (1975-77),citizen’s fundamental rights were suppressed and suspended however the civil liberties movement in the later period has helped them to protect and restore.
- Conducting investigation against the state arbitrary imprisonment, custodial death and encounters and speak against the state.
- Document the real cause of communal and caste violence.
- Provide check and balances against abuse of power by government.
6. There are very few organization like Human rights, who struggle for right to life and liberty.
7. Though all civil societies and media do not perform the same duty. Some of them only focus on the fund.
8. Challenges faced by Civil Societies:
- Political leader dismiss the need of civil societies.
- They are being arrested and prisoned for no reason
- Increasing threat from government and right-wing organization (specialised in violence).
- For example the Maharashtra police has arrested lawyers, poets and academics in Aug 2018 for their defence and violent attack by Hindu right-wing activist on Dalits gathering at Bhima-Koregaon in 2018.
9. Urban Maoism is another term which has no historical or geographical connection who seems to be involved into Bhima-Koregaon violence.
10. Rights to life and liberty are the core of other rights and has caused political revolution in the past.
11. A well-known Italian theorist has concluded revolution only occur when government directly suppress or attack on the society as it happens in Russia. Author refer this a Boomerang Effect.
12. However this can be avoided with the presence of civil societies who take the burden on their shoulders.
- Harsh Vardhan, Professor of International Relationshas discussed about India’s interest in BIMSTEC.
2. Indian PM is schedule to attend Bay of Bengal Initiative for Multisector Technical and Economic Cooperation (BIMSTEC) summit in Kathmandu this week.
3. India expecting this could be another milestone, as BRICS-BIMSTEC meeting in 2016 brought regional, strategic and economic interests in favor of India.
4. Why India Pursuing Interest in BIMSTEC
- Stagnated SAARC summit has limited the scope of India’s economic growth and improvement in regional governance.
- To isolate Pakistan and recover losses occurred from SAARC.
- The main motivation for India is to ensure region does not lag behind.
- Another desire is to link South Asia with South East Asia which is economically prosperous.
- Main reason for pushing BIMSTEC arrangement is to achieve common goals in South Asia region.
5. However India needs to be little cautious after it has failed to gain from SAARC.
6. During 18th SAARC summit in 2014 India proposed SAARC motor vehicle agreement however it couldn’t progress after Pakistan opposed it.
7. India also proposed SAARC satellite however Pakistan refused to participate.
8. Indian PM emphasized regional integration with or without SAARC.
9. This compelled India to sign BBIB motor vehicle agreement with Bangladesh, Bhutan, India, and Nepal (BBIN) in 2015.
10. Challenges for India in context of BIMSTEC:
- India is a largest contributor to BIMSTEC secretariat budget. It may need to allocate more resources as Secretariat is planning to expand its human resources and number of officials.
- Small neighbors which are willing to gain from India economic rise may raise concern over Indian dominating attitude.
- India dominant attitude in SAARC did not play well as few nations in SAARC was trying to accord fullmembership status to China to counter India position. However this did not work and led to defunct SAARC.
- India need to be careful to ensure same situation shall not occur within BIMSTEC.
- India to participate in 2+2 Dialogue with USA.
2. From India External Affair and Defence Minister and from USAState and Defencesecretary will participate in the dialogue.
3. Military ties and exercises has increased between both countries but diplomatic ties aren’t catching with same pace.
4. Though India share close diplomatic ties with USA, key defence agreement and several deals are still not moving forward.
5. 2+2 Dialogue will bring USA and India on the same platform to address these challenges.
6. It will also review the U.S.’s South Asia policy on Afghanistan and its Indo-Pacific strategy.
7. Other Issues expected to be discussed U.S. demands on lowering tariffs and subsidies, India’s stand in WTO against the USA, The Reserve Bank of India’s data localisation order and Price caps on medical devices.
8. The dialogue was schedule after Indian PM visited Washington in 2017, however it couldn’t formalized then due to busy schedules of all 4 principals and Former Secretary of State of USA got fired.
9. What achievement are expected from the Dialogue:
- Progress in discussion on defence procurement ranging from missile systems (NASAMS-II) to helicopters (24 Sikorsky MH-60 Romeo maritime helicopters) to drones (predator-B).
- Communications Compatibility and Security Agreement (COMCASA) over sharing critical information.
- Talks on the US restriction on India on defence purchase from Russia.
- Setup direct hotline between defence leaders of both countries to discuss the issue of terrorism.
- Demand for India to declareJaish-e-Mohammad chief Masood Azhar a UNSC designated terrorist.
- US also looking for India support in its move against Iran though.
10. Discussion may take place in relation to those who are considering India and USA trade ties a strategic issue.
- Government to take strong measurement to check incident of Lynching.
2. Recently, fake news and rumors on social media has caused lynching of more than 20 people.
3. A panel headed by Union Home Secretary has prepared a report suggesting measures required to check the incident of Lynching and submitted to Group of Ministers (GOM).
4. Panel has sought from social media need of an act in a time bound manner.
5. Engagement with Social Media has been deepen.
6. As per the law, government can remove the objectionable content and even block the websites.
7. For non-compliance of government order, they can be prosecuted.
8. Government official has also said, FIR can be lodged if social media such as Facebook, WhatsApp, YouTube and Twitter fails to block malicious post or videos.
9. Social Media were already given a report on compliance they have to follow. They have agreed to make it better.
10. Some countries have employed NGO and volunteer group to monitor such content.
11. Portal has been created where people can report such videos and content.
12. National Crime Records Bureau (Nodal Body) will forward the report to concerned state.
13. Government has recommended to establish special task force to gather intelligence an officer in each district at the level of Superintendent of Police.
- RBI data on circulation of note currency.
2. According to RBI report more than 99% of the Rs. 500 and Rs. 1,000 notes had been returned to the central bank.
3. Total value of Rs 500 and Rs 1000 were 15.41 lakh crore before note ban and the value of such notes returned is 15.31 lakh crore.
4. Value of banknotes in circulation increased by 37.7% over the year to Rs. 18.04 lakh crore.
5. More Rs. 500 notes are pumped into the system compared to Rs. 2000.
6. Share of newly introduced Rs. 200 banknotes in the total value of banknotes is 2.1%
- India is set to get new disaster warning system.
2. India already have a tsunami warning system in place. But the new system will also keep an eye on tsunami and storm surges.
3. New system is part of a programme called O-SMART scheme (Ocean Services, Technology, Observations, Resources Modelling and Science) under Union Earth Science Ministry.
4. O-SMART is also meant to bring economic prosperity among different community in the coastal and ocean sectors, namely, fisheries, offshore industry, coastal States, defence, shipping, ports, etc.
5. Other Key Missions included in O-SMART
- Strengthening of Ocean Observations and Modelling,
- Strengthening of Ocean Services for fishermen
- Setting up marine observatories for monitoring marine pollution
- Setting up Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion Plant (OTEC) in Kavaratti
- Acquiring two coastal research vessels
- Continuation of ocean survey and exploration of minerals and living resources.
- Technology development for Deep Ocean Mining and manned submersibles.
- Setting up six desalination plants in Lakshadweep.