News: Critics have highlighted issues with Pradhan Mantri Matru Vandana Yojana (PMMVY)
About Pradhan Mantri Matru Vandana Yojana
- It is a conditional Maternity Benefit Programme launched by Ministry of Women and Child Development in 2017. It is in accordance to the National Food Security Act 2013.
- Providing partial compensation for the wage loss in terms of cash incentive.
- Improved health seeking behaviour amongst the Pregnant Women and Lactating Mothers (PW& LM).
Benefits: A cash incentive of 5000/- is provided directly to the Bank / Post Office Account of Pregnant Women and Lactating Mothers (PW&LM)
Beneficiaries: All eligible Pregnant Women and Lactating Mothers who have their pregnancy on or after 1st January 2017 for first child in family.
- Exclusion: PW&LM who are in regular employment with the Central/State Government or PSUs or those who are in receipt of similar benefits under any law.
Implementation: PMMVY is implemented using the platform of Anganwadi Services scheme of Umbrella ICDS under Ministry of Women and Child Development.
- Pradhan Mantri Surakshit Matritva Abhiyan: Launched by Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, the scheme guarantees a minimum package of antenatal care services to women in their 2nd / 3rd trimesters of pregnancy at designated government health facilities.
- Janani Suraksha Yojana: Under the scheme, eligible pregnant women are entitled for cash assistance irrespective number of children for giving birth in a government or accredited private health facility.
State Maternity Benefit Programs:
- Mamta scheme, Odisha: Rs. 5,000 per child provided to PW& LM for first two child births.
- Dr. Muthulakshmi Reddy Maternity Benefit Scheme, Tamil Nadu: financial assistance of Rs. 18,000 per child and amma nutrition kit is provided to PW&LM for the first two births.
News: The government is testing Government Instant Messaging System
- It is an instant messaging platform developed for intra and inter organisation communications amongst central and state government departments and organizations.
- It has been designed and developed by the Kerala unit of National Informatics Centre (NIC).
News: Union Home Ministry has warned states about the vulnerability of the Android operating system to a bug called ‘StrandHogg’. It is a vulnerability in Android devices that allows malware to hijack legitimate apps.
About Malware: Malware (malicious software) refers to any kind of software that is designed to cause damage to a single computer, server or computer network
Common Types of Malware:
- Bot: software programs created to automatically perform specific operations.
- Bug: flaw in software that produces an undesired outcome.
- Ransomware: malware that prevents users from accessing their system or personal files and demands ransom in order to regain access
- Rootkit: malware designed to remotely access or control a computer.
- Spyware: malware that functions by spying on user activity without their knowledge
- Trojan horse: malware that disguises itself as a normal file or program to trick users into downloading and installing malware.
- Virus: malware that is capable of copying itself and spreading to other computers.
Indian Cyber Crime Coordination Centre (I4C):
It was launched in 2018 to combat cybercrime in India. It functions under Ministry of Home Affairs. It has following seven components:
- National Cybercrime Threat Analytics Unit.
- National Cybercrime Reporting Portal.
- Platform for Joint Cybercrime Investigation Team.
- National Cybercrime Forensic Laboratory Ecosystem.
- National Cybercrime Training Centre.
- Cybercrime Ecosystem Management Unit.
- National Cyber Research and Innovation Centre.
News: Meenagnadi village panchayat, Wayanad, Kerala has taken initiative to become a carbon-neutral village
- Carbon-neutral Meenangadi project: Started in 2016, it involves afforestation programs, recycling of plastic waste, providing lower-emission cooking stoves.
- Sustainable Action for Climate Resilient Development in Majuli’ (SACReD, Majuli): it was launched by Assam government in 2016. It seeks to make Majuli, India’s first carbon neutral district by 2020.
- It refers to achieving net zero carbon emissions by having a balance between emitting carbon and absorbing carbon from the atmosphere in carbon sinks. It can be achieved through reduction in Co2 emissions and/or carbon offsetting.
- Carbon offsetting means compensating for the carbon-dioxide pollution by preventing pollution somewhere else. Example: investment in renewable energy, energy efficiency, low carbon technologies etc.
- Carbon sink is any system that absorbs more carbon than it emits. The main natural carbon sinks are soil, forests and oceans.
- Majuli, located within Brahmaputra River, is the biggest river island in the world.