9 PM Current Affairs Brief – December 7th, 2019

Ministry of Tribal affairs to Announce Achievements of ‘Prime Minister Van Dhan Yojana’

News: Ministry of Tribal affairs will announce the 100 days achievements of ‘Prime Minister Van Dhan Yojana’. The Ministry will also launch the international fashion designer Ms. Ritu Beri as Chief Design Consultant for TRIFED to promote tribal arts & culture.


About Prime Minister Van Dhan Yojana

  • Pradhan Mantri Van Dhan Yojana (PMVDY) is a Market Linked Tribal Entrepreneurship Development Program. It was launched in 2018. It is a scheme of Ministry of Tribal Affairs.
  • Aim: It aims to help tribals in optimum utilization of natural resources and provide sustainable Minor Forest Produce (MFP)-based livelihood. It seeks to help increase tribal income through value addition of MFP centric products
  • Implementation of the Scheme:
    • The scheme is implemented through Ministry of Tribal Affairs as Nodal Department at the Central Level. TRIFED acts as the Nodal Agency at the National Level.
    • Under the scheme, Van Dhan Vikas Kendras are set up. These centres cater to 10 Self Help Groups of and each group consist thirty tribal gathers. They are trained and provided with working capital to add value to the products, which they collect from the jungle. The first Van Dhan Vikas Kendra was set up in Chhattisgarh.
    • These SHGs can then market their products within and outside the States through retail network. Training and technical support is provided by TRIFED.

Additional Information:

Minor Forest Produce:

  • Scheduled Tribes and Other Traditional Forest Dwellers (Recognition of Forest Rights) Act, 2006 defines minor forest produce as all non-timber forest produce of plant origin.
  • These include bamboo, brushwood, stumps, canes, cocoon, honey, waxes, Lac, tendu leaves, medicinal plants and herbs, roots, etc.

Tribal Cooperative Marketing Development Federation of India (TRIFED)

  • It was established in 1987. It functions under the administrative control of Ministry of Tribal affairs.
  • The basic objective of the TRIFED is to provide good price to the products made or collected from the forest by the tribal people

Fit India Plogging Run

News: Ministry of Youth Affairs and Sports has announced Ripu Daman Bevli as Plogging Ambassador of India.


About Fit India Plogging Run:

  • Fit India Plogging Run is a part of the Fit India Movement. It was launched on October 2, 2019. Plog Run is a unique way of picking up garbage while jogging.
  • Fit India Plogging Run combines the Fit India Movement and Swachh Bharat Abhiyan.

About Fit India Movement

  • It is a nation-wide campaign which aims to encourage people to inculcate physical activity and sports in their everyday live. It is implemented by Ministry of Youth Affairs and Sports.
  • It was launched by the Prime Minister on the occasion of National Sports day in 2019. National Sports Day is celebrated on 29th August every year to mark the birth anniversary of legendary hockey player Major Dhyan Chand.
  • A 28 member committee head by Union Sports Minister and comprising of government officials, members of Indian Olympic Association (IOA), national sports federations, private bodies and fitness promoters advises the government on the Fit India Movement.

Additional Information:

About Swachh Bharat Mission:

  • It is a nationwide cleanliness campaign initiated by Govt. of India on 2nd October 2014.
  • Aim: It sought to achieve a Clean India by 2019, as a tribute to the 150th Birth Anniversary of Mahatma Gandhi.
  • Objectives:
    • Eliminate open defecation
    • Conversion of insanitary toilets to pour flush toilets,
    • Eradication of manual scavenging,
    • 100% collection and scientific processing/disposal reuse/recycle of Municipal Solid Waste,
    • To bring about a behavioural change in people regarding healthy sanitation practices,
    • Generate awareness among the citizens about sanitation and its linkages with public health.
    • Strengthening of urban local bodies to design, execute and operate systems,
    • To create enabling environment for private sector participation in Capital Expenditure and Operation & Maintenance (O&M) costs.
  • Components:
    • Construction of Household Toilets,
    • Community and Public Toilets
    • Solid Waste Management
    • Information, Education & Communication (IEC) and Public Awareness,
    • Capacity Building and Administrative & Office Expenses (A&OE).
  • Sub-Missions:
  • Swachh Bharat Mission (Gramin): It aims to improve the levels of cleanliness in rural areas through Solid and Liquid Waste Management activities and making villages Open Defecation Free (ODF) and clean. It is implemented by Department of Drinking Water and Sanitation, Jal Shakti Ministry
  • Swachh Bharat Mission (Urban): It aims at elimination of open defecation, conversion of unsanitary toilets to pour flush toilets, eradication of manual scavenging, municipal solid waste management and bringing about a behavioural change in people regarding healthy sanitation practices. It is implemented by Ministry of Housing and Urban Affairs.

Planet orbiting white dwarf star is a breakthrough discovery

News: Astronomers from the University of Warwick’s Department of Physics and the Millennium Nucleus for Planet Formation (NPF) at the University of Valparaiso have found the first ever evidence of a planet orbiting a dead white dwarf star.


  • The star, WDJ0914+1914, was identified in a survey of 10,000 white dwarfs observed by the Sloan Digital Sky Survey.
  • The star is round 2000 light years away from Earth.
  • The planet orbits the white dwarf every ten days, and cannot be seen directly. The evidence is in the form of a disc of gas (hydrogen, oxygen and sulphur) formed from its evaporating atmosphere.

Additional Information:

White Dwarf Stars:

  • Stars like the Sun fuse hydrogen in their cores into helium. White dwarfs are stars that have burned up all of the hydrogen they once used as nuclear fuel.
  • Fusion in a star’s core produces heat and outward pressure. This pressure is kept in balance by the inward push of gravity generated by a star’s mass. When the hydrogen used as fuel vanishes, and fusion slows, gravity causes the star to collapse in on itself, thus forming a white dwarf star.
  • White dwarfs typically have a radius just .01 times that of the Sun in our Solar System, but their mass is about the same as the Sun.

India has one of the highest unemployment rates in women

News: According to the OECD Economic Survey of India report, India is one of the worst countries for working women.


  • According to the report, India has the largest difference between employment rates of women and men among OECD nations at 52%. India is followed by Turkey.
  • The employment gap between women and men is highest 15 to 29 years bracket

Additional Information:

Steps taken by Indian Government to encourage women participation in workforce:

Constitutional Provision:

Article 16: Equality of opportunity for all citizens in matters relating to employment or appointment to any office under the State.

  1. Support to Training and Employment Programme for Women (STEP): The scheme aims to provide skills that give employability to women and to provide competencies and skill that enable women to become self-employed/entrepreneurs.
  2. Scheme for Working Women Hostel: The scheme aims to promote availability of safe and conveniently located accommodation for working women, with day acre facility for children, at places where employment opportunities for women exist
  3. Mahila E-Haat: It is a direct online marketing platform leveraging technology for supporting women entrepreneurs/SHGs/ NGOs for showcasing their products / services.
  4. Rajiv Gandhi National Creche Scheme for Children of Working Mothers: It seeks to provide day care facilities for children (0-6 years) of working mothers.
  5. Equal Remuneration Act, 1973: provides for payment of equal remuneration to men and women workers for the same work of similar nature without any discrimination.
  6. Indira Gandhi Matritva Sahyog Yojana (IGMSY) Scheme: It provides cash incentives to pregnant and nursing mothers to partly compensate wage loss both prior to and after delivery.
  7. Maternity Benefit (Amendment) Act, 2017: It provides for enhancement in paid maternity leave from 12 weeks to 26 weeks and provisions for mandatory crèche facility in the establishments having 50 or more employees. However, the provisions have largely been responsible for low hiring women in formal sectors especially in start-ups and SMEs
  8. The Sexual Harassment of Women at Workplace (Prevention, Prohibition and Redressal) Act, 2013: It seeks to protect women against sexual harassment at all workplaces both in public and private sector, whether organised or unorganised
  9. Skills for Employability: The Government has been providing training to women through a network of Women Industrial Training institutes, National Vocational Training Institutes and Regional Vocational Training Institutes.
  10. The government has also prioritized women in many schemes such as MUDRA scheme, STAND UP India, etc to boost women employment.

About OECD:

  • The Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development(OECD) is an intergovernmental economic organisation with 36 member countries
  • It was founded in 1961 to stimulate economic progress and world trade. It is headquartered in Paris, France.
  • It works to build better policies for better lives. Its goal is also to shape policies that foster prosperity, equality, opportunity and well-being for all.
  • India is not a member of OECD but has been a key economic partner.

Kyoto protocol’s Adaptation Fund:

About Adaptation Fund

  • The Adaptation Fund was set up in 2001 under the Kyoto Protocol.
  • It seeks to finance projects and programmes in developing countries to adapt to the harmful effects of climate change.
  • The Adaptation Fund is financed by a 2% levy on certified emission reduction (CERs) issued by the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM).

Additional Information:

Types of Climate Funds

Global Environment Facility (GEF)

  • It was established in 1992 during the Rio Earth Summit. It is headquartered in Washington DC, USA.
  • GEF funds are available to developing countries and countries with economies in transition to meet the objectives of the international environmental conventions and agreements.
  • The World Bank serves as the GEF Trustee, administering the GEF Trust Fund (contributions by donors)

Green Climate Fund:

  • It was set up by the parties to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) in 2010, as part of the UNFCC’s financial mechanism.
  • GCF helps developing countries limit or reduce their greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and adapt to climate change.

Special Climate Change Fund (SCCF):

  • It was established under the UNFCC in 2001. The Global Environment Facility operates the SCCF.
  • It finances projects relating to: adaptation; technology transfer and capacity building; energy, transport, industry, agriculture, forestry and waste management; and economic diversification.

Least Developed Countries Fund (LDCF):

  • It was established under the UNFCC in 2001. It is administered by the Global Environment Facility.
  • The LDCF aims to address the needs of the 48 LDCs which are particularly vulnerable to the adverse impacts of climate change.

About Kyoto Protocol:

  • The Kyoto Protocol is an international agreement linked to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. It aimed to achieve a legally binding emissions reduction by industrialised countries. 
  • The Kyoto Protocol was adopted in Kyoto, Japan, in 1997 and entered into force in 2005.

Key elements of Kyoto Protocol: 

1. Target-

  • Reduction of collective Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions by 5.2% from the 1990 level by 2012. This is known as the “first commitment period”
  • Second commitment period (2013-2020) to reduce emissions by 18% was adopted by the Doha Amendment (2012)

2. Approach: Equity and Common but differentiated responsibilities and respective capabilities (CBDR) – Legally binding targets for 39 developed countries. No legally binding targets for developing countries.

3. Mechanisms:

  • Clean Development Mechanism:
  • CDM allows emission-reduction projects in developing countries to earn certified emission reduction (CER) credits, each equivalent to one tonne of CO2.
  • These CERs can be traded and sold, and used by industrialized countries to a meet a part of their emission reduction targets under the Kyoto Protocol.
  • Joint implementation: It enables developed countries to carry out emission reduction or removal enhancement projects in other developed countries.
  • Emission trading: It allows countries that have emission units (carbon dioxide) to spare (emissions permitted to them but not “used”) to sell this excess capacity to countries that are over their targets.

Carbon Markets


Carbon Market: It is a term used for a trading system through which countries may buy or sell units of CO2 emissions in an effort to meet their national limits on emissions.

Carbon markets under Kyoto Protocol:

Under the Kyoto Protocol, three carbon markets were established. The aim was to reduce greenhouse gas emissions cost-effectively by setting limits on emissions and enabling the trading of emission units.

  • Clean Development Mechanism:
  • CDM allows emission-reduction projects in developing countries to earn certified emission reduction (CER) credits, each equivalent to one tonne of CO2.
  • These CERs can be traded and sold, and used by industrialized countries to a meet a part of their emission reduction targets under the Kyoto Protocol.
  • Joint implementation: It enables developed countries to carry out emission reduction or removal enhancement projects in other developed countries. This allows developed countries to earn emission reduction units (ERUs) each equivalent to one tonne of CO2.
  • Emission trading: It allows countries that have emission units (carbon dioxide) to spare (emissions permitted to them but not “used”) to sell this excess capacity to countries that are over their targets.

Carbon Market under Paris Agreement:

  • Article 6 of the Paris Agreement established the Sustainable Development Mechanism (SDM) as a new carbon market instrument for the period after 2020.
  • It aims to deliver an overall mitigation in global emissions. It seeks to achieve twin objectives of limiting global warming to 1.5 degrees, and the Sustainable Development Goals laid out in the UN 2030 Agenda.
  • The Article 6 puts forward two different approaches for carbon trading:
    • Article 6.2 enables bilateral arrangements for transfer of emissions reductions, while ensuring that they do not double-count the reductions.
    • Article 6.4 talks about a wider carbon market in which reductions can be bought and sold by anyone

Additional Information:

Market based Initiatives in India:

Perform Achieve and Trade (PAT) initiative:

  • It is a flagship programme of Bureau of Energy Efficiency under the National Mission for Enhanced Energy Efficiency (NMEEE). It was launched in 2012 by the Ministry of Power.
  • The scheme provides the option to trade any additional certified energy savings with other designated consumers to comply with the Specific Energy Consumption reduction targets.

Renewable Energy Certificate (REC) trading system

  • It was launched in 2010. Its primary purpose is to promote renewable energy. The Ministry of Power regulates the REC mechanism. The Central Electricity Regulatory Commission (CERC) is the federal authority which administers the REC scheme.
  • Under Energy Act-2003, the country’s State Electricity Regulatory Commissions (SERCs) set targets for power companies to purchase a certain percentage of their total power from renewable sources. These targets are called Renewable Purchase Obligations (RPOs).
  • To comply with their RPOs or profit from a surplus of RECs, covered entities may trade RECs either within or across states.

Gujarat’s Emissions Trading Scheme (ETS) for trading in Particulate Matter (PM) emissions:

  • It was launched in 2019. The programme aims to reduce particulate air pollution and facilitate robust economic growth. It is the first in the world to regulate particulate air pollution.
  • Under the programme, the government sets a cap on emissions and allow industries to buy and sell permits to stay below the cap.
  • The Gujarat state pollution control board (GPCB) will define the total mass of pollution that can be released into the air over a certain fixed period by all industrial units together. This will be equivalent to the cap.

After Mallya, Nirav Modi: Who is a ‘fugitive economic offender’?

News:Recently,thespecial Prevention of Money Laundering Act (PMLA) court has declared Nirav Modi as a fugitive economic offender (FEO) under Fugitive Economic Offenders Act,2018.


About Fugitive Economic Offenders Act,2018:

  • Indian Parliament had passed the Fugitive Economic Offenders Act in 2018.
  • The act seeks to confiscate properties and assets of economic offenders that evade prosecution by remaining outside the jurisdiction of Indian courts.
  • The act defines FEO as an individual (a)who has committed offences involving an amount of 100 crore rupees or more and (b)has run away from India to avoid criminal prosecution.
  • A special court has been established under the Prevention of Money laundering Act,2002 to declare a person as a Fugitive Economic Offender.
  • The Special courts can direct the Central government to seize assets of fugitive economic offender including those that are proceeds of the crime.
  • Further,the appeals against the orders of the special court will lie before the High Court.

Additional information:

About Money laundering:

  • Money laundering is the process by which large amounts of illegally received money is given the appearance of having originated from a legitimate source.
  • In India,the money laundering is regulated by the Prevention of Money Laundering Act 2002(PMLA) which came into force in 2005.
  • The act defines money laundering offence and provides for the freezing, seizure and confiscation of the proceeds of crime.
  • The provisions of this act are applicable to all financial institutions like banks, mutual funds, insurance companies, and their financial intermediaries.
  • The act was amended thrice, first in 2005, then in 2009 and 2012. PMLA(Amendment) Act, 2012 has enlarged the definition of money laundering by including activities such as concealment, acquisition, possession and use of proceeds of crime as criminal activities.

Draft National Logistic Policy

News:Minister of Commerce and Industry has informed Lok Sabha about the Draft National Logistics policy.


About Draft National Logistics policy:

  • The Draft National Logistics policy has been prepared by the Ministry of Commerce and Industry in consultation with the Ministries of Railways, Road Transport and Highways,Shipping and Civil Aviation.
  • The aim of the policy is to reduce the logistics cost from the present 14% of GDP to less than 10% by 2022.
  • The policy also aims at promoting seamless movement of goods across the country and reducing high transaction cost of traders.
  • It also focuses on increasing the warehousing capacity and identify gaps that could be bridged to bring down the cost of logistics for traders. 
  • The policy also envisages setting up of a central portal which will provide end-to-end logistics solutions to companies.The portal will be a single window marketplace to link all stakeholders. 
  • The policy is also aimed at simplification of documentation for exports/ imports and drive transparency through digitisation of processes involving customs, in regulatory, certification and compliance services.

Additional information:

About India’s logistics sector: 

  • The Indian logistics sector provides livelihood to more than 22 million people and improving the sector will facilitate 10 % decrease in indirect logistics cost leading to the growth of 5-8% in exports.
  • The worth of Indian logistics market would be around USD 215 billion in the next two years compared to about USD 160 billion currently.
  • However,India’s logistics sector is highly defragmented and complex with involvement of more than 20 government agencies,37 export promotion councils, 200 shipping agencies and 36 logistic services.

Explained: What is Blue Water Force?

News:Recently,Indian Defence minister has said that the Indian Navy is the Formidable Blue Water Force.


Classification of Navy:The Navies are classified in terms of the following colours:

  • A navy whose operations are restricted close to the shore where the water is muddy, is called a Brown Water Force. 
  • A navy that can go farther out is called a Green Water Force and then Blue Water Force 

About Blue water force:

  • A Blue Water force is one that has the capacity to project itself over a much bigger maritime area than its maritime borders.It means that the navy can go into the vast, deep oceans of the world. 
  • However,while most navies have the capacity to send ships into the deep oceans,a Blue Water Force is able to carry out operations far from its borders without being required to return to its home port to refuel or re-stock.
  • Since,the Indian Navy has the capacity to carry distant operations at or from the sea up to considerable distance from national shore bases,it qualifies as a Blue Water Force.

Explained:What Palestine-India techno park says of relationship between the two countries

News:Recently,India has released the third tranche of funding worth $3 million for the construction of a Palestine-India Techno Park.


About Palestine-India Techno Park:

  • The Palestine-India Techno Parkwas establishedto create a business environment that will enable knowledge-based and creative enterprises as well as technology clusters to successfully operate locally, regionally and globally.
  • The park will be located next to the Birzeit University Academic Campus, Palestine.
  • The objectives of the park include (a)establishing an environment that is accessible to industry (b)supporting the process of commercialisation and industrialisation (c)supporting entrepreneurship and (d)bridging the knowledge gap between the private sector and academia.
  • Once completed,the Technopark will serve as an IT hub in Palestine with complete IT facilities offering a one-stop solution to all IT-related service requirements, providing state-of-the-art technology.

India and Palestine Relations:

  • In 1974,India became the first non-Arab state to recognise the Palestine Liberation Organisation(PLO) as the sole legitimate representative of the Palestinian people.
  • In 1988, India was one of the first countries to recognise the state of Palestine after the Palestinian National Congress declared independence. 
  • At that time,India maintained its support for the two-state solution and championed a sovereign, independent, united Palestine with its capital in East Jerusalem.
  • In 1996,India opened its Representative Office to the State of Palestine in Gaza which was shifted to Ramallah in 2003. 
  • In July 2017, Indian Prime Minister Narendra Modi became the first Indian Prime Minister to visit Palestine.
  • The trade between India and Palestine stands at roughly US $40 million and spans automotive spare parts, medical tourism, agro-products, textiles, agro-chemicals and pharmaceuticals among others.
  • Hence,India’s ties with Israel and Palestine have been more or less balanced.India fully established diplomatic relations with Israel in 1992. Defence and agriculture have formed the main pillars of India-Israel relationship.

ISRO Sets Up Space Technology Cells In IITs, IISc And Other Colleges

News:The Indian Space Research Organization has decided to set up five Space Technology Cells at the premier institutes in order to carry out research activities.


About Space Technology Cells:

  • The Space Technology cells are being established under the RESPOND Programme.The Technology cells will consist of professors and scholars associated with the institute. 
  • Under the programme,the experts will conduct space technology research and applications.
  • Currently,the ISRO has already set up Space Technology Cells(STC) at premier institutions like IIT Bombay, Kanpur, Kharagpur and Madras, IISc ,Bengaluru and Joint Research Programme with Savitribai Phule Pune University(SPPU).

Additional information:

About RESPOND Programme:

  • ISRO had started the RESPOND (Sponsored Research) programme in the 1970s.
  • The objective of  the programme is to encourage academia to participate and contribute in various Space related research activities. 
  • Under the programme,projects are taken up by Universities/Academic Institutions in the areas of relevance to Space Programme.
  • ISRO helps these institutions to establish the necessary technical facilities and also provide fellowships to researchers to work on cutting edge research topics.
  • The programme is mutually beneficial to both ISRO and Academia wherein the rich talent of Academia/ faculty is being harnessed to support the Nation’s Space programme.

Audit for FDI norms must for e-com firms

News:The government has issued new rules that makes it compulsory for e-commerce companies with foreign investments to submit an audit report every year.


About the new rules:

  • The rules will be applicable on E-commerce companies with foreign investments such as Amazon, Flipkart among others.
  • These companies have to submit a report prepared by statutory auditors, by September 30 every year.
  • They have to show that they have been in compliance with the foreign direct investment(FDI) rules for the e-commerce sector.

About the FDI Rules for E-commerce companies:In 2018,Government of India had announced the FDI rules for ecommerce companies which were:

  • If an entity is owned by an e-commerce marketplace(ECM),it cannot sell its products on the platform run by the same ECM 
  • A single vendor can’t account for more than 25% of sales in an ECM or platform and 
  • The rules puts curbs on exclusive partnerships with brands or providing favorable services to a few vendors.

Significance of these rules:

  • These rules were directed at protecting small vendors on e-commerce websites.
  • It seeks to ensure small players selling on the portals are not discriminated against in favour of vendors in which e-commerce companies have a stake.
  • It will also ensure a level playing field for all vendors looking to sell on the e-commerce portals.

OPEC countries, Russia to cut oil output, pushing up prices

News:The Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries(OPEC) and Russia has reached a deal deepening their output cuts.This deal is aimed at reducing surplus oil and to bolster crude prices.


About OPEC:

  • The Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries(OPEC) is a permanent, intergovernmental Organization.
  • It was created at the Baghdad Conference in 1960 by Iran, Iraq, Kuwait, Saudi Arabia and Venezuela.It has its headquarters in Vienna, Austria.
  • OPEC aims to manage the supply of oil in an effort to set the price of oil on the world market and to avoid fluctuations that might affect the economies of both producing and purchasing countries.
  • According to its statutes,OPEC membership is open to any country that is a substantial exporter of oil and which shares the ideals of the organization.
  • The current OPEC members are: (a)Algeria (b)Angola (c)Ecuador (d)Equatorial Guinea (e)Gabon (f)Iran (g)Iraq (h)Kuwait, (I)Libya (j)Nigeria (k)the Republic of the Congo (l)Saudi Arabia (j)United Arab Emirates and (k)Venezuela.

Additional information:

India’s Dependence on Oil:

  • India is the world’s third largest oil importer.It imports over 80 percent of oil requirements.
  • Saudi Arabia has traditionally been India’s top oil source but it was for the first time dethroned by Iraq in the 2017-18 fiscal year.
  • With its high dependence on imports,India has remained vulnerable to volatility in the global crude oil market.
  • However,India has been reducing its dependence on the OPEC countries.It has diversified its sources by increasing its shipments from the US.
  • Further,the government is also focusing on measures like increasing domestic production, promoting the use of bio fuel and energy conservation to reduce dependence on imported crude oil.

India’s first HAM project in sewerage sector

News:India’s first Hybrid annuity model(HAM) in sewerage sector,a Sewage Treatment Plant (STP) was inaugurated in Sarai,Haridwar.


About the Sarai Sewage Plant Project:

  • The Plant is based on advanced aerobic biological process Sequential Batch Reactor(SBR) process.
  • The project has been built under the Namami Gange project of National Mission for Clean Ganga(NMCG).
  • The project is capable of removing the nutrients during treatment and is a 100% eco-friendly project.It will meet the highest standards of output parameters.
  • The plant will be maintained and operated for a period of 15 years by the same developer for efficient performance and for meeting output parameters.
  • It will bring substantial improvement in the quality of water of the river Ganga in Uttarakhand.

Additional information:

About Sequential Batch Reactor(SBR):

  • Sequencing batch reactors(SBR) or sequential batch reactors are a type of activated sludge process for the treatment of wastewater. 
  • The reactor treat wastewater such as sewage or output from anaerobic digesters or mechanical biological treatment facilities in batches. 
  • Oxygen is bubbled through the mixture of wastewater and activated sludge to reduce the organic matter measured as biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) and chemical oxygen demand(COD). 
  • The treated effluent may be suitable for discharge to surface waters or possibly for use on land.

About National Mission for Clean Ganga (NMCG)

  • It has been established as an Authority under National Council for River Ganga (Rejuvenation, Protection and Management) Act, 2016.
  • It is the implementing agency of the Namami Gange Programme at the national level.

About Namami Gange programme:

  • The Namami Gange was launched in 2015.It is an Integrated Conservation Mission which seeks effective abatement of pollution, conservation and rejuvenation of River Ganga.
  • The main pillars of Namami Gange Programme are (a) Sewerage Treatment Infrastructure, (b) River-Surface Cleaning, (c) Afforestation,  (d) Industrial Effluent Monitoring, (e) River-Front Development, (f) Biodiversity, (g) Ganga Gram and (h) Public Awareness.

About Hybrid Annuity model(HAM):

  • Hybrid annuity model is a combination of Engineering, Procurement and Construction(EPC) and Build,Operate,Transfer(BOT) models.
  • Under the EPC model,the government pays private players to lay roads.The private player has no role in the road’s ownership,toll collection or maintenance.
  • Under the BOT model,private players have an active role.They build, operate and maintain the road for a specified number of years, before transferring the asset back to the government.The toll revenue collection arrangement is known as BOT-Annuity.
  • Under the Hybrid annuity model,the government will provide 40% of the project cost to the developer to start work while the remaining 60% of the investment has to be made by the developer.

Advantages of Hybrid Annuity model:

  • Private player has to arrange for only 60% of project cost.The exposure and risk reduces for the private player.
  • Government will also benefits as it gets an opportunity to flag off projects by investing a portion of the project cost.
  • All regulatory clearances risk, compensation risk and traffic risk is borne by government.Hence,private player will have minimal risk.
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