Mains Test Series

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‘Access to Aadhaar database will help solve cases faster’


  1. National crime Records Bureau (NCRB) requested the government to provide limited access to Aadhar database.

Important facts

2. In India fingerprint experts are able to visit just 1% of all registered cases.

3. The reason is many states do not have adequate fingerprint cadre strength nor do they have the proper equipment.

4. This led to demand for limited access to access to aadhar database which helps

  • Investigating agencies in conducting probe into inter-State criminals more effectively and timely with the help of fingerprint.
  • 80%-85% of the criminals are first time offenders, who are not in police records. Aadhar data will help to nab criminals by tallying the collected fingerprints.
  • To identify the unidentified body recovered by police and handed over to their relatives

5. Secondly, NCRB demanded Ministry of Home Affairs to modernise all the State Finger Print Bureaus so that experts could at least visit 10% of the scenes of crime.

6. Thirdly, NCRB demanded the amendment to the Identification of Prisoners Act, 1920, so that other modern biometrics such as iris, veins, signature and voice could also be captured.

7. Fourthly, NCRB emphasised the need for National Automated Fingerprint Identification System (NAFIS).

  • Current Automated Fingerprint Identification System (AFIS) which was developed in 1992, has only 11.5 lakh fingerprint database.
  • When state database is included it reach to a tally of 50 lakhs

8. In first phase NAFIS can be linked to 850-odd police district headquarters and commissionerates from where a search query could be sent to the National Database

  • FBI has 50-million fingerprint database.

9. In second phase NAFIS can be linked to 15600 police station across the country so that a police constable on patrolling duty, or at a naaka can send the query and check the incidents of any suspect.

10. In third stage when database is ready, Artificial Intelligence can be used as a data analytic tools by which one can analyse the data and see whether an offender has a criminal record in other states too.


A Bill that is causing worry


  1. Citizenship (Amendment) Bill, 2016, is not tabled in upcoming parliament monsoon session.

Important Facts

2. The delay is due to holding of wider consultation by Joint Parliamentary Committee before reaching to a conclusion.

3. About the bill

  • The Bill was introduced in July 2016, and referred to a parliamentary committee.
  • The Bill’s objective is to remove the tag of ‘illegal migrants’ from members of minority communities (Hindus, Sikhs, Buddhists, Jains, Christians and Parsis) from Pakistan, Bangladesh and Afghanistan, who have entered the country without legal documentation or whose documents have expired
  • The amendment will not cover Muslims, who form the majority in these three countries.

4. The main idea behind the bill is to make these migrants eligible to apply for Indian Citizenship by Naturalization

  • Naturalisation requires applicants to have stayed in the country for 11 years of the previous 14 years, and throughout the last 12 months.
  • The proposed amendment reduces the residency requirement to six years, besides the last 12 months.

5. Opposition to the Bill is strong in Assam, where there is fear that non-Muslim migrants from Bangladesh will become Indian citizens.

6. There is also an apprehension that this would be in conflict with the ongoing exercise to update the National Register of Citizens in Assam, for which the cut-off date is March 24, 1971.

7. Another feature of the proposed amendment is that it enables cancellation of the registration of any Overseas Citizen of India cardholder for violation of Indian law.


GS- 3

World’s hungry population on the rise again, says UN report


  1. According to the UN’s Sustainable Development Goals 2018 report the number of hungry people in the world has risen

Important facts

2. The number of hungry people in the world has risen for the first time in more than a decade.

3. Key factors for rise

  • Conflict
  • drought and
  • disasters linked to climate change

4. Other finding in report

  • Conflict is main driver of food security. It also led to forced displacement of 68.5 million people in 2017.
  • Economic losses due to climatic disaster was over $300billion.
  • In south asia, risk of girl’s child marriage dropped by 40% from 2000 to 2017
  • Water stress level in many countries of South Asia is above 70%
  • 90% of urban population globally are breathing polluted air. South Asia region are worst performer
  • The report appreciate the efforts taken towards electricity and sanitation in South Asia, but they are still inadequate.

5. UN Secretary General Antonio Guterres in the foreword to the report suggests for accelerated actions by countries along with collaborative partnerships among governments and stakeholders at all levels to achieve the goal of SDG 2030.


Dangerous spiral


  1. India is the latest to join the global trade war.

Important Facts

  1. India impose tariffs as high as 50% on a list of 30 goods imported from the U.S.
  2. India’s notification to the WTO says that U.S. tariffs on steel and aluminium would cost India $241 million.
  3. The tariffs imposed on the U.S. is in proportion to these amount.
  4. India has also indicated its preference to deal with the issue through dialogue, and not “measures and counter-measures”.
  5. Global trade war start with the imposition of tariff by US to discourage the import of steel and aluminum into the country.
  6. In retaliation China and EU also impose tariff
  • In total US impose tariff on $450b of Chinese goods
  • China impose tariff on $50b of US goods
  • EU impose tariff on $3.3b of US goods
  1. The threat of trade war is also visible in global trade market.
  2. During G-7 summit US rejected the idea of “rule based trading system”
  3. In last, global powers must try to end the ongoing trade war before it gets out of hand.
  4. The longer it goes on, the greater the cost as growth slows down under increasing burden of taxes.


SEBI eases norms for share buy-backs, IPOs


  1. The Securities and Exchange Board of India (SEBI) has amended the rules related to public issues, takeovers and buy-backs based on feedback received from various market participants.

Important facts

2. Proposed changes for IPO

  • Give companies more time for the upward revision of open offer price and to announce the price band for an initial public offer (IPO).
  • A company can now announce the price band two days before the opening day of IPO instead of the earlier requirement of five days.
  • Financial disclosures now need to be mentioned only for three years instead of five
  • Companies making a rights issue have to submit a draft document only if the issue size is more than ₹10 crore. Currently, the threshold limit in such cases is ₹50 lakh.
  • Disclosure requirements related to group companies have been made more specific in the SEBI (Issue of Capital and Disclosure Requirements) Regulations.

3. For IPO’s by SME

  • The minimum anchor investor size has been reduced to ₹2 crore from the existing ₹10 crore.
  • Insurance companies and foreign portfolio investors have been allowed to participate as anchor investors in main board IPOs.
  • The regulator has also brought parity in terms of shareholding limits for domestic and foreign entities in stock exchanges, clearing corporations and depositories.
    • This would allow eligible foreign and domestic entities to hold up to 15% stake in such market institutions. Until now, only a select set of investors were allowed to hold 15% stake in exchanges and depositories.
  • Amend the norms related to the tenure and directorships of managing directors and public interest directors (PID) of SMEs.
    • A person can serve as the MD for two terms of five years each or up to 65 years of age.
    • For a PID moving from one market institution to another a one-year cooling period would be mandatory.

4. SEBI will also release new norms for enhanced monitoring and supervision of market intermediaries, especially registrar and transfer agents (RTA).

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