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- India-US Relations
- Non-alignment in multipolar framework
- Buffer Stocks
9 PM for Preliminary examination
1. India-US Relations
Source: Indian Express
Syllabus: Gs2: Effect of Policies and Politics of Developed and Developing Countries on India’s interests, Indian Diaspora
Context: A look at how India-U. S bilateral relationship has evolved during the tenure of different U.S Presidents and its highs and lows.
More in News
- The Indian diaspora being one of the most successful expatriate communities in U.S wants a closer bonding between India and U.S
- In 2020,India-U. S bilateral ties have grown in recent years on account of China’s aggressive behaviour.
How India-U. S relation evolved over the years?
India-U. S relations were at all time high during John F Kennedy and George W Bush administration:
John F Kennedy, in the 1960s:
- Kennedy was a firm supporter of India in positioning India as a democratic counterweight to a totalitarian China in Asia in the 1960s
- Even Kennedy had proposed an equivalent of a “Marshall Plan” for India funded by NATO allies and Japan to help India win the race against China.
- During his tenure, India received unprecedented economic assistance, and military aid during the 1962 Sino-India war
- Kennedy also played a role, in restraining President Ayub Khan of Pakistan from opening a second front against India during the Sino-Indian war
- The US-India relationship may have taken a different course during the difficult 1960s and 1970s had Kennedy not been assassinated in 1963, and Nehru not died in 1964.
George W Bush, in the 2000s
- He ensured the success of the nuclear deal between India and the United States. The agreement mainstreamed India’s nuclear programme.
Worst phase of India’s relations with the US was during Richard Nixon and Clinton administration
Richard Nixon in the 1970s:
- Nixon administration was well known for the pro-Pakistan tilt in the 1970s.
- During this period India departed from its Non-Aligned posture, signed the 1971 Indo-Soviet treaty as a response to the continuing US tilt towards Pakistan and the beginnings of a Washington-Beijing alliance
Clinton years in the 1990s:
- The Clinton years witnessed dip in India and the US bilateral relations.
- India was pressurised to “freeze, rollback and eliminate” its nuclear programme and to settle Kashmir dispute with Pakistan.
- The U.S administration, even questioned Jammu and Kashmir’s accession to India.
American Presidents can make a real difference to bilateral ties, including on trade, on immigration policies, and larger strategic issues. The upcoming US Presidential election (Biden vs. Trump) has enormous significance to India.
2. Non-alignment in multipolar framework
Source- The Indian Express
Syllabus- GS 2 – Important International institutions, agencies and fora- their structure, mandate.
.Context- India can play a constructive role in evolving a multipolar and just world order
What are the different phases of world order?
India’s advocacy for autonomy (& non-alignment) in making foreign policy choices in world order over decades.
- Bipolar(1947 to 1991) – Era of Cold War where world was divided in two camps one headed by USA and other headed by erstwhile USSR.
- During this phase India adhered to the principle of Non Alignment.
- Unipolar(1991 to 2008) – With disintegration of USSR, USA became the sole super power.
- In this phase India reached out to engage with US, Israel and ASEAN countries more intensively.
- Multipolarat present times where there are big powers and several middle powers.
- In this phase of transitional geopolitics, India’s policy of Non-Alignment has turned into Multi Alignment.
What are the reasons for India to rethink its approach to Strategic autonomy?
- Rise of China-
- China as the workshop of the world made many established western powers insecure of their status.
- Trade war– This has resulted in a trade and strategic war between China and the US, without caring for the real interests of the people and environment, which will tend to have disastrous consequences for most of the world and global population.
- Indo-China conflict– The tension at the Western Sector of the India-China border claimed lives from both sides and exposed the unresolved conflicts between the two neighboring Asian giants.
- Annexation of West Bank – Donald Trump backed Israel’s plan at annexing the West Bank is the newest in a long series of forcing dispossession and stateless on Palestinians.
These issues have brought the discussion around global power dynamics to the fore even when the world population is gripped with disease, sorrow, trauma and mass unemployment.
What is the significance of Indian foreign policy?
- India’s priorities have tilted towards the US and the neoliberal framework.
- Increasing risk– The US is trying to drag India into its conflict with China to protect the US interests in the Asia-Pacific region.
- Impact other interests– The trade deals done to please the US have resulted in the loss of livelihood, agricultural land, opportunities and hard-won labor rights of Indian working classes.
What are the needs of current situation?
- Global need-
- The world needs today are international relations based on the principles of mutual respect, concern and cooperation and population involvement.
- To come together to build public health and education infrastructure.
- Revival of Non-alignment–
- India should reject both the unipolarity of the 1990s and the bipolarity of the current system dominated by the US and China.
- India should live up to its independent non-aligned credentials and play a constructive role in evolving a more inclusive, multipolar and just world order.
- India as a Non-permanent UNSC member-India should use its UNSC chair to represent nations hitherto unrepresented or underrepresented at the high table and continues the tradition of speaking for the marginalized.
Read also:- Daily Current Affair
- India and China should engage in a meaningful dialogue to resolve the border dispute.
- India should strive to make the world more inclusive, just and sensitive to the environment.
- India pursuing an independent foreign policy is not only essential for the country or the South Asian region, it can have a bearing on deprived populations of the world.
3. Buffer Stocks
Source: Indian Express
Syllabus: Gs3: Issues of Buffer Stocks and Food Security
Context: Irregular rainfall patterns is resulting in production fluctuations of agricultural crops.
How the production fluctuation is happening?
- Unreliability of kharif crop production even in normal monsoon years:In the last two years, excess rains in a single month has damaged the standing crops including onions, pulses and soyabean leading to production losses of kharif crop.
- Bumper harvest during Rabi season: Extended monsoon rains, although not beneficial for kharif, will help recharge groundwater aquifers and thereby result in bumper production during the rabi season.
- Hence the rabi crop will increasingly impart stability to India’s agricultural output.
What are the steps taken by the government?
- Banning exports and easing imports.
- Imposing stock holding limits in onions.
- Forcing cold store owners to release potatoes deposited with them.
What is the way forward?
- With climate change and irregular rainfall patterns becoming a norm, Production fluctuations are inevitable
- The government should create a buffer stock of not just food grains, but even onion, potato, sugar, edible oil, milk powder and white butter, to enable non-distortive marketing intervention.
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