9 PM Daily Current Affairs Brief – April 13th, 2022

Dear Friends,

We have initiated some changes in the 9 PM Brief and other postings related to current affairs. What we sought to do:

  1. Ensure that all relevant facts, data, and arguments from today’s newspaper are readily available to you.
  2. We have widened the sources to provide you with content that is more than enough and adds value not just for GS but also for essay writing. Hence, the 9 PM brief now covers the following newspapers:
    1. The Hindu  
    2. Indian Express  
    3. Livemint  
    4. Business Standard  
    5. Times of India 
    6. Down To Earth
    7. PIB
  3. We have also introduced the relevance part to every article. This ensures that you know why a particular article is important.
  4. Since these changes are new, so initially the number of articles might increase, but they’ll go down over time.
  5. It is our endeavor to provide you with the best content and your feedback is essential for the same. We will be anticipating your feedback and ensure the blog serves as an optimal medium of learning for all the aspirants.
    • For previous editions of 9 PM BriefClick Here
    • For individual articles of 9 PM BriefClick Here

Current Affairs Compilations for UPSC IAS Prelims 2022

Mains Oriented Articles

GS Paper 2

GS Paper 3

Prelims Oriented Articles (Factly)

Mains Oriented Articles

GS Paper 2

HOPS as a route to universal health care

Source: This post is created based on the article “HOPS as a route to universal health care” published on 13th April 2022 in The Hindu. 

Syllabus: GS 2 – Issues relating to development and management of Social Services relating to Health. 

Context: The basic idea of Universal Health Care (UHC) is that no one should be deprived of quality healthcare for the lack of ability to pay. In the Bhore Committee report of 1946, a case was made for India to create its own National Health Service (NHS) type health care system.  

How UHC can be achieved? 

It relies on one or both of two basic approaches: public service and social insurance.  

In the first approach, health care is provided as a free public service. The second approach allows private as well as public provision of health care, but costs are mostly borne by social insurance fund(s), not the patient.  

The social insurance model allows private as well as public provision of health care. However, the costs are mostly borne by the social insurance fund(s), not the patient. Insurance is compulsory and universal, financed mainly from taxation, and run by a single non-profit agency in the public interest. For ex – Canada, Australia, and Taiwan. Other countries have multiple players, for example – Germany.  

What are the challenges? 

In the social insurance system, public service plays an essential role. There is a need for public healthcare centers to prevent wasteful expenditure.  

Another challenge is regulating private health-care providers. As they have a conflict between the profit motive and the well-being of the patient.  

In this case, the National Health Service model, it needs to have not only good management and adequate resources but also sound work culture and professional ethics. India’s public health services do not have a good record on this part.  

What can be the possible route to UHC for India today? 

It can be called “healthcare as an optional public service” (HOPS). The idea is that everyone would have a legal right to receive free, quality health care in a public institution if they wish. The public sector would guarantee decent health service to everyone as a matter of right, free of cost.  

For example – In Kerala and Tamil Nadu, most illnesses can be satisfactorily treated in the public sector.  

HOPS is not as egalitarian as the NHS or insurance model. But it would be a big step toward UHC. Social insurance can also play a limited role in covering procedures that are not easily available in the public sector. 

The main difficulty in HOPS is to specify the scope of the proposed healthcare guarantee, including quality standards.  

Way forward: 

A Right to Health Bill would be an invaluable affirmation of the State’s commitment to quality health care for all. Tamil Nadu is well placed to make HOPS a reality under its proposed Right to Health Bill.  


The process of electing India’s President

Source: This post is created based on the article “The process of electing India’s President” published on 13/April/2022 in The Hindu. 

Syllabus: GS 2 – Indian Polity 

Context: The tenure of the current President is set to end in July this year, which is also when the 16th Indian Presidential election will be held to elect his successor.  

How is the President elected?  

The Indian President is elected through an electoral college system, by proportional representation by a single transferable vote. The Elections are conducted and overseen by the Election Commission of India.  

The electoral college is based on all elected members of Parliament (MPs), and the elected members of State Legislative Assemblies and Union Territories (MLAs) 

Before voting, in the nomination stage, the candidate files nomination with a signed list of 50 proposers and 50 seconders. These can be anyone from the members of the electoral college from the State or national level. This rule was implemented by EC in 1974. An elector cannot propose or second the nomination of more than one candidate.  

What is the value of each vote, and how is it calculated?  

A vote cast by each MP or MLA is not calculated as one vote. There is a larger vote value attached to it.  

The value of each MLA’s vote is determined by dividing the population of the State by the number of MLAs in its legislative assembly, and the quotient is further divided by 1000. For example – U.P. has the highest vote value for each MLAs at 208, while Arunachal Pradesh is just 8. This population is taken from the figure of the 1971 Census (84th Amendment Act). This will change after Census 2026.  

The fixed value of each vote by an MP of Rajya Sabha and Lok Sabha is 708.  

What is required to secure a victory?  

A candidate requires a specific quota of votes to win. While counting, EC totals up all the valid votes cast through paper ballots, and to win, candidates should secure 50% +1 of the total votes cast 

The voters of the electoral college write the names of candidates on the ballot paper in the order of preference.  

What can be expected in the upcoming presidential polls? 

Vice President Venkaiah Naidu is reportedly the front-runner for the presidential race nominated by the ruling NDA, unless a second term ticket is given to Mr. Kovind.  

Opposition parties are contemplating jointly putting up a candidate for the race.  


A model struggling to deliver

Source: This post is created based on the article “A model struggling to deliver” published on 13/April/2022 in The Hindu. 

Syllabus:  GS 2 – Issues relating to development and management of Social Services relating to Education 

Context: National Education Policy, 2020, envisions universalizing Early Childhood Care and Education through Anganwadis. However, the events linked to COVID-19 led to an abrupt halt in the progress. 

What are Anganwadi Centres (AWCs)? 

AWCs fall under the Integrated Child Development Services (ICDS) Scheme. Preschool is one of the six services provided in this package. AWCs are expected to provide education through low-cost, locally sourced material that caters to the sociocultural context of mothers and children below six years.  

Have these been effective? 

Evidence on AWCs and private pre-schools indicate that neither model provides appropriate inputs for the holistic development of young children. An all-India survey of young children by ASER in 2019 found that not even half of the enrolled children between the ages of four and eight could perform age-appropriate cognitive tasks.  

The cause of the learning crisis in Anganwadis lies in the fact that they are under-resourced and overburdened. A report on the ICDS by the Ministry of Women and Child Development identifies the absence of adequate space, lack of play-based learning materials, low investments, constraints of human resource, and uneven implementation of schemes across states.  

The pandemic has further exacerbated this. In Gujarat, Haryana, Punjab, Odisha, Aganwadi workers visited homes to conduct activities with children, but these were not uniform and also placed a huge burden on workers.  

How to improve the model? 

The potential of Aganwadi is enormous. It is crucial to leverage their vast reach by filling implementation and infrastructural gaps. Such as, increasing the honorarium of Aganwadi workers, build capacity, investing in research and development of a meaningful ECE curriculum.  


When lack of data gets in the way of affirmative action

Source: The post is based on an article “Information inadequacies should not hamper reservation push” published in the Live Mint on 13th April 2022. 

Syllabus: GS2 – Important Provisions of the Constitution 

Relevance: Reservation/Affirmative Action 

News: Recently, in two separate judgements, the Supreme Court (SC) of India has struck down the reservations that were awarded by the Maharashtra government and Tamil Nadu government.

Both judgments identified the same problem – a lack of evidence-driven policymaking by the state govt for reservations.

What observations have been made by the Supreme Court in these two cases? 

Maharashtra Case: A separate 27% reservation to Other Backward Classes (OBC) in local body elections was struck down.

It was not based on empirical data and research.

In addition, it failed to meet the mandatory triple test laid down by the court. There was inadequate 

In Tamil Nadu Case: The internal reservations of 10.5% for the Vanniyar community was struck down. There was absence of quantifiable data or basis for providing a quota specifically for a single OBC community.  

What are the reservations related issues in India? 

(1) There are state level differences across the parameters 

– Eligible population: (a) About 55% of Maharashtra’s population is eligible for reservations. Out of total population, OBCs constitute about 33.8%, and (b) In Tamil Nadu, 97.2% of population is eligible and 76% of the population is classified as OBC.  

Reserved seats: In Maharashtra, the total number of seats reserved for OBC/SC/ST candidates is capped at 50% (Indra Sawhney case). However, in Tamil Nadu, 69% of seats are reserved. In fact, half the seats in Tamil Nadu are reserved solely for OBC candidates. 

(2) There is a lack of reliable caste-level data. It makes space for an imbalance between caste groups in access to opportunities. It hampers improvements of the affirmative programme. 

(3) There is a prevalence of a huge imbalance in the distribution of the benefits. For example, as per the Rohini Commission report, over 1,000 OBC caste groups have not received any benefit whatsoever from India’s reservation programme 

Way Forward 

We must collect the right caste related data. It should include measurements of the impact of reservations at the caste and community level, and not merely at a group level (i.e., OBC/SC/ST). It will help in understanding socioeconomic and political backwardness and the benefits that have accrued from reservations to a particular community.  

Many state governments are running a digitization programme for caste certificates. This data can be linked with Aadhaar. It can help track reservation benefits across all castes. 

There is a need to estimate the population levels of each caste group. Also, review the proportion of students attending government schools and proportion of the government employees from each caste group etc. 


A merger to better manage the Indian Railways

Source: The post is based on an article “A merger to better manage the Indian Railways” published in The Hindu on 13th April 2022. 

Syllabus: GS2 – Role of Civil services in Indian Bureaucracy 

Relevance: Indian Railway Management Service (IRMS) 

News: Recently, the government issued a Gazette notification regarding the creation of the Indian Railway Management Service (IRMS).

It has been created after merging 8 out of 10 Group-A Indian Railway services, and marks a paradigm shift in the management of one of the world’s largest rail networks.  

What is the significance of this move?

It is one of the biggest bureaucratic transformations in India since Independence, and will improve the governance in Indian railway. At present, Indian railways seem to be governed by the top-heavy bureaucracy. 

It will create job opportunities for lakhs of applicants who apply through the Union Public Service Commission (UPSC). 

Why were the Indian railway services merged? 

The operation of Indian railways requires a coordinated work for maintaining safety of operations and ensuring the punctuality of trains.  

India is aspiring to become a $5 trillion economy and an economic powerhouse in the near future. The Indian Railways will play a very crucial role in achieving 

A reinvigorated bureaucracy is needed for implementation of various projects like Gati Shakti initiative, a network of dedicated freight corridors, high speed rail corridors, station re-development projects, the induction of Vande Bharat trains on a large scale, and other projects of strategic importance have been launched.  

The adoption of the latest technology and improving the efficiency of logistics operations require new future leaders.  

Way Forward 

The existing cadre of officers (8,000 senior officers of the Indian Railways) need to be imparted with training. They have to work in coordination and not in silos. 

The initial training along with mid-career training programmes may be reoriented for newly recruited IRMS officers.  

The IRMS training needs to be a design based on competencies required for different leadership roles. For example, managing the verticals of operations, business development, infrastructure development and maintenance, traction and rolling stock, and finance and human resource management.  

Mission Karmayogi of the Government of India can be used for mapping domain, function and behaviour-related competencies of the IRMS Officers. Therefore, it can help for competencies-based postings of officers.  

Further, the Integrated Government Online Training (iGOT) programme of the Government of India can be instrumental in shaping the career progression of the IRMS officers. 


GS Paper 3

Big Tech’s privacy promise to consumers could be good news — and also bad news

Source: The post is based on an article “Big Tech’s privacy promise to consumers could be good news — and also bad news” published in the Indian Express on 13th April 2022. 

Syllabus: GS3 – Indian Economy

Relevance: Digital Platform Economy 

News: Recently, Facebook accused Apple of abusing its market power. It has been criticized for introducing a new AppTrackingTransparency feature on its app store, which aims to enhance the user’s privacy.

However, in the name of enhancing privacy, it has been alleged to cause disadvantages to competitors. 

What is the new feature? 

Apple’s new feature requires apps to request permission from users. The users grant permission for tracking them across other apps and websites or sharing their information with and from third parties.  

Why the new feature has been introduced? 

The new privacy measures are poised to enhance user privacy. These features will check “permissionless” tracking over the internet. It has given consumers more control over how their data is used.   

Privacy has become a dimension of Quality of Service (QoS). It has also become a method of non-price competition.

For example, Apple and DuckDuckGo are employing enhanced user privacy as a competitive metric. In 2018, OECD accepted that privacy is a relevant dimension of quality.  

In case privacy becomes a competitive constraint, then companies will be incentivized to innovate and create privacy-preserving and enhancing technologies. 

Worldwide regulators recognise privacy as a serious metric of quality.

For instance, the Competition Commission of India (CCI) in WhatsApp’s “take-it” or “leave-it” privacy policy case observed that the WhatsApp policy amounted to degradation of privacy and therefore quality. 

What are the potential issues of using privacy as a measure of competition?

A market-based approach is being used to regulate privacy in digital platforms. It has been found that a website which does not face strong competition are significantly more likely to ask for more personal information than other services.  

It can hurt small businesses. They benefit from targeted advertising services. However, features like this debar them from accessing data.

For example, Facebook has shown itself as a provider of privacy-centred alternatives. It has been misusing its market power. It has misused privacy in order to reduce competitor in the market, and The Google’s Privacy Sandbox project has been criticized by the UK’s competition authority (CMA) for concentrating on online advertising. 

The proposed changes aim to reduce competition in the market. For example, the Big Tech often acquires other firms to eliminate potential competition. It has been described as a “kill zone” by specialists.  

There is an absence of a modern framework for competition in the digital market. They continue to rely on the Bork’s theory of consumer welfare, i.e., the objective of antitrust should be to maximise consumer welfare. It is best pursued through promotion of economic efficiency.  

The Big Tech, can create barriers for newer entrants in the name of privacy 

Way Forward 

Care must be taken so that Big Tech does not misuse privacy to create barriers for newer entrants.  

The tracking restriction on third-party tracking should not be arbitrary and extensive. 

The use of privacy as a tool for market development must balance enabling and stifling competition.  

The regulators need to balance user autonomy, consumer protection, innovation, and market competition in digital markets. 


Prelims Oriented Articles (Factly)

India US bridge Ukraine differences

Source: This post is based on the article India US bridge Ukraine differencespublished in Livemint on 13th April 2022.

What is the News?

The fourth ‘2+2’ dialogue between India and the United States was held in Washington, United States.

What is 2+2 dialogue?

The 2+2 dialogue is a format of the meeting of the foreign and defence ministers of India and its allies on strategic and security issues.

India has 2+2 dialogues with four key strategic partners: the US, Australia, Japan, and Russia. Besides Russia, the other three countries are also India’s partners in the Quad.

What are the key highlights from the 4th India-US ‘2+2’ dialogue?
MoU on Space Situational Awareness

India and the US have signed an agreement on Space Situational Awareness.

The agreement will create a framework for India and the US to share data about space debris and other objects. Especially the potential threat they could pose to the safety and security of the new and the existing satellites and the other space assets of the two nations.

It will also clear the way for ISRO’s ‘NETRA’ to start collaborating with the American Combined Space Operation Center(CSpOC) to protect satellites of both nations from natural and man-made threats.

Dialogue on Artificial Intelligence

India and the US have agreed to hold a dialogue on artificial intelligence to harness opportunities for joint innovation and cooperation in new domains.

India became an Associate Member of the Combined Maritime Forces

Combined Maritime Forces is a maritime partnership based in Bahrain that undertakes counter-terrorism, counter-piracy and regional cooperation to promote security, stability and prosperity across international waters.

India-US on Russia-Ukraine Issue

India and the US issued a joint statement that found a way to bridge the differences between the two sides on the Russia-Ukraine Issue.

The two countries urged an immediate cessation of hostilities, and unequivocally condemned civilian deaths. Further, they underscored that the contemporary global order has been built on the UN Charter, respect for international law and the sovereignty and territorial integrity of all states.

India has articulated these principles in its approach to the crisis in the past, but it is the first time they find space in a joint India-US statement.


For the first time in 11 years, the number of domestic patent filing surpasses the number of international patent filing in India during Jan-Mar 2022

Source:  This post is based on the article For the first time in 11 years, the number of domestic patent filing surpasses the number of international patent filing in India during Jan-Mar 2022published in PIB on 12th April 2022.

What is the News?

According to the Ministry of Commerce and Industry, Filing of domestic patents in India has surpassed the number of international patent filings from January-March 2022 for the first time in 11 years.

About the patents filed

From January-March 2022, a total of, 19796 patent applications were filed. Among them, Indian applicants filed, 10706 against 9090 by non-Indian applicants.

Source: PIB

Other achievements made in India’s IP regime

– Filing of patents has increased by more than 50% in a span of 7 years (2014-15 to 2021-22).

– Reduction in Time of patent examination from 72 months in Dec 2016 to 5-23 months at present, for different technological areas.

– India’s ranking in Global Innovation Index has increased to 46th in 2021 (+35 ranks) as compared to 81st in 2015-16.

What are the steps taken by the Government to promote India’s patent regime?

Fee Reduction: 10% rebate on online filing. 80% fee concession for Startups, Small Entities and educational institutions, and provisions on expedited examination for Startups and MSMEs along with other categories.

Digital Emphasis: Every application is now processed online from start to finish, hearings are conducted on phones, and people don’t have to travel to patent offices now.

Simplified Procedure: Comprehensive e-Filing facility, Electronic processing of Patents & Trademarks applications.


Union Minister flags off First Made in India DornierAircraft Flight

Source: This post is based on the article Union Minister flags off First Made in India DornierAircraft Flightpublished in PIB on 12th April 2022.

What is the News?

The Minister of Civil Aviation has flagged off the first flight of Made in India “Dornier Do-228 Aircraft”.

What is Dornier 228 Aircraft?

It is a multipurpose Made in India Aircraft. The aircraft has also been named as Hindustan aircraft.

Manufactured by: Hindustan Aeronautics Limited (HAL)

Note: HAL had been manufacturing Dornier aircrafts after the transfer of technology from the German firm that owned it, but the aircraft had not been used for civil aviation so far.

Features: It is a 17-seater non-pressurised aircraft. It is capable of day and night operations, short take-off and landing and can land and take off from semi-prepared runways. 

Route: The aircraft will initially fly from Dibrugarh in Assam to Pasighat in Arunachal Pradesh and finally to Lilabari in Assam. Other areas will be connected soon.

The aircraft has been deployed under the Regional Connectivity Scheme(RCS) called UDAN.

Operated by: ​​Alliance Air, a public sector airline company, will operate the Dornier 228 Aircraft.

With this, Alliance Air became the first commercial airline to operate Indian-made aircraft for civil operations.

Union Home Minister inaugurates Seema Darshan Project on Gujarat’s border with Pakistan

Source: This post is based on the article Union Home Minister inaugurates Seema Darshan Project on Gujarat’s border with Pakistanpublished in The Week on 10th April 2022.

What is the News?

The Union Home Minister has inaugurated the Seema Darshan Project at Nadabet in the border district of Banaskantha in Gujarat.

What is Seema Darshan Project?

Launched by: It is a joint initiative of the Tourism Department of the state government and the BSF Gujarat Frontier.

Aim: To develop border tourism in the Nadabet region of Gujarat, which has a sparse population and even sparser vegetation.

Under the project, access will be provided to citizens to view the fenced Indo-Pakistan border from the Nadabet region in Gujarat. This area is guarded round the clock by the Border Security Force(BSF).

The BSF will also conduct a parade here similar to the one held at Attari-Wagah border in Punjab every evening during sunset. But here there won’t be anyone present across the border on the Pakistani side.

Significance: The project would not only boost tourism but also restrict migration from the villages across the border to the Indian side.

What is the significance of Nadabet District?

Nadabet is located in the Rann of Kutch region in Gujarat. It is also known as the ‘Wagah of Gujrat’. Pakistan is around just 150 meters from the border pillar at Nadabet.

Role of Nadabet during the 1971 War: Nadabet played a key role in the 1971 Indo-Pakistan War. It was in this region that the BSF not only stalled the enemy trying to invade from the west, but also captured enemy posts.

During the war, the BSF had captured 1,038 square km of Pakistan territory in Nagarparkar and Diplo areas. The area was returned to Pakistan after the Shimla Agreement was signed.


DoT invites ministries, industry tie-up to build 5G use-case ecosystems

Source: This post is based on the article DoT invites ministries, industry tie-up to build 5G use-case ecosystemspublished in Indian Express on 12th April 2022.

What is the News?

The Department of Telecommunications(DoT) has invited the Expression of Interest (EoI) for the “5G Vertical Engagement and Partnership Programme (VEPP)”.

What is the 5G Vertical Engagement and Partnership Programme(VEPP)?

Launched by: Department of Telecommunications(DoT)

Objective: To build strong collaborative partnerships across 5G Use-case ecosystem stakeholders with velocity and with an exclusive emphasis to address User/Vertical Industry needs.

Key Features of the Programme

The programme is being offered to Industry verticals that have potential as testing cum breeding grounds for innovative 5G use cases.

Under the programme, DoT will partner with other ministries, state governments and start-up hubs to facilitate necessary approvals, and regulatory clearances to enable use case prototyping, pilots, demos, and trials at the user or vertical industry premises.

On the other hand, technology stakeholders will have to work to develop and deploy prototypes and pilots for 5G use cases as per the needs of the respective ministries or industry verticals to help accelerate commercial usage and adoption by enterprises.

Significance of the Program

The program will enable close collaboration between User verticals and 5G Tech stakeholders (Service providers, Solution providers & partner Original Equipment Manufacturers). This can trigger a multiplier effect to try & finetune 5G digital solutions in respective economic verticals.


‘SVANidhi se Samriddhi’ launched in additional 126 cities

Source: This post is based on the article ‘SVANidhi se Samriddhi’ launched in additional 126 citiespublished in PIB on 12th April 2022.

What is the News?

The Ministry of Housing and Urban Affairs(MoHUA) has launched ‘SVANidhi se Samriddhi’ program in additional 126 cities across 14 States/ UTs.

What is SVANidhi se Samriddhi Program?

Launched by: Ministry of Housing and Urban Affairs(MoHUA) in 2021

It is an additional program of the PM SVANidhi Scheme.

Aim: To provide social security benefits to street vendors for their holistic development and socio-economic upliftment.

Implementing Partner: Quality Council of India (QCI)

Key Features of the Scheme

Under the program, socio-economic profiling of PM SVANidhi beneficiaries and their families is conducted to assess their eligibility for Eight Government of India’s welfare schemes and facilitate sanctions of eligible schemes. 

These Eight schemes include: 1) Pradhan Mantri Jeevan Jyoti Bima Yojana, 2) PM Suraksha Bima Yojana, 3) Pradhan Mantri Jan Dhan Yojana, 4) Building and other Constructions Workers (Regulation of Employment and Conditions of Service) Act (BOCW), 5) Pradhan Mantri Shram Yogi Maandhan Yojana, 6) National Food Security Act (NFSA)-portability benefit – One Nation One Ration Card (ONORC), 7) Janani Suraksha Yojana and 8) Pradhan Mantri Matru Vandana Yojana.

The socio-economic profiling will also help States if they deem fit to extend their State-specific welfare schemes & benefits to the eligible PM SVANidhi beneficiaries and their families.

What are the achievements of the Program?

The program has two-fold achievements:

One, a central database of Street vendors and their families has been created on various socio-economic indicators.

Second, a first of its kind inter-ministerial convergence platform is established between various Central Ministries to extend the safety net of welfare schemes to street vendor households.


Explained: Midday meal and supplements

Source: This post is based on the article Explained: Midday meal and supplementspublished in Indian Express on 13th April 2022.

What is the News?

From the next academic session, Karnataka is likely to become the 13th state to provide eggs under the Midday Meal Scheme.

This decision comes in the backdrop of surveys such as the National Family Health Survey-V which found 35% of children under five stunted and around 20% wasted.

What is a Mid Day Meal Scheme?

Historical Background: The roots of the Mid Day Meal Scheme can be traced back to the pre-independence era when a midday meal programme was introduced in the 1920s by the erstwhile Madras Municipal Corporation

In post-Independence India, Tamil Nadu was the first state to roll out a school feeding scheme in 1956. 

In 1984, Kerala became the second state in the country to have a school lunch programme.Over the next few years, many other states launched their own versions of the scheme and finally in 1995, the Centre launched the Mid Day Meal Scheme.

What is the status of the scheme today?

The Mid Day Meal Scheme is a Centrally Sponsored Scheme. It has been renamed as PM Poshan Shakti Nirman or PM Poshan in 2021.

Currently, the scheme covers children across Classes 1 to 8 (age group 6 to 14) in government and government-aided schools and those run by local bodies.

Moreover, this Mid Day Meal is not just a scheme but a legal entitlement of all school-going children in primary and upper primary classes, through the National Food Security Act (NFSA), 2013 as well as the Supreme Court’s ruling in People’s Union of Civil Liberties vs Union of India and Others(2001).

What is on the menu in the Mid Day Meal Scheme?

The menu varies from one state or Union Territory to another. But the authorities need to ensure that the nutritional component of the meal made up of rice, pulses, vegetables, oil and fat provides at least 450 calories and 12 gm of protein to children in primary grades. For upper primary children, the requirements are 700 calories and 20 gm of protein. 

The variations are in the cases of additional items such as milk, eggs, chikki, or fruits that the states provide as supplementary nutrition, the expenses for which are borne by the state government.

Why should Eggs be part of the Mid Day Meal Scheme?

Eggs provide many of the nutritional needs including good quality proteins, minerals, vitamins and fats. They are easy to cook, not prone to adulteration and pilferage like other foods and contribute to increasing school attendance.

Union Minister launches the Utsav Portal at the inaugural day of Amrit Samagam Conference

Source:  This post is based on the article Union Minister launches the Utsav Portal at the inaugural day of Amrit Samagam Conferencepublished in PIB on 12th April 2022.

What is the News?

The Union Minister for Tourism has launched Utsav Portal at the Amrit Samagam Conference.

What is Utsav Portal?

Launched by: Ministry of Tourism

Aim: It is a digital initiative that aims to

– Showcase all the events, festivals and live darshans across India to promote different regions of the country as popular tourist destinations worldwide.

– Let the devotees and travellers experience and view the sights of some of the well-known religious divine shrines in India in the form of Live Darshan.

What is Amrit Samagam?

Organized by: Ministry of Culture

Aim: To reflect on the progress of Azadi Ka Amrit Mahotsav(AKAM) so far, gather best practices and ideate on the strategies to be adopted for the remaining period of the celebration, especially for upcoming crucial initiatives.

What is Azadi Ka Amrit Mahotsav(AKAM)?

Azadi Ka Amrit Mahotsav(AKAM) is a flagship initiative of the Central and State Governments launched to commemorate 75 years of India’s independence. 

The objective of this program is to recreate and renew the patriotic fervour of the independence movement, recall the contribution of the freedom fighters and create a vision for lndia@2047.


Modernisation of Prisons Project: MHA to aid states to procure body cameras for prison staff, mobile jammers for jail

Source: This post is based on the article Modernisation of Prisons Project: MHA to aid states to procure body cameras for prison staff, mobile jammers for jail” published in TOI on 11th April 2022.

What is the News?

The Ministry of Home Affairs has released guidelines for the implementation of the Modernisation of Prisons Project.

Note: ‘Prisons’ is a State subject under the State List of the Seventh Schedule to the Constitution of India. Hence, the management and administration of Prisons falls exclusively in the domain of the State Governments.

What is the Modernisation of Prisons Project?

Launched by: Ministry of Home Affairs

Objectives of the Project:

– Filling the existing gaps in the security infrastructure of jails.

– Providing new security equipments to jails in line with modern-day technologies,

– Strengthening the jail security system through security equipment like Door frames/ Metal Detectors/ Security Poles, Baggage Scanners/Search/Jamming Solutions.

– Focus on correctional administration: This includes bringing attitudinal change in the mindset of prison officials handling inmates through extensive training and by introducing appropriate programs for inmates for their skill development and rehabilitation.

Duration of the Project: 5 Years (2021-22 to 2025-26).

Implementation of the Project

Under the project, the Ministry of Home Affairs will offer grants in aid to the states for a period of five years

These grants can be used for upgrading Video Conference Infrastructure, buying body-worn cameras, Door frames/ Metal Detectors/ Security Poles and developing correctional programmes including counselling/ therapies/ vocational training etc.

The grants may also be utilized for setting up small industrial units in jails, which will provide an opportunity for labour to the inmates and generate revenue for jails.

However, the release of grants under the project in subsequent years will be based on utilization certificates furnished by the states in respect of funds released during the previous years.


Explained: What is Canister Launched Anti-Armour Loiter Ammunition that the Army wants?

Source:  This post is based on the article Explained: What is Canister Launched Anti-Armour Loiter Ammunition that the Army wants?published in Indian Express on 12th April 2022.

What is the News?

The Indian Army has issued a Request for Information(RFI) for the Canister Launched Anti-Armour Loiter Ammunition(CALM) System.

What is a Canister Launched Anti-Armour Loiter Ammunition(CALM) System?

CALM System is a preloaded canister with loitering ammunition or a drone. Once fired it can remain aloft for a period of time over the area of operation and when a target is sighted it can be guided down to destroy the target with the explosive payload that it carries. 

Usually, loiter ammunition carries a camera that is nose-mounted and which can be used by the operator to see the area of operation and choose targets. 

These munitions also have variants that can be recovered and reused in case they are not used for any strike.

What are the advantages of this CALM System?

The top-down attack capability of the CALM System gives it a big advantage over targets such as tanks, which are vulnerable to any attack on the top where the armour protection is weak. 

Where will the CALM System be deployed?

The Army wants to deploy the CALM System in the plains and deserts along the western borders, as well as in high altitude areas up to 16,500 feet along the northern frontier.

Mains Answer Writing

Convergent growth

Source– The post is based on the article “Convergent growth” published in the Business Standard on 30th September 2022. Syllabus: GS3- Indian Economy Relevance– Challenges to growth of Indian economy News– The article explains the historical reason for disparity in growth and development performance between Indian states. It also tells about the steps needed to… Continue reading Convergent growth

Posted in 9 PM Daily Articles, PUBLIC|Tagged , |Leave a comment

Chief of Defence Staff

Source– The post is based on the articles “Evolving Chair” published in The Hindu and the “The Chief task” published in The Indian Express on 30th September 2022. Syllabus: GS3- Security challenges Relevance– Reformation of armed forces News– The article explains the new vision of the Indian government for transformation of armed focus and bringing… Continue reading Chief of Defence Staff

Posted in 9 PM Daily Articles, PUBLIC|Tagged , |Leave a comment

Rupee trade settlement offers India structural benefits

Source: The post is based on an article “Rupee trade settlement offers India structural benefits” published in Live Mint on 30th September 2022. Syllabus: GS 3 Relevance: measures taken by the RBI to tackle falling rupee News: RBI has taken a decision recently to let domestic exim traders facilitate and settle invoicing and payments for international trade in rupees.… Continue reading Rupee trade settlement offers India structural benefits

Posted in 9 PM Daily Articles, PUBLIC|Tagged , |Leave a comment

How much should India prop up the rupee?

Source: The post is based on an article “How much should India prop up the rupee?” published in The Hindu on 30th September 2022. Syllabus: GS 3 – Indian Economy – Growth and development Relevance: concerns associated with declining rupee and widening CAD. News:  The rupee weakened against the dollar recording a low at Rs 81 per dollar in the… Continue reading How much should India prop up the rupee?

Posted in 9 PM Daily Articles, PUBLIC|Tagged , |Leave a comment

How dreams of freedom are shattered for working women in small-town India

Source: The post is based on an article “How dreams of freedom are shattered for working women in small-town India” published in The Indian Express on 30th September 2022. Syllabus: GS 2 Relevance: problems associated with the employment of women News: Urban cities are the hope of social and economic independence for young girls. However, the murder of 19-year-old Ankita Bhandari… Continue reading How dreams of freedom are shattered for working women in small-town India

Posted in 9 PM Daily Articles, PUBLIC|Tagged , |Leave a comment

After the floods, Bengaluru needs to clean up its act

Source: The post is based on an article “After the floods, Bengaluru needs to clean up its act” published in The Hindu on 30th September 2022. Syllabus: GS 2 Relevance: concerns associated with corruption and measures to tackle them News:  Bengaluru’s floods have gone but they have left difficulties for the people. Difficulties such as flying of the dust in… Continue reading After the floods, Bengaluru needs to clean up its act

Posted in 9 PM Daily Articles, PUBLIC|Tagged , |Leave a comment

Keep up pressure: India-US teaming up on Pacific Islands will trouble China. That’s welcome

Source: The post is based on the article “Keep up pressure: India-US teaming up on Pacific Islands will trouble China. That’s welcome” published in The Times of India on 30th September 2022. Syllabus: GS 2: India and its neighbourhood- relations. Relevance: About India-China relations. News: The troop disengagement process in eastern Ladakh remains incomplete and China continues to… Continue reading Keep up pressure: India-US teaming up on Pacific Islands will trouble China. That’s welcome

Posted in 9 PM Daily Articles, PUBLIC|Tagged , |Leave a comment

Saving the world – DART can reduce risks from meteors

Source: The post is based on the article “Saving the world – DART can reduce risks from meteors” published in the Business Standard on 30th September 2022. Syllabus: GS 3: Awareness in the fields of Space. Relevance: About DART Mission. News: NASA’s DART (Double Asteroid Redirection Test) spacecraft has collided with the asteroid Dimorphous. What is the DART… Continue reading Saving the world – DART can reduce risks from meteors

Posted in 9 PM Daily Articles, PUBLIC|Tagged , |Leave a comment

The right corporate culture would end moonlighting

Source: The post is based on the article “The right corporate culture would end moonlighting” published in the Livemint on 30th September 2022. Syllabus: GS 3: Indian economy and employment. Relevance: About Moonlighting. News: Wipro has sacked 300 employees it found guilty of working for its competitors. This triggered the ‘moonlighting’ debate. What is moonlighting? Read here: What is moonlighting… Continue reading The right corporate culture would end moonlighting

Posted in 9 PM Daily Articles, PUBLIC|Tagged , |Leave a comment

A costly decision – Extension of PMGKAY should have been avoided

Source: The post is based on the article “A costly decision – Extension of PMGKAY should have been avoided” published in the Business Standard on 30th September 2022. Syllabus: GS 3: Indian economy. Relevance: About extending PMGKAY. News: Recently, the government has extended the Pradhan Mantri Garib Kalyan Anna Yojana (PMGKAY-Phase VII) for a further period of 3… Continue reading A costly decision – Extension of PMGKAY should have been avoided

Posted in 9 PM Daily Articles, PUBLIC|Tagged , |Leave a comment
Print Friendly and PDF
[social_warfare]