9 PM Daily Current Affairs Brief – December 29, 2020

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GS 2

  • India should be ready for a two-front challenge
  • Opportunities for India in Anglosphere
  • Need for Gated globalization in India
  • India’s system of bail and personal liberty 
  • Policymakers must promote research under NEP 

GS 3

  • Possibility of China’s 5G warfare and India

9 PM for Preliminary examination


India should be ready for a two-front challenge 

Source: The Hindu 

GS2: India and its Neighbourhood- Relations. 

Synopsis: The two-front challenge long ignored by India has become a reality, therefore there is an urgent need to develop both the doctrine and the capability to deal with this threat. 

Why India didn’t perceive the two-front challenge as a real possibility for a long? 

The collusive China-Pakistan military threat (i.e., China-Pakistan military are working in cooperation to contain India on the northern borders) on Indian borders is known as the two-front challenge. 

  • Before Galwan Issue too, Indian military firmly believed that the two-front challenge is a real possibility, but the political class and the country’s strategic community called this threat as an issue, over-hyped by the military to justify the demand for additional resources and funds.  
  • As per them, China has never intervened militarily in any India-Pakistan conflict and the presence of strong economic, diplomatic, and political ties between India and China will prevent the rise of conflict between the two countries. 
  • As a result, Indian strategic thinking was overwhelmingly focused on Pakistan, as a real threat on the border.

Why the two front challenge is seen as a reality now? 

Present developments are enough evidence to perceive that the two front threat has become a real concern for India now. 

  • The most recent Chinese intrusions in Ladakh, the violent clashes between the Indian Army and the People’s Liberation Army, and the deadlock in negotiations have now made the Chinese military threat more apparent and real.
  • On the other hand, the situation along the line of Control (LoC) with Pakistan has been steadily deteriorating. For example, between 2017 and 2019, there has been a four-fold increase in ceasefire violations. 
  • Also, according to Some media reports, Pakistan had moved 20,000 troops into Gilgit-Baltistan, matching the Chinese deployments in Eastern Ladakh which signifies that the China-Pakistan military are working in cooperation to contain India. 
  • Apart from this, the Military cooperation between the two countries have strengthened. For example,
      • China accounts for 73% of the total arms import of Pakistan between 2015-2019.
      • Shaheen IX Pakistan-China joint exercise to improve the combat capacity of both air forces and to enhance interoperability between them.

What type of capabilities India should build up to counter it? 

  • First, India needs to develop both the doctrine and the capability to deal with this contingency. 
      • For Doctrine development, a close interaction with the political leadership is required as any doctrine without a political aim and guidance cannot stand the test when executed. 
      • Moreover, a detailed assessment of China and Pakistan’s war-fighting strategies needs to be done to strike a right balance in our approach to contain the two-front situation. 
      • On the other hand, India needs to build its capability with more focus on future technologies such as robotics, artificial intelligence, cyber, electronic warfare, etc. 
      • A financial solution for allocation of quantum of resources required by the air force and military should also be developed so that in the times of need India can engage both the states.  
  • Second, we need to improve our relations with our neighbours through Diplomacy to contain the two-front challenge. 
      • On the eastern front, India’s new Maritime strategies such as the QUAD and the Indo-Pacific might not be helpful in easing the Sino-Pakistan pressure on the continental sphere. So, it’s crucial for India to focus on gaining the trust of our neighbours. 
      • On the western front, India should strengthen its relationship with key powers in West Asia, including Iran to ensure energy security, increase maritime cooperation and enhance goodwill in the extended neighbourhood.  
      • On the northern front, India must ensure that its relationship with Russia is not compromised for good India-United States relations as Russia could play a key role in defusing the severity of a regional gang up against India. 
  • Third, a well-planned empathetic political outreach to Kashmir aimed at addressing the issues facing people of Kashmir, would be helpful in easing the pressure from either front. 
      • It will be helpful in potential reconciliation with Pakistan to persuade it to put an end to terrorist infiltration into Kashmir. 
      • Politically, India should do well to reduce the effect of a collusive Sino-Pakistan containment strategy aimed at India.

Opportunities for India in Anglosphere 

Source: Click here 

Syllabus: GS – 2, Intermatiomal relations  

Synopsis: The Anglosphere is opposed as a colonial concept in India but the colonial past should not be allowed to overpower India’s present strategic benefits. 

What is Anglosphere? 

  • An Anglosphere is also called the world of English-speaking people bound by common political beliefs, similar legal traditions, and shared geopolitical interests. 
  • The term was coined around the late 19th century when Britain was facing the challenges to its empire from within and outside. A modest version of this idea was Commonwealth nations.   
  • Later, stronger ties with the EU resulted in the waning of this idea. But after cold war conservatives in UK started favouring the idea of Anglosphere.  
  • It is also the main idea behind the political movement in UK to pull it out of the European Union.

Which countries constitute Anglosphere? 

There are various theories around the countries that constitute the Anglosphere. 

  • For few theorists, UK, US, Canada, Australia and New Zealand are at the core of the Anglosphere.  
  • Other’s define it more narrowly as a CANZUK group that excludes the United States. 
  • A broader view sees the rebuilding of Anglosphere as an economic and strategic collaboration with other states like India, Ireland, Singapore and Japan.
  • At present, only the “Five Eyes” arrangement for intelligence sharing between the US, Canada, UK, Australia and New Zealand, reflects the possibility of Anglosphere.

Why the anglosphere could be in favour of India? 

Some of the critics in India is against the idea of Anglosphere due to India’s colonial past, but 5 arguments have been put forward in favour of the Anglosphere that goes against any possibility of repetition of India’s past: 

  • Firstly, Britain and India today are at roughly $2.7 trillion and occupy the fifth and sixth places in the GDP rankings. India will be overtaking Britain in the few years to become the third-largest economy in the world. 
  • Secondly, Unlike Indian elites’ Indian middle classes have whole-heartedly accepted the English-speaking world as their favourite foreign destinations for study, work and emigration. 
  • Thirdly, The Indian population is flourishing in these nations and is very much part of their political system of Anglosphere, due to their relative openness. For instance: 
      • Kamala Harris will soon be sworn in as US Vice President. 
      • Three of Johnson’s cabinet rank ministers are Indian.
      • Four of Justin Trudeau’s ministers are of Indian origin. 
      • Indians are among the fastest-growing minorities in Australia and New Zealand.
  • Fourthly, the India and the Anglosphere countries have already developed greater bilateral commercial and security cooperation and they share geopolitical interest in the Indo-Pacific as well. Moreover, India is already engaged with Five Eye countries on selected issues. 
  • Lastly, India is in an advantageous position, when compared to China.  
      • The Chinese Communist Party has come close to winning over entire Anglosphere in recent years through the absolute power of its sustained economic investments, political engagement, and elite cultivation. 
      • Whereas India won’t need to invest that much and can build good relations on the terms, mutually beneficial.

India’s system of bail and personal liberty 

Source- The Hindu 

Syllabus- GS 2–  Indian Constitution—historical underpinnings, evolution, features, amendments, significant provisions and basic structure. 

Synopsis– India’s bail system is facing in urgent need of reforms. 

The refusal to grant of bail violates right to liberty of individuals undergoing criminal prosecution by confining them in jails without trial and conviction.  

What is bail? 

The bail is the security given by the defendant, it acts like a surety or guarantee for the defendant to show up in the court at a later date when summoned  

  • The surety may be cash, the papers giving title to property, or the bond of private persons of means or of a professional bondsman or bonding company.

What are the concerns regarding granting of bail in India? 

  • First, routine rejection of bail by subordinate courts for the simplest of an offence.  
      • Moreover, the majority of people arrested under excise laws belong to marginalized communities. More than two-thirds of the inmates are undertrials from Dalit, Adivasi and OBC communities, often accused of minor offences. 
  • Second, Pending bail pleas– The Courts should decide regular bail application within a maximum time period of 7 days from filing. Sadly, in practice, it is observed accused languish in jails for months waiting for disposal of his bail application. 
      • The pendency of bail applications has increased during the pandemic due to the shutting down of courts and the exacerbation of arrests for minor offences by the police. 
  • Third, High sureties to secure freedom– The bail amount in session courts, even for petty offences is a minimum of ₹10,000 and ₹30,000 in the case bail before the High Courts and the Supreme Court. 
  • This is a form of injustice when a majority of regular wage workers, 57% Indians earn less than ₹10,000 per month.  
  • Common citizens without the means or resources to move the High Courts or the Supreme Court were languishing in jails as undertrials. 
  • A bogey of middlemen has also emerged due to these high bail amounts. 

Example of absurd bail conditions- 

  • CASE – The Gwalior Bench of Madhya Pradesh High Court has granted bail to two accused in a criminal case on the condition that they install a non-China made LED TV screen at the Gwalior District Hospital. 
  • The same single-judge bench had directed the petitioners to register themselves with the district magistrate concerned as ‘COVID-19 Warrior’ so that they are assigned suitable work taking all prescribed precautions.  

Grant of bail on condition to deposit cash relief fund is improper and unjust. 

Way forward 

  • The courts while granting/disposing of bail applications ideally should draw a fine balance between the individual liberty and the interest of the society without compromising on either. 
  • While granting bail the court must also look at the socio-economic plight of the accused must also have a compassionate attitude towards them. 

Need for Gated globalization in India  

Source: Click here  

Syllabus: GS 2Effect of developed and developing country policies on India’s interest 

Synopsis: Post pandemic era will be giving rise to new world order and create uncertainties. India should use a “Gated Globalisation” framework to handle this change. 


The 3rd decade of the 21st century will witness a multipolar world and the rise of this New World Order will be driven by reliability of partners, national interest, and economic factors. 

New developments are being witnessed with the development of vaccines. Nations are forging alliances for the vaccine supplies. Trust factor will also dominate these alliances as seen in the doubts raised over vaccines by China and Russia and this factor will not be limited to vaccines only. 

Although security interest will continue to drive partnerships, it will not be the sole criterion as seen in the Israel and Arabs relations and BREXIT 

What is the gated globalization framework? 

Gated globalization advocates selective trade policies with selective trade partners like creating walls with restrictive gates, opened on certain conditions. 

The Gated Globalisation framework doesn’t have a place for “Non-alignment” and will be a test of “strategic autonomy” of India. As per the framework, India needs Solid boundaries but building new partnerships (like the Quad) based on trust and common interests is equally important, as necessitated by Doklam and Ladakh clash with China. 

  • Firstly, India will have to make partnership choices, beyond security, on the basis of trade, capital flows and the movement of labour.
        • For instance, India has chosen to stay out of RCEP and the UK has left the EU. 
  • Secondly, technology flows and standards will also define gated communities. The Great Firewall of China has shut out many of the big tech players like Google, Facebook and Netflix.  
        • Instead, China has its Baidu, Alibaba and Tencent. The introduction of 5G technology, will deepen the issues of trust. 
  • Third, the EU-crafted General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR) is a brilliant example of Gated Globalisation. The EU has set the terms of engagement; those who do not obey will be kept out.  
        • The Indian law on data protection that is currently being discussed follows a similar sovereign route.  
  • Lastly, India and other countries have similar policies where they put restrictions on trade with nations that are unfavourable to their interest and build stronger financial relationships with other countries within their gated communities. 
      • For instance, India has imposed restrictions on trade with China but this does not stop enhanced capital flows from new partners. To prevent the inflow of illegal funds, India has barred capital from poorly-regulated authorities. 
      • India’s global scattering is now over 30 million and sends more through transfers ($80 billion per year) than foreign capital inflows. The Indian diaspora is now increasingly impacting policy in countries like the US, UK and Australia where it has contributed politicians and technocrats, innovators and influencers, billionaires and cricket captains. 

Way forward 

  • During these fast-changing post-pandemic realities, India has to be quick in identifying partners whom it can trust and who will help protect and further its national interests. 

Policymakers must promote research under NEP

Source- The Indian Express 

Syllabus- GS – 2, Issues related to education in India  

Synopsis  The policymakers that finetuned the NEP and give shape to Atmanirbhar Bharat, must also nurture institutional frameworks that enable research. 


  • The NEP also fosters creativity, developing employability and inviting foreign institutions to set up campuses in India.
  • We are working to make India a “knowledge economy” in the 21st century and the National Education Policy (NEP) will also tackle the issues of brain drain, said Prime Minister recently.
  • However, there is an absence of much required cutting edge research system. The challenges this system facing are related to funding, academic autonomy, designing robust processes for recruitment of faculty, counselling arrangements for early-career researchers, and systems to help overcome the many barriers to equality and diversity.

Why India does not have cutting edge research framework?

  • First, Lack of research institutes– Only few institutions like TIFR, IITs, across the country and are outside university systems, conducting cutting edge research.
  • Second, Lack of freedom– Most universities in India do not have the freedom to design courses, find creative ways to raise funds, lack of collaboration between industry and academia.
  • Third, Lack of collaboration between industry and academia – India is lacking in conducting research that is both practically relevant and scientifically rigorous.

On the other hand, In US, Pfizer [premier biopharmaceutical company], and the University of California have created systems to combine academic thinking with drug development expertise.

What are the most effective strategies to generate cutting edge research ecosystem?

  • First, there is need to shift university admission process for the success of New Education Policy (NEP),
      • Currently, non-viable high cut-offs speak of an education system that does not encourage creative learning.
  • Second, there is a need for a strong collaboration between the universities and industries to come up with innovative ideas in research along with higher investments in R&D.

Therefore, policymakers should look after the institutional framework that enables research.

Possibility of China’s 5G warfare and India 

Source: Indian Express 

Gs3: Achievements of Indians in Science & Technology; Indigenization of Technology and Developing New Technology. 

Synopsis:  China is preparing to dominate the world by rolling out its 5G technology warfare across countries, India needs to fast the pace of its 5G implementation to contain the digital threat of China. 

What is 5G warfare? 

  • 5G technology will enable IOT (Internet of Things) and IOT is driven by data and Information.    
  • It will aid the providing country with the power to access and control the data of individuals, groups or even nations
  • Moreover,5G technologies are the main enabler of AI technologies and the recent example of use of AI in warfare, like drone killing machines, multiply these threats. 

Implications of Chinese 5G warfare? 

China, as one of the foremost countries to roll out 5G technologies with huge investment worldwide, posing the risks of digital encirclement of the world. An invasion by Chinese 5G technology into other nations will make them completely dependent on China  

  • The first example is the recent cooperation of measurement of Mt. Everest between China and Nepal may enable the launch of Chinese 5G technology in Nepal, with the following implications. 
      • It will provide China the ability to control Nepal’s business interests, its mountaineering and tourism industry.
      • It will make locals or visitors to Nepal dependent on China for Real-time information on weather, routes, map/terrain details, logistics and rescue programmes, etc., 
      • There is a significant chance that, with lower incomes, Nepal’s tourism industry might get lured into Chinese cheap loans, leading to a strategic debt trap.
  • Second, Militaries who do not have indigenous 5G capabilities for IoT platforms might allow Chinese 5G infrastructure, leading them to become a hostage to Chinese technology. For example, The CPEC (China-Pakistan Economic Corridor) is a clear example. Pakistan today has become the virtual vassal state of China. 
  • Third, with Chinese companies having made huge investments across the world to spread a 5Git would lead to the complete digital encirclement of the world when combined with BRI (belt and road initiative) 

How India should prepare to fight the onslaught of the Chinese 5G invasion? 

  • First, India is already working on Indigenous 5G technology that would run IOT platforms for civilians as well as military applications, it needs to accelerate the launch of Indian 5G. 
  • Second, the Counteroffensive measures such as banning of Chinese apps and blocking hardware supply chains will be able to protect the business and security interests of the country. 

There is an urgent need to fasten the pace of 5G technology development in India which is suffering due to slow adoption, entangled policy processes and bureaucratic processes.


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