9 PM Daily Current Affairs Brief – December 29th, 2022

Dear Friends,

We have initiated some changes in the 9 PM Brief and other postings related to current affairs. What we sought to do:

  1. Ensure that all relevant facts, data, and arguments from today’s newspaper are readily available to you.
  2. We have widened the sources to provide you with content that is more than enough and adds value not just for GS but also for essay writing. Hence, the 9 PM brief now covers the following newspapers:
    1. The Hindu  
    2. Indian Express  
    3. Livemint  
    4. Business Standard  
    5. Times of India 
    6. Down To Earth
    7. PIB
  3. We have also introduced the relevance part to every article. This ensures that you know why a particular article is important.
  4. Since these changes are new, so initially the number of articles might increase, but they’ll go down over time.
  5. It is our endeavor to provide you with the best content and your feedback is essential for the same. We will be anticipating your feedback and ensure the blog serves as an optimal medium of learning for all the aspirants.
    • For previous editions of 9 PM BriefClick Here
    • For individual articles of 9 PM BriefClick Here

Current Affairs Compilations for UPSC IAS Prelims 2022

Mains Oriented Articles

GS Paper 1

GS Paper 2

GS Paper 3

Prelims Oriented Articles (Factly)

Mains Oriented Articles

GS Paper 1


India must build awareness on population control

Source: The post is based on the article India must build awareness on population controlpublished in The Hindu on 29th December 2022. 

Syllabus: GS1- Population and associated issues 

Relevance: Issues related to population control and family planning 

News: The article explains the debates and discourses around population control in India. 

India was among the first nations to address its population problem as early as 1951. While there has been a significant rise in India’s population, there has also been a sharp decline in India’s total fertility rate. In 1950, the TFR was at around 5.9%. As per the fifth NFHS, it is now 2%. 

What is the nature of discourse around population control? 

The debate around the need for population control has been greatly politicised in India. The discourse around such a sensitive issue has been reduced to petty religious issues. 

Before the 2022 Uttar Pradesh Assembly elections, the government came up with a draft Bill on population control. But the suggestions were more political than practical. It seemed to be a part of majoritarian politics. 

What is indicated by data on the gap between Hindus and Muslims in adopting population control measures? 

NFHS data indicate that the fertility rate of Muslims is higher than Hindus. But, the gap between the two has shrunk substantially. In 1992-93, the gap between the Hindu and Muslim fertility rates was 1.1. It has now reduced to 0.35.  

A close comparison of Census data on average fertility rates is insightful. For instance, Uttar Pradesh has around 20% Muslim population. Its TFR declined from 5.8% in 1981 to 2.7% in 2011. Data also show that Muslims have adopted better family planning measures than Hindus. 

Why should India not adopt population control measures? 

India’s TFR is even lower than the replacement level. It is a remarkable step in the population control parameters.  

Forced population control can have very dangerous consequences. It can create a gender imbalance 

Forced population control measures have not shown promising results in the countries that have implemented them. The most relevant example is China. The one-child policy has proved to be disastrous. It has created demographic imbalance. The population of China is ageing faster than in any other modern country. 

What is the way forward for population control? 

India needs to adopt population control measures. But the focus should be on strengthening public health infrastructure and raising awareness about the need for population control.  

Any forced control method will impact the rate of ageing. United Nations data show that there is a projected rise in the population of older people and a decline in the young population in many countries.


Veer Baal Diwas: A tale from Punjab

Source: The post is based on the article A tale from Punjabpublished in The Indian Express on 29th December 2022. 

Syllabus: GS1- Indian history and culture 

Relevance: Important personalities and their relevance 

News: The article explains the historical event of the sacrifice of two younger boys of Guru Gobind Singh for maintaining the dignity of their religion. 

The sacrifice day of 27th December has been declared as Veer Bal Diwas. The first one was celebrated this year. 

What is the sequence of events that led to the death of two younger sons of Guru Gobind Singh? 
Read here: Veer Baal Diwas: PM announces 26th December as ‘Veer Baal Diwas’ to mark martyrdom of Sahibzada Zorawar Singh Ji and Sahibzada Fateh Singh Ji

Wazir Khan was the Mughal governor of administered territories between the rivers Yamuna and Sutlej. In December 1704, Aurangzeb was Mughal ruler in Delhi.  

The 10th Guru of the Sikhs and his colleagues were attacked as he proceeded from Anandpur Sahib. It is known as the Battle of Chamkaur Sahib 

The two elder sons of Guru Gobind Singh were killed and the two younger ones got separated. The Guru himself escaped with the help of two Pathans, Ghani Khan and Nabi Khan. He eventually took shelter in the house of a local Muslim chief. 

The younger boys, along with their 81-year-old grandmother, Mata Gujri were caught by the Mughals. The boys refused to convert to Islam. The wazir ordered them to be bricked alive 

After Aurangzeb’s death, his empire quickly crumbled. Banda Bairagi took over much of eastern Punjab. He killed Wazir Khan at the Battle of Chappar Chiri, known as Chandigarh now and took control over the territories of Sirhind. 

How is their sacrifice remembered and revered by the people? 

The chamber where the younger boys were bricked is located in the Bhora Sahib. It became a place of pilgrimage for everyone. The boys are known as sahibzadas. Eventually, a gurdwara came up around it.  

Nowadays, people assemble each year in the last week of December to remember the suffering and sacrifice of the family that held up the dignity of their religion. The gathering is called “Jor Mel”. 

What is the message conveyed by this event? 

One needs to retain mental strength in the face of adversity and a strong ethical commitment to one’s beliefs. It also carries to the young a message about commitment to the motherland, to one’s beliefs, and to ethical living.

GS Paper 2


Laboured wages – Any delay in funds to be paid to States for MGNREGS payments is unethical

Source: The post is based on the article “Laboured wages – Any delay in funds to be paid to States for MGNREGS payments is unethical” published in The Hindu on 29th December 2022.

Syllabus: GS 2 – Welfare schemes for vulnerable sections of the population by the Centre and States and the performance of these schemes.

Relevance: About wage delay in MGNREGS.

News: Recently there has been a debate in Parliament regarding withholding funds for the Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Scheme (MGNREGS) in West Bengal.

About MGNREGS
Read here: MGNREGA
What are there is a wage delay in MGNREGS?

According to an NPO, almost ₹2,744 crore was still due to workers for work done since December 26, 2021. This is contradictory to Section 3 of the NREG Act. The wage delays have resulted in a drop in the number of households working under the scheme.

The wage delay happened due to a) A delay in funds disbursal from the centre to the States due to procedural delays and an overhauling of the Public Financial Management System of the Finance Ministry, and b) Non-compliance with the directives of the Central government by states and fund misuse.

Read more: MGNREGA: Issues and Significance – Explained, pointwise
What should be done to reduce wage delay in MGNREGS?

-The Union government should set aside adequate funds at the beginning of the financial year.

-The government should emphasise on reducing the misuse of funds by using technocratic approaches.

Note: Recently, the government has introduced digital capture of MGNREGS attendance mandatory at the work sites.

A scheme such as MGNREGS needs to evolve while keeping its core idea of a demand-driven work allocation intact. Treating it as a burden will only hurt genuine beneficiaries.

GS Paper 3


Securing homeland: India must upgrade counterintelligence as its geopolitical environment becomes complex

Source: The post is based on the article “Securing homeland: India must upgrade counterintelligence as its geopolitical environment becomes complex” published in The Times of India on 29th December 2022.

Syllabus: GS 3 – Security challenges and their management.

Relevance: About counterintelligence capabilities.

News: Recently, a Russian businessman-politician, a known critic of Putin, and his friend died in Odisha under mysterious circumstances. This should alert India’s intelligence and security apparatus.

About foreign country operations in other countries

Various intelligence agencies occasionally target individuals in other countries. Americans call this an extreme rendition.

The developed countries try to raise the cost of such back operations by foreign agencies through superior counterintelligence.

How vulnerable India is to foreign operations in India?

The increase in India’s strategic profile makes it a key player in geopolitical issues. From the Ukraine conflict to the Taiwan Strait tensions, there is a danger of foreign agents bringing their battles to India.

Past instances: When Israel and Iran were reportedly targeting each other’s diplomats and scientists through covert operations on foreign soil, India also witnessed an attack on New Delhi.

Present threats: China has been setting up secret police stations in other countries to coerce or intimidate Chinese nationals. Apparently, more than 100 such overseas Chinese police stations have been established in countries such as the Netherlands, Ireland, South Korea, Japan, Germany and the US among others. The same modus operandi could be used by China in India too,

How India can improve India’s intelligence and counterintelligence capabilities?

So far, India’s security apparatus has been largely geared towards fighting and preventing terrorism. a) India should prepare for far more sophisticated threats, b) India must have well-resourced, highly trained espiocrats (a professional spy), and c) India should upgrade its counterintelligence.


Raise capital formation: Never let demand down

Source: The post is based on the article Raise capital formation: Never let demand downpublished in the Livemint on 29th December 2022. 

Syllabus: GS3- Indian economy and growth.

Relevance: Issues related to economic growth.

News: The article explains the reasons behind lower GDP growth in pre-pandemic years. It also explains the current economic scenario. 

What are the viewpoints of the current Chief Economic Advisor about the economy? 

GST and demonetisation were not responsible for the pre-pandemic economic slowdown. It was financial sector stress that slowed capital formation 

Less credit in supply and demand lowered GDP growth. The double balance sheet crisis was responsible for this stress. 

Structural reforms by the government will yield results. Economic policy or reforms will have an impact, provided everything else remains constant. When other things change, their short-term impacts overshadow reforms. 

Why was capital formation one of the major reasons for the pre-pandemic economic slowdown? 

Capital formation has been a weak link in India’s economy in recent decades. It was at its peak rate of 40% during the 2008-09 global recession. The annual rate of investment has fallen to a level of 10% lower. This has led to slower output growth and weak job creation. 

What is the economic situation now? 

Bank stress is easing now.  NPA was at a peak of 11.6% in 2018. It has fallen to a level of 5%. Today the capital looks adequate. Credit growth has reached its highest level in 10 years. 

The weak point is lower consumption expenditure. Demonetisation and complexity of the GST regime have impacted informal and small businesses. It has impacted the livelihoods of the people. 


Mineral-intensive growth would need the country to ease mining

Source: The post is based on the article Mineral-intensive growth would need the country to ease miningpublished in the mint on 29th December 2022. 

Syllabus: GS3- Industrial policy. GS1- Economic geography 

Relevance: Important minerals for economy 

News: The article explains the issues faced by the mining sector in India. It also explains the reasons for the increasing demand for minerals in India in upcoming times 

Why will the demand for minerals increase in the upcoming times? 

The Indian government is focussing on electric vehicles. These vehicles require six times more minerals than conventional cars. As a result of this; the demand for lithium, cobalt, nickel, and graphite alongside iron and bauxite will be enormous. 

PLI schemes for advanced chemistry cell batteries, solar PV modules, white goods and electronics manufacturing are expected to increase demand for energy-transition minerals. 

India has set the target of 500 GW of non-fossil fuel energy capacity. It will be largely met by wind and solar energy. As per IEA, onshore winds require nine times more minerals than a gas-fired power plant and solar PV panels require thrice more minerals than coal-fired power plants. 

India aspires to be the electronics hub of the world. Minerals will play a crucial role in achieving it. 13 minerals are used in a mobile handset. 

Traditional sectors like housing, infrastructure and transportation also require minerals. 

What are the issues faced by the mining sector in India? 

The Indian mining industry still faces regulatory hurdles that restrain the growth of mineral production. India’s expenditure on exploration particularly for deep-seated minerals like copper, zinc and gold has been abysmally low. 

Indian law does not let a mining lease beyond 10 sq km for a mineral in a state. 

Minerals like iron ore and bauxite also face the problem of double taxation in form of royalty on royalty. 

There is also differential treatment across minerals for calculating the Auction Sale Price(ASP). The ASP of bauxite is 3–4 times the actual market price. It hinders large-scale auctions of bauxite. 

What is the way forward for improving the condition of the mining sector? 

To encourage exploration, there is a need to shift the current “revenue maximising” model to an “exploration investment incentivising” model. 

In the auction regime, area restrictions on mining leases should be removed. 

The law must exclude royalty and other charges from the sale value to determine the Auction Sale Price(ASP). ASP determination for all minerals should be uniform. 

Private participation in the mining of critical minerals that have important non-atomic use like lithium should be allowed. Such non-fissile minerals should be excluded from Part B of the first schedule of the Mines and Minerals (Development and Regulation) Act, 1957.


Speed and capacity – Restoring trust in IBC must be a priority

Source: The post is based on the article “Speed and capacity – Restoring trust in IBC must be a priority” published in Business Standard on 29th December 2022. 

Syllabus: GS 3 – Indian Economy

Relevance: concerns associated with the Insolvency and Bankruptcy Code (IBC). 

News: The Reserve Bank of India has released the “Trend and Progress in Banking Report for 2021-22”. It highlights the performance of the Insolvency and Bankruptcy Code (IBC). 

What is IBC? 

Click here to Read 

What are the key highlights of the report? 

As per the report, recovery rates were not higher than those achieved under the SARFAESI (Securitisation and Reconstruction of Financial Assets and Enforcement of Security Interest) Act or the debt recovery tribunals.  

However, it also highlighted that IBC has achieved remarkable results in liquidation value of the assets in the bankruptcy system till the second quarter of 2022-23. 

The report further said that the reasons behind low liquidation value might be because the entities entering the IBC have already undergone significant value destruction of asset holdings. 

This highlights the concerns and overall effectiveness of the IBC. 

What are the concerns with the IBC? 

The idea of the IBC was to provide a swift resolution. This would have helped financial creditors looking to preserve the value of their assets to move swiftly into the process before making value destruction of assets. 

However, understaffing, particularly, in the National Company Law Tribunal (NCLT) has caused delays within the IBC.  

Understaffing has led many banks towards handing stressed assets that could have been recovered by the National Asset Reconstruction Company Ltd (NARCL). 

The current time for resolution is around 680 days compared to 230 days in 2017-18 when the IBC was new. Almost two-thirds of the cases have gone beyond the mandated nine months. 

Therefore, the government has failed to adequately highlight, capitalise and invest in its own major reform which has caused it to underperform. 

What can be the way ahead? 

Even though the government has stated that it does not have any plans to bring reforms to IBC to speed up the resolution process, it has to ensure that the IBC returns to time-bound performance. 


Global arms sales: Change is underway

Source: The post is based on the article “Global arms sales: Change is underwaypublished in Business Standard on 29th December 2022. 

Syllabus: GS 3 – Defence 

Relevance: Increasing arms sales of China and India 

News: There has been an increase in arms sales from countries in the Asia-Oceania region in 2021. This article discusses the shifting pattern of countries and a comparison between India and China in arms sales. 

How have Asia-Oceania countries performed in arms sales? 

Arms sales from Asia and Oceania increased by 5.8% surpassing weapons sales from Europe. 

The United States still remains ahead of all the major arms-producing countries and regions. However, China has also seen an increase in its weapons sales in 2021. 

China alone accounted for over 80 percent of the weapons sales in the Asia-Oceania region in 2021. Japan was second with South Korea ranked third and India fourth. 

What are the reasons behind the increasing Chinese arms sales? 

Self-reliance in defence technology: China invested in its defence technology early in the 1950s due to which it is now seeing its benefit and growth. 

The merger of key industries: China merged its Shipbuilding Industry Corporation and China State Shipbuilding Corporation (CSSC) into a single entity. This helped consolidation in the Chinese defence industry. 

Other reasons are investments in weapons research and development, reverse engineering, etc. 

How has India performed in arms sales? 

India also saw improvements in its arms sales in 2021.  

Hindustan Aeronautics Limited (HAL) and Bharat Electronics Limited (BEL) saw an increase in their arms sales by 6.7% and 20% respectively. However, India lags behind China in arms sales. 

What can be the course of action for India? 

India can either move towards a fully-privatised defence industry like that of the US or towards a defence industrial complex like China. 

Further, the government could break up the two state-run monopolies (HAL and BEL) to boost productivity and competitiveness and consolidate them under a single entity like that of China. 


Prelims Oriented Articles (Factly)

Explained | The recommendation to ban the sale of single cigarettes

Source: The post is based on the article “Explained | The recommendation to ban the sale of single cigarettes” published in The Hindu on 28th December 2022

What is the News?

The Parliamentary Standing Committee on Health and Family Welfare in its latest report has recommended several measures to reduce the use of tobacco products.

Note: National Health Policy (2017) aims to reduce current tobacco use by 30% in 2025.

What are the recommendations given by the committee to reduce the use of tobacco products?

Ban single sticks of cigarettes: Single sticks are more economical to acquire than a full pack of cigarettes. This may particularly appeal to adolescents and youth who may have limited money in hand. Single sticks are also preferred by people who may want to take them up for experimentation and have not started smoking on a regular basis.  

– Hence, a ban on single-stick sales would compel a potential consumer to buy the entire pack which may not be particularly economical, thus curbing potential experimentation and the scope for regular intake. 

– However, experts have said that in the absence of a vendor licensing regime, the ban on single sticks might not be very effective. For instance, India is having lakhs and lakhs of shops to sell tobacco hence enforcing the ban is not feasible.

The government must abolish all designated smoking areas in airports, hotels and restaurants in addition to encouraging a smoke-free policy in organizations. 

Increase taxes on tobacco: India has the lowest prices for tobacco products and thus, it must look to increase taxes on them. The revenue acquired from additional taxation could be used for cancer prevention and awareness.

Note: Oral cancer accounts for the highest proportion of cancer cases in India.

Ban on gutka: The committee sought a ban on gutka and pan masala alongside a prohibition on their direct and indirect advertisement. 

– This is based on the observation that, in India, more than 80% of tobacco consumption is in the form of chewing tobacco with or without areca nuts, aggressively marketed as a mouth freshener.


How are disputes between states resolved in India?

Source: The post is based on the article “How are disputes between states resolved in India?” published in Indian Express on 28th December 2022

What is the News?

The border dispute between Maharashtra and Karnataka is intensifying with both states hardening their stance.

The Maharashtra Assembly recently passed a unanimous resolution to support a legal battle to resolve the dispute. 

What is the Maharashtra-Karnataka border dispute?

Click Here to read

What are some of the other inter-state disputes in India?

The Union Government has said that there are border disputes mostly arising out of claims and counter-claims over territories. At present, there are disputes between Assam-Meghalaya; Assam-Nagaland; Assam-Mizoram; Assam-Arunachal Pradesh and Maharashtra-Karnataka.

What are the methods to resolve disputes between States in India?

Centre working as mediator: Attempts are often made to resolve inter-state disputes with the cooperation of both sides with the Centre working as a facilitator or a neutral mediator. If issues are resolved amicably, Parliament can bring a law to alter state boundaries such as the Bihar-Uttar Pradesh (Alteration of Boundaries) Act of 1968 and the Haryana-Uttar Pradesh (Alteration of Boundaries) Act of 1979.

Judicial redressal: The Supreme Court in its original jurisdiction under Article 131 decides disputes between states. 

Inter-state Council: Article 263 of the Constitution gives powers to the President to set up an Inter-state Council for the resolution of disputes between states. The Council is envisaged as a forum for discussion between the states and the Centre.

– In 2021, the Centre reconstituted the Inter-state Council and the body now has 10 Union Ministers as permanent invitees. The standing committee of the Council has been reconstituted with Home Minister as Chairman. The Finance minister and the Chief Ministers of Maharashtra, UP, and Gujarat are some of the other standing committee members.


Jan Vishwas Bill, 2022: A failed attempt at decriminalisation

Source: The post is based on the article “A failed attempt at decriminalisationpublished in The Hindu on 29th December 2022

What is the News?

The Union Government has tabled the Jan Vishwas Bill, 2022 in Parliament with the objective of “decriminalizing” 183 offences across 42 legislations and enhancing the ease of living and doing business in India.

What are the key provisions of the Jan Vishwas Bill, 2022?

Decriminalising certain offences: Under the Bill, several offences with an imprisonment term in certain Acts have been decriminalised by imposing only a monetary penalty.  

– For example, under the Patents Act, 1970, a person selling a falsely represented article as patented in India is subject to a fine of up to one lakh rupees. The Bill replaces the fine with a penalty, which may be up to ten lakh rupees. In case of a continuing claim, there shall be an additional penalty of one thousand rupees per day.

Revision of fines and penalties: The Bill increases the fines and penalties for various offences in the specified Acts. Further, these fines and penalties will be increased by 10% of the minimum amount every three years.

Appointing adjudicating officers: As per the Bill, the central government may appoint one or more adjudicating officers for the purpose of determining penalties. The adjudicating officers may: (i) summon individuals for evidence and (ii) conduct inquiries into violations of the respected Acts.  

– These Acts include the Agricultural Produce (Grading and Marking) Act, 1937, the Air (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Act, 1981, the Environment (Protection) Act, 1986 and the Public Liability Insurance Act,1991.

Appellate mechanism: The Bill also specifies the appellate mechanisms for any person aggrieved by the order passed by an adjudicating officer. For instance, in the Environment (Protection) Act, 1986, appeals may be filed with the National Green Tribunal within 60 days from the order.   

How will the Bill help in ease of doing business?

The fear of imprisonment for minor offences is a major factor hampering the growth of the business ecosystem and individual confidence. A web of outdated rules and regulations causes a trust deficit.

The need of the hour is to achieve Minimum Government, Maximum Governance redefining the regulatory landscape of the country under the Ease of Living and Ease of Doing Business reforms. This bill will help in achieving this objective.

Read more: Laws and order – Decriminalisation will improve business environment
What are the criticisms against the bill?

Firstly, the Bill might undertake ‘quasi-decriminalisation’.

Secondly, the Observer Research Foundation’s report titled Jailed for Doing Business found that there are more than 26,134 imprisonment clauses in a total of 843 economic legislations, rules and regulations which seek to regulate businesses and economic activities in India.

– In this light, the number of offences deregulated under the Bill seems to be a mere drop in India’s regulatory framework.

Thirdly, the regulatory offences to be considered for ‘decriminalisation’ need to be prioritised not only from the point of view of the ease of doing business but also from the points of view of the ills that plague our criminal justice system itself.

Lastly, the bill conforms to the understanding of the government that decriminalization should be limited to regulatory domains.

– However, the time is now ripe to shift focus to existing penal offences as well. Debates are ongoing about the decriminalisation of several penal offences such as sedition, offences under the NDPS Act & UAPA Acts etc. There is an urgent need to assess these offences on a principled basis.


Union Minister unveils digital innovation alliance for G20

Source: The post is based on the article “Union Minister unveils digital innovation alliance for G20” published in Business Standard on 28th December 2022

What is the News?

The Union Minister for Electronics and Information Technology has launched the G20 Digital Innovation Alliance (DIA) and a “Stay Safe Online” Campaign.

What is the G20 Digital Innovation Alliance(DIA) programme?

Aim: To unite the innovation ecosystems of G-20 countries and nine invitee countries to recognise and support start-ups developing innovative digital solutions. 

Features: The DIA programme will have 174 start-ups from member countries and invitee countries sending in entries for digital solutions in six key sectors – Edtech, Healthtech, Agritech, Fintech, secured digital infrastructure and circular economy which will be showcased at an event in August 2023.

– The entries will be judged by a diverse jury, drawn from academia, corporates, Ministers and investors, at the end of which the top three innovations in each sector will be awarded. 

What is the Stay Safe Online campaign?

The Stay Safe Online campaign intends to raise awareness about cyber risks and the need for cyber hygiene in an increasingly digitizing world. 

The campaign is expected to make citizens of all age groups aware of cyber risk and ways to deal with it.


Year End Review – 2022 : Ministry of Mines

Source: The post is based on the articleYear End Review – 2022 : Ministry of Mines published in PIB on 28th December 2022

What is the News?

The Ministry of Mines has launched several initiatives and schemes in 2022.

What are the schemes and initiatives launched by the Ministry of Mines in 2022?

Khanij Bidesh India Limited(KABIL)

Minerals (Evidence of Mineral Contents) Second Amendment Rules,2021 

Mineral Exploration and Consultancy Limited(MECL): It was established as an autonomous Public Sector Company in 1972 under the administrative control of the Ministry of Mines for the systematic exploration of minerals to bridge the gap between the initial discovery of a prospect and its eventual exploitation. 

Indian Bureau of Mines(IBM): It is a subordinate office under the Ministry of Mines. It is engaged in the promotion of scientific development of mineral resources of the country, conservation of minerals, protection of the environment in mines for minerals, other than coal, petroleum and natural gas, atomic mineral and minor minerals.

Mining Surveillance System(MSS): It is a satellite-based monitoring system. It aims to establish a regime of responsive mineral administration by curbing instances of illegal mining activity through automatic remote sensing detection technology.

National Institute of Rock Mechanics(NIRM): It is an autonomous Research Institute under the Ministry of Mines, Government of India. The institute deals with field and laboratory investigations, basic and applied research, and solving complex problems in almost the entire spectrum of Rock Mechanics and Rock Engineering related to Mining and Civil Engineering activities.

– NIRM is the only institution in South Asia exclusively devoted to research in rock mechanics.


New In The New Year: 1.5 degree warmer world looms, but it’s not the end

Source: The post is based on the article “New In The New Year: 1.5 degree warmer world looms, but it’s not the end” published in Indian Express on 29th December 2022

What is the News?

The COP27 meeting in Sharm el-Sheikh, Egypt was hailed as ‘historic’ for its decision to create a fund to help developing countries recover from climate-induced disasters. 

But the final outcome of the meeting can be seen as a half-adequate response to an extremely urgent global climate emergency.

What has been the progress towards keeping the temperature within 1.5 degrees Celsius from pre-industrial times?

The Sharm el-Sheikh outcome acknowledges that global greenhouse gas emissions need to be reduced by at least 43% from 2019 levels by the year 2030, if hopes of keeping the temperature within 1.5 degrees Celsius from pre-industrial times are to remain alive. 

But the problem is that this reduction has not even started.

In fact, greenhouse gas emissions are still on the rise. Latest estimates suggest that the emissions for 2021 still to be calculated would be higher than 2019 and a new record.

According to the World Meteorological Organisation (WMO), the year 2022 is likely to end up being about 1.15 degree Celsius warmer than pre-industrial times. It could have been even hotter if not for the cooling effect of the unusually prolonged La Nina event which has entered its third year now. 

The warmest year on record, 2016, was about 1.28 degree Celsius hotter than pre-industrial times.

What will happen if the temperature crosses 1.5 degrees Celsius from pre-industrial times?

The 1.5 degree Celsius warmer world would not be dramatically different from what we have today. The frequency and intensity of extreme weather events are predicted to increase with a further rise in temperature. 

But, in itself, the 1.5 degree Celsius mark is no special trigger. Neither is the 2-degree Celsius mark. The effort is to restrict the rise in temperatures to as low a level as possible in order to minimize the impacts of climate change.

What has been the impact of climate disasters on human life and the economy?

According to the WMO Atlas of Mortality and Economic Losses from Weather, Climate and Water Extremes, climate or weather-related disasters across the globe increased from 711 incidents in the 1970-79 decade to 3,165 incidents in the 2010-2019 period, an almost five-fold increase.

However, the number of human lives lost declined by almost 70% from about 556,000 in the 1970s to just about 185,000 in the previous decade.

On the other hand, the economic losses increased manifold — from about 175 billion USD in the 1970s to nearly 1.4 trillion USD in the 2010s — mainly because of the increase in the frequency of disasters and also in the value of the assets and infrastructure.

What are the recent steps taken to fight against climate disasters?

Executive Action Plan for the Early Warnings for All initiative by WMO

Infrastructure for Resilient Island States(IRIS) Initiative


Year End Review – 2022 Ministry of Micro, Small & Medium Enterprises

Source: The post is based on the articleYear End Review- 2022 Ministry of Micro, Small & Medium Enterprises published in PIB on 28th December 2022

What is the News?

The Ministry of Micro, Small & Medium Enterprises has launched several initiatives and schemes in 2022.

What are the schemes and initiatives launched by the Ministry of Mines in 2022?

Raising and Accelerating MSME Performance(RAMP) Scheme

Capacity Building of First-Time MSME Exporters(CBFTE) scheme

Prime Minister’s Employment Generation Programme(PMEGP)

Trade Receivables Discounting system(TReDS) 

Micro and Small Enterprises Cluster Development Programme(MSE-CDP): The scheme is aimed at enhancing the productivity and competitiveness of Micro and Small Enterprises (MSEs) by extending financial assistance as Government of India (GoI) grant for establishment of Common Facility Centers(CFCs) in the existing clusters and for establishment of new / upgradation of existing Industrial Areas / Estates / Flatted Factory Complex. 

Scheme of Fund for Regeneration of Traditional Industries(SFURTI)

Procurement and Marketing Support(PMS) Scheme: The scheme promotes new market access initiatives and enhances the marketability of products and services in the MSME sector.

India International Trade Fair (IITF), 2022

International Cooperation Scheme

MSME Innovative scheme

Technology Centre Systems Programme(TCSP)

Entrepreneurship Skill Development Programme(ESDP): The scheme focuses on nurturing the talent of youth by making them aware of various aspects required for setting up an enterprise.

— It aims to motivate the youth to consider self-employment or entrepreneurship, promote new enterprises, build the capacity of existing MSMEs and inculcate entrepreneurial culture in the country.

National SC-ST Hub (NSSH): The scheme is aimed at promoting entrepreneurship among the SC/ST and to fulfill the 4% procurement mandate by the CPSEs as laid down in the Central Government Public Procurement Policy and boosting entrepreneurship among SC/STs. 

Mahatma Gandhi Institute for Rural Industrialization(MGIRI): It is an autonomous institution located in Wardha, Maharashtra whose purpose is to accelerate the process of rural industrialization by providing science and technology support. It is inspired by the Gandhian vision of a sustainable and self-reliant village economy.

CHAMPIONS Portal


Government gives official recognition to Esports

Source: The post is based on the article “Government gives official recognition to Esportspublished in The Hindu on 28th December 2022

What is the News?

The Government of India has officially recognised e-sports as part of the ‘Multi-sport’ event.

What are E-sports?

Esports (Electronic Sports) is a competitive sport where gamers use their physical and mental abilities to compete in various games in a virtual, electronic environment.

The most common video game genres associated with esports are League of Legends, Counter-Strike, and Valorant among others.

Importance of e-sports:

Esports in India and across the world has gained prominence in recent times. 

Earlier this year, the Commonwealth Games 2022 in Birmingham, UK included esports as a pilot event.

Esports will also debut at the postponed Asian Games in Hangzhou, China as a medal event after being held as a demonstrative sport in Jakarta 2018.  

In November 2022, the International Olympic Committee (IOC) also confirmed that its inaugural Olympic Esports Week will take place in Singapore in 2023.

Recognition of e-sports as a multi-sport event by India

The President of India has amended the regulations governing eSports and included eSports in multi-sport events.

This means that recognised esports tournaments might attain the same status as other offline sporting events in the country, like national-level tournaments.

Nodal Ministry: E-Sports will be taken care of by the Department of Sports under the Ministry of Youth Affairs and Sports.

– While ‘Online Gaming’ will be overseen by MEITY (Ministry of Electronics and Information Technology).


City Finance Rankings and and City Beauty Competition: Ministry of Housing and Urban Affairs launches 2 key initiatives to take India’s Urban Rejuvenation journey to next level

Source: The post is based on the articleMinistry of Housing and Urban Affairs launches 2 key initiatives to take India’s Urban Rejuvenation journey to next level published in PIB on 28th December 2022

What is the News?

The Ministry of Housing and Urban Affairs has launched two key initiatives – City Finance Rankings, 2022 and City Beauty Competition. 

What is City Finance Rankings?

Aim: To evaluate, recognize and reward India’s cities (Urban Local Bodies or ULBs) on the basis of the quality of their current financial health and improvement over time in financial performance.

– To motivate city/state officials and decision-makers, to implement municipal finance reforms.

Parameters: The participating ULBs will be evaluated on 15 indicators across three key municipal finance assessment parameters, namely: (i) Resource Mobilization, (ii) Expenditure Performance and (iii) Fiscal Governance. 

Categories: The cities will be ranked at the national level on the basis of their scores under any one of the following four population categories: (i) Above 4 million, (ii) Between 1-4 million, (iii) 100K to 1 million, (iv) Less than 100,000. 

– The top 3 cities in each population category will be recognized and rewarded at the national level as well as within each state/state cluster.

Significance: City Finance Rankings are an effort to analyze and help the ULBs in identifying areas in their financial performance where they can make further improvements, to be able to deliver quality infrastructure and services to its citizens.

– The rankings will serve as a constant motivation for city/state officials to continue to implement municipal finance reforms.

– At a state- and national level, the rankings will highlight the outcomes achieved by municipalities and provide critical insights to key policymakers into the state of finances of urban local bodies. 

What is the City Beauty Competition?

Aim: To encourage and recognize the transformational efforts made by cities and wards in India to create beautiful, innovative and inclusive public spaces.

Parameters: Wards and public places of cities would be judged against the five broad pillars (i) accessibility, (ii) amenities, (iii) activities, (iv) aesthetics and (v) ecology. 

Voluntary: Participation in the City Beauty Competition is voluntary. However, all wards and cities are encouraged to participate, as this would generate healthy competition amongst them, while also inculcating a sense of community ownership & pride.

Significance: The City Beauty Competition would facilitate the most beautiful wards and beautiful public places at the city level.


India must reduce its public debt ratio to build economic resilience

Source– The post is based on the article “India must reduce its public debt ratio to build economic resilience” published in the mint on 8th February 2023. Syllabus: GS3- Government budgeting Relevance– Issues related to public debt and government borrowing News– The new budget has a credible plan to reduce the fiscal deficit as a… Continue reading India must reduce its public debt ratio to build economic resilience

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U.S. shot down a Chinese ‘spy’ balloon

Source: This post is created based on the article “U.S. shot down a Chinese ‘spy’ balloon”, published in The Hindu on 8th Feb 2023. Syllabus Topic: GS Paper 3 – Science and Technology – Defence Technologies Read more- Advantages of Spy balloons over spy satellites On Jan 28, defence and military officials confirmed that a… Continue reading U.S. shot down a Chinese ‘spy’ balloon

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Cities would literally be much cooler with more trees around

Source: This post is created based on the article “Cities would literally be much cooler with more trees around”, published in Live Mint on 8th Feb 2023. Syllabus Topic: GS Paper 1 – Urbanisation and associated issues Context: 2022 was Europe’s hottest summer on record. However, this summer could be even worse with the return… Continue reading Cities would literally be much cooler with more trees around

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Boosting pharma research

Source: This post is created based on the article “Boosting pharma research”, published in Business Standard on 8th Feb 2023. Syllabus Topic: GS Paper 3 – Industries and industrial policies News: Government is going to introduce research-linked incentive (RLI) scheme for pharmaceutical sector, just like PLI scheme for other sectors. Not much is clear about… Continue reading Boosting pharma research

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In light of the Russia-Ukraine war, an opportunity to modernise India’s defence industry

Source– The post is based on the article “In light of the Russia-Ukraine war, an opportunity to modernise India’s defence industry” published in The Indian Express on 8th February 2023. Syllabus: GS2- International Relations Relevance– Changing geopolitics and defence ecosystem News– New global defence engagements are emerging with the Ukraine war. It opens the possibility… Continue reading In light of the Russia-Ukraine war, an opportunity to modernise India’s defence industry

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Neglecting the health sector has consequences

Source– The post is based on the article “Neglecting the health sector has consequences” published in The Hindu on 8th February 2023. Syllabus: GS2- Issues relating to development and management of health and education Relevance– Social sector News– The allocations in the Budget for health, education and nutrition has remained stagnant. What is the importance… Continue reading Neglecting the health sector has consequences

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Private sector has not responded to government initiatives so far

Source– The post is based on the article “Private sector has not responded to government initiatives so far” published in The Indian Express on 8th February 2023. Syllabus: GS3- Indian economy Relevance– Changing structure of economy News– Despite record profits of the larger firms and the increase in capital spending by the public sector, a… Continue reading Private sector has not responded to government initiatives so far

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Yuva Sangam registration portal launched

Source: The post is based on the article “Yuva Sangam registration portal launched” published in PIB on 7th February 2023. What is the News? The Union Minister of Education has launched the “Yuva Sangam” portal. What is Yuva Sangam? It is an initiative of the Prime Minister of India. Aim: To build close ties between… Continue reading Yuva Sangam registration portal launched

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No Bar of Res-judicata on Second Petition for Divorce If It Is Founded on New Facts: Madras HC

Source: The post is based on the article “No Bar of Res-judicata on Second Petition for Divorce If It Is Founded on New Facts: Madras HC” published in News18 on 7th February 2023. What is the News? Madras High Court has recently dismissed a civil revision petition filed by a woman against an order of… Continue reading No Bar of Res-judicata on Second Petition for Divorce If It Is Founded on New Facts: Madras HC

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Stone-age carvings found in Aravalis in Gurugram

Source: The post is based on the article “Stone-age carvings found in Aravalis in Gurugram” published in TOI on 7th February 2023. What is the News? Various Paleolithic paintings found in the Aravalli hills and the latest discovery of stone carvings in the Badshahpur area of Gurugram has widened the trove of history in the… Continue reading Stone-age carvings found in Aravalis in Gurugram

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NCAER Report on Farm Machinery Industry in India presented to MoS (Agriculture) Ms. Shobha Karandlaje

Source: The post is based on the article “NCAER Report on Farm Machinery Industry in India presented to MoS (Agriculture) Ms. Shobha Karandlaje” published in PIB on 7th February 2023. What is the News? National Council of Applied Economic Research(NCAER) has released a report titled “Making India a Global Power House on Farm Machinery Industry”.… Continue reading NCAER Report on Farm Machinery Industry in India presented to MoS (Agriculture) Ms. Shobha Karandlaje

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Row over Nagaland DGP: How are state police chiefs appointed?

Source: The post is based on the article “Row over Nagaland DGP: How are state police chiefs appointed?” published in Indian Express on 7th February 2023. What is the News? The Nagaland government has issued an order appointing Rupin Sharma as Director General of the state police. The order was passed after Nagaland challenged the… Continue reading Row over Nagaland DGP: How are state police chiefs appointed?

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Department of Animal Husbandry implements various schemes to promote and develop animal husbandry and dairying sector across the country

Source: The post is based on the article “Department of Animal Husbandry implements various schemes to promote and develop animal husbandry and dairying sector across the country” published in PIB on 7th February 2023. What is the News? The Department of Animal Husbandry and Dairying is implementing various schemes to supplement the efforts of States/UTs… Continue reading Department of Animal Husbandry implements various schemes to promote and develop animal husbandry and dairying sector across the country

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Dhamaal: The incredible story of how East African culture shaped the music of a state in India

Source: The post is based on the article “Dhamaal: The incredible story of how East African culture shaped the music of a state in India” published in Down To Earth on 7th February 2023. What is the News? The story of Dhamaal performance traditions by Siddis reveals the rich and complex mixing of cultures in… Continue reading Dhamaal: The incredible story of how East African culture shaped the music of a state in India

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Why railways around the world are ditching diesel for hydrogen

Source: The post is based on the article “Why railways around the world are ditching diesel for hydrogen” published in TOI on 7th February 2023. What is the News? Indian Railways has planned to operate 35 hydrogen-powered trains on various heritage and hilly routes in India under its ‘Hydrogen for Heritage’ Project. What is Hydrogen… Continue reading Why railways around the world are ditching diesel for hydrogen

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CAR T-cell therapy: the next step towards a holistic treatment of cancer

Source: The post is based on the article “CAR T-cell therapy: the next step towards a holistic treatment of cancer” published in Indian Express on 7th February 2023. What is the News? The three major forms of treatment for any cancer are surgery (removing the cancer), radiotherapy (delivering ionising radiation to the tumour), and systemic… Continue reading CAR T-cell therapy: the next step towards a holistic treatment of cancer

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What has the Union Budget allocated to minorities?

Source: The post is based on the article “What has the Union Budget allocated to minorities?” published in The Hindu on 8th February 2023. What is the News? The Union Budget for 2023-24 came with a reduction of 38% in funds for the Ministry of Minority Affairs. Which schemes might be impacted due to the… Continue reading What has the Union Budget allocated to minorities?

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Signs of a weakening public sector

Source: The post is based on the article “Signs of a weakening public sector” published in the Business Standard on 8th February 2023. Syllabus: GS 3 – Government Budgeting. Relevance: About fiscal relations between the Centre and states and PSUs. News: The Budget reveals the nature of the Centre’s financial engagement with public sector undertakings… Continue reading Signs of a weakening public sector

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Make In IndAIa – As Google comes up with a ChatGPT rival & AI becomes ubiquitous, here’s what GoI must do

Source: The post is based on the article “Make In IndAIa – As Google comes up with a ChatGPT rival & AI becomes ubiquitous, here’s what GoI must do” published in The Times of India on 8th February 2023. Syllabus: GS 3 – Awareness in the fields of IT. Relevance: About AI research. News: Recently,… Continue reading Make In IndAIa – As Google comes up with a ChatGPT rival & AI becomes ubiquitous, here’s what GoI must do

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A quick reset – India and Canada are looking at the big picture as they put behind discord

Source: The post is based on the article “A quick reset – India and Canada are looking at the big picture as they put behind discord” published in The Hindu on 8th February 2023. Syllabus: GS 2 – Bilateral, regional and global groupings and agreements involving India and/or affecting India’s interests. Relevance: About bilateral ties… Continue reading A quick reset – India and Canada are looking at the big picture as they put behind discord

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Hydroelectric Projects in India: Status, Benefits and Concerns – Explained, pointwise

For 7PM Editorial Archives click HERE → Introduction The Joshimath crisis in Uttarakhand has led to large scale displacement of the local population. The Government has halted all construction activity in the region. The reason for the crisis is being attributed to development projects being undertaken in the region. This has brought attention to the large-scale hydroelectric projects… Continue reading Hydroelectric Projects in India: Status, Benefits and Concerns – Explained, pointwise

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[UPSC Interview 2022] – Transcript #39 : Lt. Gen. Raj Shukla Board, PSIR Optional, Tamil Nadu Home State

Board: Lt. Gen. Raj Shukla (Retd.) Optional: PSIR Background: Civil Engg Home State: Tamil Nadu 4th interview No questions from the hobbies/interests To view all IAS Interview Transcripts 2022, visit this page Chairman Which place are you from? Why psir after graduation in engg? Have you gained interest in IR? There’s a diplomat called George Schultz.… Continue reading [UPSC Interview 2022] – Transcript #39 : Lt. Gen. Raj Shukla Board, PSIR Optional, Tamil Nadu Home State

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[UPSC Interview 2022] – Transcript #38 : RN Choubey Board, Geography Optional, watching Japanese anime, Running Hobbies

Date of Interview: 3rd Feb afternoon 5th to go Board: RN Choubey Background: Physics, Optional: Geography Hobbies: watching Japanese anime, Running Sports: chess, and hockey Extremely cordial board (well what can you expect from Choubey sir’s board) JUST RANDOM THINGS, JUST 2-3 QUESTIONS FROM DAF CANT SAY HOW TO JUDGE Wished everyone – Good afternoon… Continue reading [UPSC Interview 2022] – Transcript #38 : RN Choubey Board, Geography Optional, watching Japanese anime, Running Hobbies

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[UPSC Interview 2022] – Transcript #37 : RN Choubey Board, Philosophy Optional, Bihar Home State, Vipassna, Guitar Hobbies

Date of Interview: 2nd Feb Afternoon Board: RN Choubey Background: BSc Physics Optional: Philosophy Home State: Bihar 3rd attempt , 1st Interview Hobbies: Vipassna, Guitar, reading self-improvement books Extremely cordial board … First minute was briefing and then given choice to remove the mask To view all IAS Interview Transcripts 2022, visit this page Chairman… Continue reading [UPSC Interview 2022] – Transcript #37 : RN Choubey Board, Philosophy Optional, Bihar Home State, Vipassna, Guitar Hobbies

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Must Read Current Affairs Articles – February 8th, 2023

About Must Read News Articles: Must Read News Articles is an initiative by Team ForumIAS to provide links to the most important news articles of the day. It covers The Hindu newspaper. This saves the time and effort of students in identifying useful and important articles. With newspaper websites requiring a paid subscription beyond a certain… Continue reading Must Read Current Affairs Articles – February 8th, 2023

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Jammu, village defence and governance

Source– The post is based on the article “Jammu, village defence and governance” published in The Hindu on 7th February 2023. Syllabus: GS3- Security Relevance– Security situation in Jammu and Kashmir News– There is a rise in terror-related strikes in the relatively peaceful Jammu division, especially in the border districts. Recently, the government decided to… Continue reading Jammu, village defence and governance

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The freedom of speech and an ‘adolescent India’

Source– The post is based on the article “The freedom of speech and an ‘adolescent India’” published in The Hindu on 7th February 2023. Syllabus: GS2- Significant provisions of constitution Relevance– Right to freedom in India News– The article explains the notions of freedom of speech in India and the west. It also explains the… Continue reading The freedom of speech and an ‘adolescent India’

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CEO NITI Aayog Param Iyer on Budget 2023-24: An infrastructure push for the people

Source– The post is based on the article “CEO NITI Aayog Param Iyer on Budget 2023-24: An infrastructure push for the people” published in The Indian Express on 7th February 2023. Syllabus: GS2-Budgeting Relevance: Infrastructure creation News- The article explains how Budget 2023 gives a powerful thrust to infrastructure development . What are the announcements… Continue reading CEO NITI Aayog Param Iyer on Budget 2023-24: An infrastructure push for the people

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Budget 2023-24 ignores rural distress, tries to fix demand problem with supply interventions

Source– The post is based on the article “Budget 2023-24 ignores rural distress, tries to fix demand problem with supply interventions” published in The Indian Express on 7th February 2023. Syllabus: GS2- Budgeting Relevance:Rural development News- The article emphasises the need to prioritise allocations towards reviving consumption demand and  spurring private investment . What are… Continue reading Budget 2023-24 ignores rural distress, tries to fix demand problem with supply interventions

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Instead of criminalising child marriage, Assam CM Himanta Biswa Sarma should heed PM Modi’s call of Beti Bachao Beti Padhao

Source: The post is based on the article “Instead of criminalising child marriage, Assam CM Himanta Biswa Sarma should heed PM Modi’s call of Beti Bachao Beti Padhao” published in The Indian Express on 7th February 2023. Syllabus: GS 2 – Social Justice Relevance: evolution of laws on child marriages in India News: The Assam government has… Continue reading Instead of criminalising child marriage, Assam CM Himanta Biswa Sarma should heed PM Modi’s call of Beti Bachao Beti Padhao

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What will drive global growth?

Source: The post is based on the article “What will drive global growth?” published in Business Standard on 7th February 2023. Syllabus: GS 3 – Growth and Development Relevance: factors responsible for growth in A-10 economies News: The demographic shift in 10 major Asian economies (the A-10: China, India, Indonesia, Japan, the Philippines, Vietnam, Thailand, Korea, Malaysia,… Continue reading What will drive global growth?

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How are earthquakes measured and how massive is the Turkey one?

Source: This post is created based on the article “How are earthquakes measured and how massive is the Turkey one?”, published in Indian Express on 7th Feb, 2023. Syllabus Topic: GS Paper 3, Disaster management News: Recently, an earthquake of magnitude 7.8 struck south-central Turkey and Northwest Syria. Reports have put the number of fatalities… Continue reading How are earthquakes measured and how massive is the Turkey one?

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Ballooning Options To Spy

Source: This post is created based on the article “Ballooning Options To Spy”, published in Times of India on 7th Feb, 2023. Syllabus Topic: GS Paper 3, Science and technology, News: The Chinese airship that was shot down over US soil brought to light new spying technologies, some of which India should work on. Advantages… Continue reading Ballooning Options To Spy

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[UPSC Interview 2022] – Transcript #36 : RN Choubey Board, Agriculture Optional, Tamil Nadu Home State, Hydroponics Hobby

Date of Interview: 03rd Feb Board: RN Choubey Home State: Tamil Nadu Work: Indian Forest Sevice Hobby: Hydroponics Optional: Agriculture To view all IAS Interview Transcripts 2022, visit this page Chairman Tell us about your Work experience. You are already in a good service, why you wanted to appear in the⁸ exam again ? Your… Continue reading [UPSC Interview 2022] – Transcript #36 : RN Choubey Board, Agriculture Optional, Tamil Nadu Home State, Hydroponics Hobby

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Jupiter Now Has The Biggest Family Of Planets With 12 Newly Discovered Moons

Source: The post is based on the article “Jupiter Now Has The Biggest Family Of Planets With 12 Newly Discovered Moons” published in Indian Express on 7th February 2023. What is the News? Jupiter isn’t just the largest and most massive planet in the solar system. It now also has the largest number of moons… Continue reading Jupiter Now Has The Biggest Family Of Planets With 12 Newly Discovered Moons

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India, Canada FMs discuss Indo-Pacific cooperation, trade

Source: The post is based on the article “India, Canada FMs discuss Indo-Pacific cooperation, trade” published in The Hindu on 7th February 2023. What is the News? India’s External Affairs Minister met the Canadian Foreign Minister. They discussed ways to deepen their bilateral partnership and exchanged views on the global situation, particularly in the Indo-Pacific… Continue reading India, Canada FMs discuss Indo-Pacific cooperation, trade

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Why the MCD House elections have been stalled for the third time

Source: The post is based on the article “Why the MCD House elections have been stalled for the third time” published in Indian Express on 7th February 2023. What is the News? The Presiding Officer for the mayoral election in the Municipal Corporation of Delhi (MCD) has said that aldermen — who are nominated members… Continue reading Why the MCD House elections have been stalled for the third time

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ST commission functioning with less than 50% of its approved strength

Source: The post is based on the article “ST commission functioning with less than 50% of its approved strength” published in The Hindu on 7th February 2023. What is the News? Data presented by the Ministry of Tribal Affairs(MoTA) has revealed that the National Commission for Scheduled Tribes(NCST) is currently functioning with less than 50%… Continue reading ST commission functioning with less than 50% of its approved strength

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India joins UAE, France for trilateral on clean energy, counter-pandemic steps

Source: The post is based on the article “India joins UAE, France for trilateral on clean energy, counter-pandemic steps” published in The Hindu on 6th February 2023. What is the News? India, France and the United Arab Emirates(UAE) have announced the creation of a formal trilateral cooperation initiative. The idea of this partnership was first… Continue reading India joins UAE, France for trilateral on clean energy, counter-pandemic steps

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India to send disaster relief teams to quake-hit Turkey

Source: The post is based on the article “India to send disaster relief teams to quake-hit Turkey” published in The Hindu on 7th February 2023. What is the News? The Prime Minister has declared that India will provide all possible assistance to Turkey to deal with the devastating earthquake that hit the country  India will send… Continue reading India to send disaster relief teams to quake-hit Turkey

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UNESCO to soon declare Visva-Bharati world’s first living heritage university

Source: The post is based on the article “UNESCO to soon declare Visva-Bharati world’s first living heritage university” published in Indian Express on 7th February 2023. What is the News? Visva-Bharati University will soon get the ‘heritage’ tag from UNESCO to take the distinction of world’s first living heritage university. What is Visva-Bharati University? Visva-Bharati… Continue reading UNESCO to soon declare Visva-Bharati world’s first living heritage university

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Prime Minister launches E20 Fuel & flags off Green Mobility Rally in Bengaluru

Source: The post is based on the article “Prime Minister launches E20 Fuel & flags off Green Mobility Rally in Bengaluru” published in PIB on 6th February 2023. What is the News? Prime Minister inaugurated India Energy Week (IEW) 2023 in Bengaluru. He launched multiple initiatives in the field of green energy including E20 fuel… Continue reading Prime Minister launches E20 Fuel & flags off Green Mobility Rally in Bengaluru

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Voice deepfakes: how they are generated, used, misused and differentiated

Source: The post is based on the article “Voice deepfakes: how they are generated, used, misused and differentiated” published in The Hindu on 7th February 2023. What is the News? Several users of the social media platform 4chan used “speech synthesis” and “voice cloning” service provider, ElevenLabs, to make Voice Deepfakes of celebrities like Emma… Continue reading Voice deepfakes: how they are generated, used, misused and differentiated

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Energy Transition: Challenges and Solutions – Explained, pointwise

For 7PM Editorial Archives click HERE → Introduction The window for climate action is shortening rapidly. IPCC Sixth Assessment Report had pointed out that Earth will warm up by 1.5°C (above pre-Industrial level) over the next couple of decades. According to NASA, the planet’s average temperature was 1.02°C warmer in 2020 than the mean temperature between 1950-80. If… Continue reading Energy Transition: Challenges and Solutions – Explained, pointwise

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End-of-life decisions – SC’s tweaks on directive norms are welcome, but legislation will be better

Source: The post is based on the article “End-of-life decisions – SC’s tweaks on directive norms are welcome, but legislation will be better” published in The Hindu on 7th February 2023. Syllabus: GS 2 – Issues relating to development and management of Social Sector/Services relating to Health. Relevance: About advance medical directives. News: In a… Continue reading End-of-life decisions – SC’s tweaks on directive norms are welcome, but legislation will be better

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The demand for MGNREGS work is unmet

Source: The post is based on the article “The demand for MGNREGS work is unmet” published in The Hindu on 7th February 2023. Syllabus: GS 2 – Welfare schemes for vulnerable sections of the population by the Centre and States and the performance of these schemes. Relevance: About the demand for MGNREGS. News: The allocation… Continue reading The demand for MGNREGS work is unmet

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Municipal Mess – From MCD to BMC, paralysis of urban local bodies undermines local governance and democracy

Source: The post is based on the article “Municipal Mess – From MCD to BMC, paralysis of urban local bodies undermines local governance and democracy” published in The Times of India on 7th February 2023. Syllabus: GS 2 – Devolution of powers and finances up to local levels and challenges therein. Relevance: About MCD mayor… Continue reading Municipal Mess – From MCD to BMC, paralysis of urban local bodies undermines local governance and democracy

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Women-centric development – India Inc must help enhance the role of women in nation building

Source: The post is based on the article “India Inc must help enhance the role of women in nation building” published in Live Mint on 7th February 2023. Syllabus: GS 3 – Inclusive growth and issues arising from it.. Relevance: About women-centric development. News: A paradigm shift is observed in reorienting India’s direction of economic… Continue reading Women-centric development – India Inc must help enhance the role of women in nation building

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[UPSC Interview 2022] – Transcript #35 : Lt. Gen. Raj Shukla Board, History Optional, Hosting quizzes, pencil sketching Hobbies

Date of Interview: 01/02/23 Afternoon Board: Lt. Gen. Raj Shukla (Retd.) Optional: History Background: IIT Madras Hobbies: Hosting quizzes, pencil sketching Your experience in Interview: No pleasantries to make the interviewee comfortable. Expressionless faces. Slight smiles at times. Entire board was attentive to the answers. Overall good experience. Utility of mocks or O2O (if any)-… Continue reading [UPSC Interview 2022] – Transcript #35 : Lt. Gen. Raj Shukla Board, History Optional, Hosting quizzes, pencil sketching Hobbies

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[UPSC Interview 2022] – Transcript #34 : Lt. Gen. Raj Shukla Board, Chemistry Optional, leadership Hobby

Date of Interview: 2nd Feb forenoon (4th to go) Board: Lt. Gen. Raj Shukla (Retd.) Background: dual degree (Btech + Mtech) in civil engineering from an old IIT Optional: Chemistry Hobbies: leadership, etc – no Qs asked DAF keywords: patent granted in treatment of water using solar energy and a medical device presented in the festival… Continue reading [UPSC Interview 2022] – Transcript #34 : Lt. Gen. Raj Shukla Board, Chemistry Optional, leadership Hobby

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