9 PM Daily Current Affairs Brief – December 31st, 2022

Dear Friends,

We have initiated some changes in the 9 PM Brief and other postings related to current affairs. What we sought to do:

  1. Ensure that all relevant facts, data, and arguments from today’s newspaper are readily available to you.
  2. We have widened the sources to provide you with content that is more than enough and adds value not just for GS but also for essay writing. Hence, the 9 PM brief now covers the following newspapers:
    1. The Hindu  
    2. Indian Express  
    3. Livemint  
    4. Business Standard  
    5. Times of India 
    6. Down To Earth
    7. PIB
  3. We have also introduced the relevance part to every article. This ensures that you know why a particular article is important.
  4. Since these changes are new, so initially the number of articles might increase, but they’ll go down over time.
  5. It is our endeavor to provide you with the best content and your feedback is essential for the same. We will be anticipating your feedback and ensure the blog serves as an optimal medium of learning for all the aspirants.
    • For previous editions of 9 PM BriefClick Here
    • For individual articles of 9 PM BriefClick Here

Current Affairs Compilations for UPSC IAS Prelims 2022

Mains Oriented Articles

GS Paper 2

GS Paper 3

Prelims Oriented Articles (Factly)

Mains Oriented Articles

GS Paper 2


Marriage rights of same-sex couples: A strong case exists for marriage equality

Source: The post is based on the article A strong case exists for marriage equalitypublished in The Hindu on 31st December 2022. 

Syllabus: GS2- Vulnerable sections of the population.

Relevance: Issues related to the marriage rights of same-sex couples.

News: A petition for marriage rights of same-sex couples under the Special Marriage Act, 1954 is pending before the Supreme Court of India. 

What are the important aspects of LGBTQ community’s legal battle for their rights? 

An important legal aspect is whether the law criminalising sexual conduct has been violative of the right to privacy or the right to equality 

In the former, one’s sexual orientation was held intrinsic to privacy and personal liberty. In the latter, equal treatment of same-sex couples with those of heterosexual couples was considered paramount.  

The privacy approach needs non-interference by state and equality approach requires the state to take positive steps to ensure equal treatment in all spheres of life. 

If an equality approach is preferred, other rights like, prohibiting employment discrimination, rights in marriage, adoption should be considered for LGBT community. 

What is the practice followed in other countries on rights of LGBTQ community? 

The European Court of Human Rights in 1981 struck down the offence of buggery in Northern Ireland as violative of personal liberty. It thus adopted a privacy approach. 

Many European countries have not yet granted marriage rights to same-sex couples and only recognised civil partnerships. 

In South Africa, the judiciary has compared the privacy and equality approaches in a case dealing with the decriminalisation of homosexuality. It has opined that the equality approach was enabling and granting greater protection to homosexual persons.  

The constitutional court of Africa in one of its decisions has prohibited the state from interfering in the right to marriage. 

The U.S. has decriminalised same-sex relations granted marriage equality under the due process of law. The focus was thus on personal liberty. 

What has been the approach followed by the Indian judiciary? 

India adopted the South African approach in Navtej Singh case (2018). The top court decriminalised homosexuality. The court opined that section 377 created an unreasonable classification for same-sex persons under Article 14. It is also violative of bodily autonomy under Article 21 

Further, sexual orientation implicated both negative and positive obligations on the state.  

It called for a recognition of rights to ensure the true fulfilment of same-sex relationships. Even in NALSA judgement, the Court acknowledged the importance of sequential rights arising from ‘gender identity’. 

What is the way forward for marriage rights for same-sex couples? 

Strong equality-based reasoning provided by higher courts means that not providing marriage rights for same sex couples can not be justified.  

Marriage equality for same-sex couples in India should not be left to the legislature. This would be significant in the Indian context where marriage holds a special cultural and religious value 

Denial of marriage equality may reinforce the stigma faced by same-sex couples. 


India’s global approach: 2023: The year India may realise its global power aspirations

Source: The post is based on the article “2023: The year India may realise its global power aspirations” published in The Indian Express on 31st December 2022. 

Syllabus: GS2- International relations 

Relevance: Foreign policy choices of Indian government 

News: This article explains the Indian choice on important global issues. It also suggest the way forward for India to increase its global stature 

In September 2014, Prime Minister Narendra Modi talked about making the US a principal partner “in the realisation of India’s rise as a responsible, influential world power” 

What has been India’s global approach to issues of global importance? 

Since its Independence, India has pushed for an agenda that favoured the interests of developing or less developed countries. India took a principled stand and stood up to the policy domination of the developed world. The examples are GATT and NPT 

India’s role as the protector of the interests of the developing world during WTO negotiations has been significant; For instance, India played a critical role in preventing developed countries from imposing their trade and commercial agendas.

What has changed in India’s global approach recently? 

India stand up for the developing world and uphold its strategic autonomy, India started playing a proactive role in finding solutions. For example,   

-The Paris Climate Summit in 2015 provided the first major opportunity for India to highlight its new priorities. It played a pivotal role in the climate deal while protecting the interests of the developing world.  

India’s efforts resulted in developed countries agreeing to the principle of “common and differentiated responsibility”. India also convinced developed countries to agree to the formulation of INDCs. 

-India’s global stature has increased because of its constructive response during the Covid pandemic. It supplied vaccines to many developing countries through its “Vaccine Maitri” programme. In the post-Covid world, India’s importance is growing. Its post-Covid economic recovery has been commendable. 

At the Bali G20 Summit, India played a crucial role in ensuring that both Russia and US can put their viewpoints. India conveyed to the Russian leadership that it was not a time for war. India has an opportunity to play a role in ending the war. It will determine its future status. 

What are the challenges to India’s global approach?

Externally, China keeps the border tense. Domestically, the aggravation of religious and political fault lines for electoral or ideological reasons may impact the leadership’s ability to rise in global status. 

What should be the way forward for India’s global approach?

India must not compromise on its principled stand. It must continue to act as the voice of the Global South. This can be done by a) India’s diplomatic, strategic and political investments in its neighbourhood and Asia, Africa and Latin America must increase, b) India’s attention to the ASEAN and Indian Ocean neighbourhood must grow. Its Act East policy needs more response, c) It is important to revive the India-Africa Forum Summit. India’s relations with countries in Latin America need more effort, d) As G20 chair, India has the opportunity to set a new agenda. In the past, it always worked for the judicious sharing of global public goods. It is time now to undertake similar efforts for global digital and genetic goods, and e) India always upheld moralism in global politics. India must bring that moralist dimension to new technological developments. 


Regaining lost votes: Remote voting for migrants is a great idea

Source: The post is based on the article “Regaining lost votes: Remote voting for migrants is a great idea” published in The Times of India on 31st December 2022. 

Syllabus: GS 2- Salient features of Representation of People Act 

Relevance: Electoral reforms 

News: The article explains the Election Commission’s move to extend voting rights to migrant workers through a customised EVM machine. Postal ballots facility is available to government employees. Since Covid, this facility is available to the elderly over 80. 

What is the rationale behind extending voting rights to migrant workers? 

The 2016-17 Economic Survey estimated 6 crore migrant workers between 2001 and 2011. As per Census 2011, there were 45.6 crore migrants. It is nearly 40% of India’s population.  

These are huge numbers. It suggests that a large number of Indian people are not exercising voting rights. For example, the 2020 Bihar and 2022 UP polls show it.  

There were 40 lahks more male electors than females in Bihar but just 3 lahks more men voted than women. Similarly, male electors outnumbered females by 1.1 crores in UP, but just 45 lahks more men voted than women. 

What are the benefits of extending voting rights to migrant workers?

Voting rights ensure that people’s voices are heard in the political process. The exodus of over 1 crore migrant workers during the Covid lockdown hardly became an electoral issue anywhere. If migrants are allowed to vote, candidates will have to address their concerns. Hence, the decision to extend voting rights to migrant workers of the EC will deepen democracy. 


In the new evolving world, India needs a new vision

Source: The post is based on the article In the new evolving world, India needs a new visionpublished in The Hindu on 31st December 2022. 

Syllabus: GS2- International Relations. GS3- Indian economy and development 

Relevance: Developmental model for India in changing world order.

News: The article explains the changing world order and the reason behind Chinese aggressive behaviour. It also explains the steps needed to be taken for faster development in India. 

What are important changes happening across the world? 

The world was able to overcome the threat of COVID-19 due to vaccination efforts. Normalcy has been restored. 

In the month of February, the world witnessed the Russia-Ukraine war. The retaliatory economic sanctions and weaponization of trade have triggered inflation, recession and gas shortage in winter. 

The era of innovative consumer technologies from America and Europe, mass-produced in Taiwan, Korea and Japan, and consumed in China, Brazil and India, seems to be nearing its end.  

America is now championing trade restrictions against its enemies. It is promoting trading blocs among its allies and incentivising domestic production through large financial assistance. The era of trusted free trade among nations seems to be over. ‘Economic nationalism’ is being promoted. 

What is the reason behind the aggressive behaviour of China in recent times? 

China’s advances into Indian territory are both undeniable and unacceptable. The timing and rationale of China’s military threat have a larger motive than just territorial gains.  

China has managed the realignment of the world order through the strategic use of debt diplomacy, economic power and a ‘common enemy’ doctrine. It marks a fundamental reshaping of global forces. 

What is needed to counter Chinese aggression? 

Trade restrictions and economic sanctions against China by western powers will backfire. The counter to Sino-centric world order is an economically powerful India. 

The strong manufacturing sector in India is the strongest response to China.  

What should be the way forward for faster development of the Indian state? 

Social frontSocial harmony is a necessary condition for India’s rise as an economic power. Factories cannot afford to differentiate amongst people of multiple identities working together. 

Defence and foreign affairs– There is a need to modernise and augment our defence capabilities with state-of-the-art weaponry. India should not continue with conventional military purchase norms and processes. 

The established foreign policy doctrine of non-alignment may not be conducive to India’s growing need for trade and market access in the new economic world order 

India needs a bolder geo-economic strategy to gain preferential access to unique technologies and capital from other nations in return for domestic market access. 

Political front– India’s political landscape will need reforms. Traditional tools of welfare and governance have not worked well and the gap between the rich and poor have widened further.  

India’s political governance model needs greater decentralisation and federalism reforms to cater to widening divergence among States. The time has now come to move away from a ‘one nation one policy’ mindset.  

Stronger institutions are a necessary condition for greater decentralisation. Reforming public institutions with more powers, autonomy, resources and accountability is essential. 

Economic front– India’s economic road map will have to factor in environmental concerns. It needs to move away from the monopolies model of private enterprise and create a new inclusive, employment-intensive economic development model. 

It is time to re-imagine India’s overall strategy and re-evaluate our normative policy framework. We need a holistic military, diplomatic, social and economic strategy. 

GS Paper 3


Free distribution of food grains: Sobering year end reality

Source: The post is based on the article Sobering year end reality” published in Business Standard on 31st December 2022. 

Syllabus: GS 3 – Food Security

Relevance: Concerns with the free distribution of food grains. 

News: The government has recently allowed free food grains under NFSA till December 2023 and discontinued PMGKAY. This article discusses the impact of the decision of providing free food grains. 

What are the issues with free distribution of food grains? 

The government already provides subsidised food grains under NFSA but making it free will a) Add more fiscal burden on the government, b) States that were offering free grain will save money because the Centre is now paying the full amount. 

Central subsidies on food, fertiliser, and petroleum together account for 2.5 percent of GDP. Moreover, there are many other major concerns that government needs to address than just distributing free food grains. 

What are the other worrying concerns? 

The issue with Farming: Farmers are provided with subsidized fertiliser, electricity along with MSP. But, a) very little incentive is provided for efficiency in using these scarce or costly inputs, b) Many crops have productivity below international levels and wholesale subsidies are not enough for the agricultural sector, c) Agriculture provides half of the job in the country but wages are very low. 

Issues with Income levels: Around 94% of the workers who have registered on the government’s e-shram portal report monthly incomes of under Rs 10,000. Only 1.5 percent have reported wages above Rs 15,000.

Informal-sector workers account for about 80 percent of the total working population. Out of these, two-thirds are engaged in agriculture getting low wages. Inflation-adjusted farm wages have also fallen in the past five years.

The data on consumption habits and the purchases of consumer durables suggest a broadening middle-class category. 

Therefore, these are major concerns in front of the government and providing free food grains will not bring much change. Instead, it will lead to political competition in providing freebies. 

What measures can be adopted by the government? 

a) Bringing up more manufacturing and services-sector work is required so that fewer people depend on agriculture. b) Programmes like the employment guarantee scheme should be provided along with investments in public health care, school education, and job-oriented training.


Prelims Oriented Articles (Factly)

Mimetic community and mimicry in butterflies: Study shows butterflies bedazzle predators and escape

Source: The post is based on the article “Study shows butterflies bedazzle predators and escape” published in The Hindu on 31st December 2022. 

What is the News? 

A study conducted by scientists of the National Centre for Biological Sciences (NCBS) in Bengaluru has discovered secrets through which butterflies warn, fool, and escape their predators using their wing colour patterns and flight behaviour. 

What is Mimicry in butterflies and what is mimetic community?

It says that mimicry is an adaptive phenomenon in butterflies. In mimicry, a palatable organism (also known as mimics) resembles an unpalatable organism (also known as models) to deceive predators. 

Mimicry in butterflies is not limited to the resemblance in wing colour patterns alone, some mimics have also evolved to imitate the flight behaviours of model species. 

Therefore, multiple models and mimic butterflies could be found in the same habitat at the same time. These similar-looking co-occurring butterflies together form a mimetic community. 

Mimetic communities are generally common in tropical and sub-tropical biodiversity hotspots. 

What are the key findings of the study?

Scientists investigated the butterfly mimetic communities of the Western Ghats. The findings have provided how the rate of trait evolution helps butterflies to escape their predators. 

Scientists believe that the evolution of traits depends on the age, size and complexity of the biological communities. 

Note: Palatable organisms are those organisms which are attractive to predators while unpalatable are those that do not attract predators. Mimicry occurs when one species of animal resembles another species that have easily recognizable characteristics and as a result deceives a potential predator that might capture and eat it. 


Ukrainian President speaks to PM Modi about G20, thanks India for aid and UN support

Source: The post is based on the article “Ukrainian President speaks to PM Modi about G20, thanks India for aid and UN support” published in The Hindu on 30th December 2022

What is the News?

The Ukraine President spoke to the Indian Prime Minister to discuss India’s ongoing G-20 Presidency and Ukraine’s “10-point Peace Plan”.

What is Ukraine’s 10 point peace plan?

The Ukraine President first announced his peace formula at a November summit of the Group of 20 (G20) key economies. The plan calls for: 

1. Radiation and nuclear safety, focusing on restoring safety around Europe’s largest nuclear power plant, Zaporizhzhia in Ukraine, which is now-Russian occupied.

2. Food security, including protecting and ensuring Ukraine’s grain exports to the world’s poorest nations.

3. Energy security, with focus on price restrictions on Russian energy resources, as well as aiding Ukraine with restoring its power infrastructure, half of which has been damaged by Russian attacks.

4. Release of all prisoners and deportees, including war prisoners and children deported to Russia.

5. Restoring Ukraine’s territorial integrity and Russia reaffirming it according to the United Nations Charter.

6. Withdrawal of Russian troops and cessation of hostilities, restoration of Ukraine’s state borders with Russia.

7. Justice, including the establishment of a special tribunal to prosecute Russian war crimes.

8. Protection of the environment with focus on demining and restoring water treatment facilities.

9. Prevention of escalation of conflict, and building security architecture in the Euro-Atlantic space, including guarantees for Ukraine.

10. Confirmation of the war’s end, including a document signed by the involved parties.

What has been the world’s response to this Ukraine peace plan?

Russia rejected Ukraine’s peace proposal and reiterated that it would not give up any territory it has taken by force, which is about a fifth of Ukraine which it says it has annexed.

The Western world’s support for Ukraine’s military has run into billions of dollars, led by the US and nations have rushed to help Ukraine with de-mining and fixing its power infrastructure. But the response to Ukraine’s peace plan and his proposed peace summit has been more cautious.


Uzbekistan says 18 children die due to cough syrup made by an Indian firm; blame it on ethylene glycol

Source: The post is based on the article Uzbekistan says 18 children die due to cough syrup made by an Indian firm; blame it on ethylene glycol published in TOI on 30th December 2022

What is the News?

India has sought a casualty status report after Uzbekistan claimed that at least 18 children died after consuming India-made cough syrup,

Uzbekistan has said that the syrup had the contaminant ethylene glycol.

What is Ethylene Glycol?
Ethylene Glycol
Source: Firstpost

Ethylene glycol is a colourless and odourless alcoholic compound that can be fatal if consumed.

It is mostly used as an automotive antifreeze and as a raw material for manufacturing polyester fibres. 

It is also found in several products such as hydraulic brake fluids, stamp pad inks, ballpoint pens, solvents, paints, cosmetics and plastics.

Why is Ethylene Glycol used in cough syrups?

Usually, common solvents such as glycerine (also known as ​​glycerol) and propylene glycol are used in cough syrups to provide a liquid base to non-water-soluble paracetamol or acetaminophen. These solvents also act as preservatives, thickeners, sweeteners and antimicrobial agents.

However, in order to cut expenses and due to the solubility of compounds like diethylene glycol and ethylene glycol, manufacturers may sometimes substitute it for non-toxic solvents such as glycerine or propylene glycol potentially resulting in contamination.

How toxic is ethylene glycol?

The ingestion of ethylene glycol can cause severe health effects. As per CDC, central nervous system depression, nausea, vomiting, intoxication, euphoria, stupor, respiratory depression, and reduced excretion of urine can occur due to ethylene glycol intoxication.


Fishermen raise concern over invasive species of mussel in Ennore and Pulicat

Source: The post is based on the article “Fishermen raise concern over invasive species of mussel in Ennore and Pulicat” published in The Hindu on 30th December 2022

What is the News?

Fishermen of Pulicat and Ennore in Kerala are worried about the spread of an invasive mussel species named Mytella strigata or Charru mussels.

What is Charru Mussel?

Charru Mussel (Mytella Strigata) is a species of mussel native to Central and South America.

It resembles the green and brown mussels (kallummekka in Malayalam), but is much smaller in size. Its colour varies from black to brown, purple or dark green.

Charru Mussel in India

Charru Mussel is an invasive species in India. They are known as kakka aazhi among the fishermen in Kerala.

They have invaded tidal wetlands in several parts of the world including Vembanad in Kerala.

Reason for spread: They may have reached the Indian shores attached to ship hulls or as larval forms in ballast water discharges. (Ballast is the seawater that ships carry to improve stability).

Impact: They spread like a carpet over the riverbed preventing prawns from grazing or burying themselves in the sediment. Its spread is wiping out the locally prevalent yellow clams(manja matti) and green mussels (pachai aazhi).


Year-end Review-2022 Ministry of Steel

Source: The post is based on the articleYear-end Review-2022 Ministry of Steelpublished in PIB on 30th December 2022

What is the News?

The Ministry of Steel has launched several initiatives and schemes in 2022.

What are the schemes and initiatives launched by the Ministry of Steel in 2022?

India is the 2nd largest crude steel producer in the world.

Production Linked Incentive(PLI) Scheme for specialty steel.

Decarbonization in the steel sector: India’s steel sector accounts for 12% of India’s CO2 emissions with an emission intensity of 2.55 t CO2/TCS compared to the global average emission intensity of 1.85 t CO2/TCS. As a part of Glasgow’s commitments, India plans to achieve net zero emissions by 2070.

The Ministry of Steel is holding discussions on decarbonization and improvement of resource efficiency in the Steel Sector like “Transition towards Low Carbon Steel-Green Steel” and “Roadmap for Circular Economy in Steel Sector”.

PM Gati Shakti National Master Plan: Ministry of Steel has on-boarded itself on the PM Gati Shakti National Master Plan Portal with the help of Bhaskaracharya National Institute for Space Applications and Geo-informatics (BISAG-N). 

– It has already uploaded geo-locations of 1982 Steel Units functioning in the country. It has also uploaded all the iron-ore and manganese ore mines in the country.

Secondary Steel sector: The secondary steel-making Process is the process where final refining and finishing treatment is done after primary steel-making to achieve the required quality of Steel. 

– Secondary steel sector contributes more than 40% to the production of crude steel. With increasing quality requirements of steel, the role of secondary steel-making in steel-making is getting more important.


Deeptech: Government to launch the Digital India Innovation Fund for Catalyzing deep tech start-ups: Union Minister

Source: The post is based on the article Government to launch the Digital India Innovation Fund for Catalyzing deep tech start-ups: Union Ministerpublished in PIB on 30th December 2022

What is the News?

The Minister of State for Electronics & Information Technology has said that the Government of India is planning to launch a Digital India Innovation Fund that will support Deeptech Startups.

What is Deeptech?

Deeptech refers to a revolutionary approach that can be applied commercially upon discovering a scientific or engineering breakthrough.

This technology could disrupt existing industries and solve some of the world’s biggest and most complex problems.

Typically, DeepTech innovators or investors view the world from below perspectives: 1) Technology (e.g., quantum computing), 2) An industry (e.g., manufacturing technology), 3) Problem (e.g., cure skin cancer), 4) A major challenge (e.g., energy efficiency/climate change).

About India’s Deeptech ecosystem

India’s deep-tech ecosystem has grown 53% in the last decade and is now at par with that in developed economies like the US, China, Israel, and Europe. 

From drone delivery and cold chain management to climate action and clean energy, deep-tech start-ups are making their presence felt across sectors. 

Bengaluru accounts for 25-30% of India’s deep-tech start-ups, followed by Delhi-NCR (15-20%) and Mumbai (10-12%). Overall, the share of deep-tech start-ups in India’s overall entrepreneurial ecosystem stands at 12% now.

However, despite impressive growth, deep-tech start-ups continue to grapple with challenges, including the dearth of good talent, access to seed capital and go-to-market opportunities, missing research guidance, high costs of customer acquisition and more.  


Omega Centauri: Indian Institute of Astrophysics team surprised by their discovery on hot stars and white dwarfs

Source: The post is based on the article “Indian Institute of Astrophysics team surprised by their discovery on hot stars and white dwarfs” published in PIB on 30th December 2022

What is the News?

Astronomers at the Indian Institute of Astrophysics(IIA) while studying Omega Centauri have found strange hot stars that emitted less ultraviolet radiation than expected.

These strange hot stars were detected in the cluster using the Ultraviolet Imaging Telescope (UVIT) images on AstroSat.

What is Omega Centauri?

Omega Centauri is the most massive globular cluster system in our galaxy. It is located in the southern constellation Centaurus.

It contains approximately 10 million stars and is about 16,000 light-years away. It also includes stars of a variety of ages, whereas other globular clusters contain stars from only one generation.

What are Globular Clusters?

Globular clusters are spherical aggregates of several thousand to millions of stars bound by gravity. 

These systems are thought to have formed early on in the Universe and can serve as perfect astrophysical laboratories for astronomers to understand how stars evolve through various phases. 


Year End Review 2022: Ministry of Coal

Source: The post is based on the articleYear End Review 2022: Ministry of Coalpublished in PIB on 30th December 2022

What is the News?

The Ministry of Coal has launched several initiatives and schemes in 2022.

What are the schemes and initiatives launched by the Ministry of Coal in 2022?

Scheme for Harnessing and Allocating Koyala (Coal) Transparently in India (SHAKTI) Policy

Policy for use of land acquired under the Coal Bearing Areas (Acquisition & Development) Act, 1957 [CBA Act]

Mineral Concession (Amendment) Rules, 2022

The government launched ‘Mission Coking Coal‘ in August 2021 to suggest a roadmap to augment the production and utilization of domestic coking coal in India by 2030.

Coking coal is a high-quality coal that is low in impurities and has a high carbon content, which makes it ideal for use in the metallurgical process.

Coking coal is used to produce coke, which is a porous, solid carbon material that is used as a fuel and a reducing agent in the production of iron and steel.

Commercial Coal Mining: To reduce the import of coal and to promote domestic production, the auction-based regime introduced in 2014 allowed private sector participation. However, it was limited to captive usage in its own end-use plants. 

– The sector has now been opened up for commercial coal mining by private players in 2020 and the first ever successful auction of commercial mining was launched by the Prime Minister in 2020.

Greening Initiatives: Bio-reclamation of mined-out areas and plantation in free areas in and around coal mines, Development of Eco-Parks on Reclaimed Land & Mine Tourism, Utilization of Mine water for Community Use.

Coal Gasification Projects: With comfortable coal availability in the country, the Government of India has decided to promote the gasification of coal in a big way. Coal gasification can yield multiple energy, chemical and petrochemical products, most of which are presently being imported.

Technology Roadmap for the coal sector: Ministry of Coal has prepared a Technology Roadmap for the coal sector in 2022. The objective is to implement new technologies and build digital infrastructure to support current and future ramp-up for the mines.


Naegleria fowleri: Brain-eating amoeba kills South Korean man: What is the infection

Source: The post is based on the article “Brain-eating amoeba kills South Korean man: What is the infection” published in Indian Express on 30th December 2022

What is the News?

 South Korea has reported its first case of the rare yet fatal infection – Naegleria fowleri or “brain-eating amoeba”.

What is Naegleria fowleri?

Naegleria is a single-celled living organism that is microscopic in existence. 

The free-living amoeba is found all across freshwater systems, including lakes, rivers, and soil. 

However, not all species of amoeba have a killer attitude. It is Naegleria fowleri that infects humans.

Naegleria fowleri thrives in heat and likes warm water because it grows rapidly at high temperatures which can go up to 115 °F (46 °C). They can survive for short periods at even higher temperatures. 

How does Naegleria fowleri infect humans?

The amoeba enters the human body through the nose and then travels up to the brain. In some cases, it was found that people got infected when they cleaned their nostrils with contaminated water.

Once Naegleria fowleri goes to the brain, it destroys brain tissues and causes a dangerous infection known as Primary Amebic Meningoencephalitis(PAM).

Note: Scientists haven’t found any evidence of the spreading of Naegleria fowleri through water vapour or aerosol droplets.

What are the symptoms of PAM?

The first signs of PAM start showing within one to 12 days after the infection. In the initial stages, they might be similar to symptoms of meningitis, which are headache, nausea and fever. In the later stages, one can suffer from a stiff neck, seizures, hallucinations, and even coma.

What is the treatment for the infection?

As the Naegleria fowleri infection is rare and progresses quickly, scientists haven’t been able to identify any effective treatments yet. At present, doctors are treating it with a combination of drugs.


Ministry of Road Transport & Highways -Annual report ‘Road accidents in India — 2021’

Source: The post is based on the article Ministry of Road Transport & Highways -Annual report ‘Road accidents in India — 2021published in PIB on 28th December 2022

What is the News?

The Ministry of Road Transport and Highways has published the annual report ‘Road accidents in India — 2021’.

About Road accidents in India Report 2021

Purpose: The report provides information on various facets of road accidents in the country during the calendar year 2021. 

Data source: The report is based on the data/information received from police departments of States/Union Territories collected on a calendar year basis.

Key Findings of the report

Road accidents in 2021: There was 4.12 lakh unfortunate incidences of road accidents during 2021 which claimed around 1.5 lakh lives. Young adults in the age group of 18-45 years accounted for 67.6% of victims in 2021.

– During the previous year 2020, the country saw an unprecedented decrease in accidents, fatalities and injuries. This was due to the unusual outbreak of the COVID-19 pandemic and the subsequent lockdown.

Major indicators related to accidents have performed better in 2021 when compared to 2019.

– Road accidents decreased by 8.1% and injuries decreased by 14.8% in 2021 compared to 2019.

However, fatalities on accounts of road accidents increased by 1.9% in 2021 corresponding to the same period in 2019.

State-wise: Uttar Pradesh retained its top position in road accident fatalities at the national level like in 2020 accounting for 15.2% of the total fatalities followed by Tamil Nadu (9.4%) Maharashtra (7.3%) and Rajasthan (6.8%).

Death due to not wearing Helmets/Seatbelts: At least 8 out of every 10 occupants, nearly 83%, killed in accidents across India were not wearing seatbelts. Also, 2 out of every 3 who died in road crashes on two-wheelers were not wearing helmets.


‘India’s much-hyped tiger recovery needs a total reboot and official monopoly over tiger research should end’

Source: The post is based on the article “‘India’s much-hyped tiger recovery needs a total reboot and official monopoly over tiger research should end’” published in The Times of India on 4th February 2023. Syllabus: GS 3 – Environment and Bio-diversity Conservation. Relevance: About issues of tiger conservation. News: According to a world-renowned conservation scientist, India… Continue reading ‘India’s much-hyped tiger recovery needs a total reboot and official monopoly over tiger research should end’

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AI chatbot, my future colleague

Source– The post is based on the article “AI chatbot, my future colleague” published in The Indian Express on 4th February 2023. Syllabus: GS3- Awareness in the field of IT and Robotics Relevance– AI enabled technologies News– Over the past few months, a chatty bot has become a sensation. What is chatbot? It is a… Continue reading AI chatbot, my future colleague

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Co-ops Get Their Moment In The Sun

Source: The post is based on the article “Co-ops Get Their Moment In The Sun” published in The Times of India on 4th February 2023. Syllabus: GS 3 – Government Budgeting Relevance: Budget 2023-24 for the cooperative sector News: The article discusses measures announced by this year’s budget to boost the cooperative sector. What are some of… Continue reading Co-ops Get Their Moment In The Sun

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Going green – The Budget can help India transition out of its dependence on fossil fuels

Source: The post is based on the article “Going green – The Budget can help India transition out of its dependence on fossil fuels” published in The Hindu on 4th February 2023. Syllabus: GS 2 – Energy. Relevance: About green initiatives in budget 2023-24. News: In the recent budget highlighted the government’s commitment to move towards… Continue reading Going green – The Budget can help India transition out of its dependence on fossil fuels

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Pakistan Conundrum – Islamabad’s economic collapse won’t be good for India

Source: The post is based on the article “Pakistan Conundrum – Islamabad’s economic collapse won’t be good for India” published in The Times of India on 4th February 2023. Syllabus: GS 2 – India and its neighbourhood- relations. Relevance: About Pakistan’s economic crisis. News: Recently, the IMF review mission rejected Pakistan’s debt management plan and demanded… Continue reading Pakistan Conundrum – Islamabad’s economic collapse won’t be good for India

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Charge sheet scrutiny is not a case of prying eyes

Source– The post is based on the article “Charge sheet scrutiny is not a case of prying eyes” published in The Hindu on 4th February 2023. Syllabus: GS2- Functioning of judiciary Relevance– Issues related to Criminal justice system News–  The Supreme Court has ruled that a charge sheet filed against an accused in a criminal… Continue reading Charge sheet scrutiny is not a case of prying eyes

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On Budget 2023: Health in Amrit Kaal

Source– The post is based on the article “On Budget 2023: Health in Amrit Kaal” published in The Indian Express on 4th February 2023. Syllabus: GS2- Issues related to development and management of health Relevance– Health spending News– Recently, the central government presented the budget for this year. The total central government budget for health… Continue reading On Budget 2023: Health in Amrit Kaal

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Two years after Myanmar coup, how the country is a mess — and India’s headache has worsened

Source: The post is based on the article “Two years after Myanmar coup, how the country is a mess — and India’s headache has worsened” published in The Indian Express on 4th February 2023. Syllabus: GS 2 – International Relations Relevance: India-Myanmar Relations News: The article discusses the changing political scenario of Myanmar and its effect on… Continue reading Two years after Myanmar coup, how the country is a mess — and India’s headache has worsened

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There’s a lot in a name: Use of the term ‘northeast’ doesn’t do justice to the complex history of the region’s states

Source– The post is based on the article “There’s a lot in a name: Use of the term ‘northeast’ doesn’t do justice to the complex history of the region’s states” published in The Indian Express on 4th February 2023. Syllabus: GS1- Regionalism Relevance– News– The article explains the issues related to use of term northeast… Continue reading There’s a lot in a name: Use of the term ‘northeast’ doesn’t do justice to the complex history of the region’s states

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[UPSC Interview 2022] – Transcript #20 : M Sathiyavathy Board, PSIR Optional, Karnataka Home State, Football, silk farming Hobbies

Date of Interview: Feb 02 Board: M Sathiyavathy Optional: PSIR Home State: Karnataka Background: Mechanical Engg Work: Sports Authority Hobbies: Football, silk farming, documentaries Chair asked to remove mask. Read the DAF. To view all IAS Interview Transcripts 2022, visit this page Chairman What doing since graduation? What is your salary? Ok gross salary? What… Continue reading [UPSC Interview 2022] – Transcript #20 : M Sathiyavathy Board, PSIR Optional, Karnataka Home State, Football, silk farming Hobbies

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Yaya Tso to become Ladakh’s first biodiversity heritage site

Source: The post is based on the article “Yaya Tso to become Ladakh’s first biodiversity heritage site” published in Livemint on 2nd February 2023. What is the News? Yaya Tso has been proposed as Ladakh’s first biodiversity heritage site(BHS). What is Yaya Tso? Yaya Tso is located in Ladakh. It is known as a birds’… Continue reading Yaya Tso to become Ladakh’s first biodiversity heritage site

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Newly-discovered ancient ‘marine crocodile’ fossil could be the oldest of its kind ever found

Source: The post is based on the article “Newly-discovered ancient ‘marine crocodile’ fossil could be the oldest of its kind ever found” published in Indian Express on 4th February 2023. What is the News? A new study has uncovered a new thalattosuchian — an ancient ancestor of the modern-day crocodile. What is Thalattosuchian? Thalattosuchia is… Continue reading Newly-discovered ancient ‘marine crocodile’ fossil could be the oldest of its kind ever found

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Who is a ‘puisne’ judge, and what does the term mean?

Source: The post is based on the article “Who is a ‘puisne’ judge, and what does the term mean?” published in Indian Express on 4th February 2023 What is the News? Chief Justice of India (CJI) has recently reiterated that the collegium takes into consideration the seniority of Chief Justices and senior puisne judges while… Continue reading Who is a ‘puisne’ judge, and what does the term mean?

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Government initiates various steps under National Bioenergy Programme to promote and encourage establishment of new waste to energy plants

Source: The post is based on the article “Government initiates various steps under National Bioenergy Programme to promote and encourage establishment of new waste to energy plants” published in PIB on 3rd February 2023. WGovernment initiates various steps under National Bioenergy Programme to promote and encourage establishment of new waste to energy plantshat is the… Continue reading Government initiates various steps under National Bioenergy Programme to promote and encourage establishment of new waste to energy plants

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Operation Sadbhavana in Ladakh

Source: The post is based on the article “ Operation Sadbhavana in Ladakh” published in PIB on 4th February 2023 What is the News? The Indian Army is running Operation Sadbhavana in Ladakh. What is Operation Sadbhavana? Operation Sadbhavana (Goodwill) is a unique humane initiative undertaken by the Indian Army in Ladakh. Purpose: The focus… Continue reading Operation Sadbhavana in Ladakh

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Tihar jail to get AI-powered surveillance system

Source: The post is based on the article “Tihar jail to get AI-powered surveillance system” published in The Hindu on 4th February 2023. What is the News? Tihar jail is installing artificial intelligence(AI)-powered CCTV cameras to monitor inmates and fight crime.The premises will also have a real-time grievance redressal system. What is Tihar Jail? Tihar… Continue reading Tihar jail to get AI-powered surveillance system

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Supreme Court eases procedures for terminally ill patients to withdraw medical treatment

Source: The post is based on the article “Supreme Court eases procedures for terminally ill patients to withdraw medical treatment” published in The Hindu on 4th February 2023. What is the News? The Supreme Court has modified its 2018 judgment on passive euthanasia and living wills. What is a Living Will/advance medical directive(AMD)?  Click Here… Continue reading Supreme Court eases procedures for terminally ill patients to withdraw medical treatment

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Govt. extends deadline for laggard solar scheme

Source: The post is based on the article “Govt. extends deadline for laggard solar scheme” published in The Hindu on 4th February 2023. What is the News? The deadline for the PM KUSUM scheme to install 30,000 MW solar power capacity in rural India by 2022 has now been pushed to March 2026. What is… Continue reading Govt. extends deadline for laggard solar scheme

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Govt eases rules to help disabled register vehicle

Source: The post is based on the article “Govt eases rules to help disabled register vehicle” published in The Hindu on 4th February 2023. What is the News? The Ministry of Road Transport and Highways has asked states to register vehicles owned by people with disabilities under the ownership category of ‘Divyangjan’ and extend necessary… Continue reading Govt eases rules to help disabled register vehicle

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Pradhan Mantri National Dialysis Programme

Source: The post is based on the article “Pradhan Mantri National Dialysis Programme” published in PIB on 3rd February 2023 What is the News? The Union Minister of State for Health and Family Welfare has informed Lok Sabha about Pradhan Mantri National Dialysis Programme(PMNDP). What is Dialysis? Dialysis is a procedure that removes waste and… Continue reading Pradhan Mantri National Dialysis Programme

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Working of the MGNREGS: Challenges and Solutions – Explained, pointwise

For 7PM Editorial Archives click HERE → Introduction The Economic Survey 2022-23 showed that 6.49 crore households demanded work under the Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Scheme (MGNREGS). Of these, 6.48 crore households were offered employment by the government and 5.7 crore actually availed it. The Scheme was hailed for its role in mitigating the impact of… Continue reading Working of the MGNREGS: Challenges and Solutions – Explained, pointwise

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[UPSC Interview 2022] – Transcript #19 : RN Choubey Board, Geography Optional, Haryana Home State, Cricket Hobby

Date of Interview: 2nd February 2023, Afternoon Session Board: RN Choubey Sir Home State: Haryana Background: Physics Optional: Geography Hobbies: Stargazing, Flute, Cricket Other Keywords: Police, CAPFs To view all IAS Interview Transcripts 2022, visit this page Chairman You had lunch today? What? ( I said Poha). That is a breakfast item. We will arrange… Continue reading [UPSC Interview 2022] – Transcript #19 : RN Choubey Board, Geography Optional, Haryana Home State, Cricket Hobby

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[UPSC Interview 2022] – Transcript #18 : Lt. Gen. Raj Shukla Board, Anthropology Optional, Telangana Home state, farming Hobby

Board: Lt. Gen. Raj Shukla (Retd.) Optional: Anthropology Home State: Telangana Hobbies: Helping parents in farming activities Worked as software engineer and Panchayat secretary Interview went well and it’s more than 35 minutes To view all IAS Interview Transcripts 2022, visit this page Chairman Are you happy with new state Telangana? Why you are happy? Any… Continue reading [UPSC Interview 2022] – Transcript #18 : Lt. Gen. Raj Shukla Board, Anthropology Optional, Telangana Home state, farming Hobby

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[UPSC Interview 2022] – Transcript #17 : RN Choubey Board, Geography Optional, Travel Hobby

Date of Interview: 2nd February Board: RN Choubey Optional: Geography Background: MSc Chemistry In service: State Civil Service Hobby: Travel documentary To view all IAS Interview Transcripts 2022, visit this page Chairman Introduce with educational and work experience. What’s your opinion on farmer protest ? What are the 3 laws ? Why they opposed ?… Continue reading [UPSC Interview 2022] – Transcript #17 : RN Choubey Board, Geography Optional, Travel Hobby

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[UPSC Interview 2022] – Transcript #16 : RN Choubey Board, Andhra Pradesh Home State

Board: RN Choubey In service: ICLS, Home State: Andhra Pradesh Background: Mechanical Engineering To view all IAS Interview Transcripts 2022, visit this page Chairman What are u doing at present What is the role of mca in ease of doing bussiness Different cities selected for the rank and the last rank of india Is the… Continue reading [UPSC Interview 2022] – Transcript #16 : RN Choubey Board, Andhra Pradesh Home State

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[UPSC Interview 2022] – Transcript #15 : RN Choubey Board, Anthropology Optional, Maharashtra Home State, playing harmonium Hobby

Date of Interview: 31 Jan 2023, Afternoon session. Board: RN Choubey Sir Background: Physics and statistics. Optional: anthropology Home State: Maharashtra Hobby: playing harmonium, To view all IAS Interview Transcripts 2022, visit this page Chairman Introduce yourself with work experience Tell me Types of leaders What type of leader was Gandhi ji? What are the… Continue reading [UPSC Interview 2022] – Transcript #15 : RN Choubey Board, Anthropology Optional, Maharashtra Home State, playing harmonium Hobby

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Must Read Current Affairs Articles – February 4th, 2023

About Must Read News Articles: Must Read News Articles is an initiative by Team ForumIAS to provide links to the most important news articles of the day. It covers The Hindu newspaper. This saves the time and effort of students in identifying useful and important articles. With newspaper websites requiring a paid subscription beyond a certain… Continue reading Must Read Current Affairs Articles – February 4th, 2023

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[UPSC Interview 2022] – Transcript #14 : M Sathiyavathy Board, Haryana Home State, Reading, Meditation Hobbies

Date of Interview: 30/01/2023 Board: M Sathiyavathy Background: Electrical Engg, IIT Delhi Home State: Haryana Employee: Intel, Currently in IDAS Hobbies: Reading Biographies, Meditation, Playing piano To view all IAS Interview Transcripts 2022, visit this page Chairman Satyavathi Mam read out the DAF loudly and asked the following questions : Tell us about the recent reforms in… Continue reading [UPSC Interview 2022] – Transcript #14 : M Sathiyavathy Board, Haryana Home State, Reading, Meditation Hobbies

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Trading more within Asia makes economic sense

Source– The post is based on the article “Trading more within Asia makes economic sense” published in The Hindu on 3rd February 2023. Syllabus: GS2- Bilateral, Regional and Global Groupings and Agreements Relevance– Trade and Economic relations across Asia News– IMF has warned that global trade would slow down from 5.4% in 2022 to 2.4%… Continue reading Trading more within Asia makes economic sense

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System Bails Out – Kappan finally free on bail but many aren’t, in contravention of juridical principles

Source: The post is based on an article “System Bails Out – Kappan finally free on bail but many aren’t, in contravention of juridical principles” published in The Times of India on 3rd February 2023. Syllabus: GS 2 – Governance News: The Kerala journalist Siddique Kappan has been freed from jail after 846 days. He was charged… Continue reading System Bails Out – Kappan finally free on bail but many aren’t, in contravention of juridical principles

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India’s G20 Presidency: LiFE lessons for global markets

Source– The post is based on the article “India’s G20 Presidency: LiFE lessons for global markets” published in The Indian Express on 3rd February 2023. Syllabus: GS3- Environment Relevance– Sustainable development News– The world is facing its first truly global energy crisis, with turbulent markets and sharp price spikes. It is creating difficulties for citizens,… Continue reading India’s G20 Presidency: LiFE lessons for global markets

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Decluttering the defence budget

Source: The post is based on an article “Decluttering the defence budget” published in Business Standard on 3rd February 2023. Syllabus: GS 3 – Government Budgeting Relevance: Budget 2023-24 for the defence News: The article discusses the shortcomings of the Budget 2023-24 in the defence sector. What are the shortcomings with the budget in the defence sector?… Continue reading Decluttering the defence budget

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Fire and ice – Problem facing Ladakh

Source– The post is based on the article “Fire and ice” published in The Hindu on 3rd February 2023. Syllabus: GS2- Polity. GS1- Regionalism Relevance– Regional political issues News– The people of Ladakh are on agitation for their demands. What are the demands of agitating people in Ladakh? They are demanding the inclusion of the… Continue reading Fire and ice – Problem facing Ladakh

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SFG 2023 Level-2 by ForumIAS | Entrance Test 11th February 2023

Dear Friends, Please be informed that we will be conducting the Level-2 of Select Focus Group (SFG) starting from 28th February 2023. The entrance test for the program will take place on 11th February 2023 at 9:30 AM. ForumIAS SFG is a test-based self-study program that emphasizes on three parameters: a) discipline, b) rigor, and c) revision. It balances static and dynamic content and… Continue reading SFG 2023 Level-2 by ForumIAS | Entrance Test 11th February 2023

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[UPSC Interview 2022] – Transcript #13 : RN Choubey Board, public administration Optional, Maharashtra Home State, Reading, web series Hobbies

Date of Interview: 1st FEB Afternoon 2nd to go Board: RN Choubey sir Optional: public administration Background: Computer Engg. Home State: Maharashtra Hobbies: Reading non fiction, web series To view all IAS Interview Transcripts 2022, visit this page Chairman Briefly tell abt educational b/g nd work experience Why pubad? Major internal security challenges India is… Continue reading [UPSC Interview 2022] – Transcript #13 : RN Choubey Board, public administration Optional, Maharashtra Home State, Reading, web series Hobbies

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A ‘waterfall’ for insolvency resolution

Source– The post is based on the article “A ‘waterfall’ for insolvency resolution” published in the Business Standard on 3rd February 2023. Syllabus: GS3- Changes in Industrial Policy and their Effects on Industrial Growth Relevance– Exit process of the business News– The Ministry of Corporate Affairs has recently issued a discussion paper inviting comments on… Continue reading A ‘waterfall’ for insolvency resolution

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The Union budget ticks all the right boxes for India Inc

Source: The post is based on the following articles “The Union budget ticks all the right boxes for India Inc” published in the Livemint on 3rd February 2023. “Express View on Budget 2023: Adding it up” published in the Indian Express on 3rd February 2023. Syllabus: GS 3 – Government Budgeting. Relevance: Budget 2023-24 is… Continue reading The Union budget ticks all the right boxes for India Inc

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Get to know about macrosomia, the condition that creates gigantic babies

Source: The post is based on the article “Get to know about macrosomia, the condition that creates gigantic babies” published in Economic Times on 2nd February 2023 What is the News? A mother in Brazil recently gave birth to a two-foot-tall baby weighing 7.3kg. This is called as Macrosomia. Note: A newborn boy typically weighs… Continue reading Get to know about macrosomia, the condition that creates gigantic babies

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New income tax regime: A nudge on income tax mustn’t become a shove

Source: The post is based on the article “A nudge on income tax mustn’t become a shove” published in the Livemint on 3rd February 2023. Syllabus: GS 3 – Government Budgeting. Relevance: About the new income tax regime. News: In the Budget 2023-24, the government introduced a new income tax regime. About the new tax regime… Continue reading New income tax regime: A nudge on income tax mustn’t become a shove

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Current insight on the mechanisms of Cobra venom cytotoxins can help anti-venom therapy

Source: The post is based on the article “Current insight on the mechanisms of Cobra venom cytotoxins can help anti-venom therapy” published in PIB on 3rd February 2023 What is the News? Scientists have traced the mechanisms of the toxic action of cobra venom paving a path towards developing strategies for application of antivenom which… Continue reading Current insight on the mechanisms of Cobra venom cytotoxins can help anti-venom therapy

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Tamil Nadu’s proposed Pen Monument to Karunanidhi’s memory — the plan and the criticism

Source: The post is based on the article “Tamil Nadu’s proposed Pen Monument to Karunanidhi’s memory — the plan and the criticism” published in Indian Express on 3rd February 2023. What is the News? A public hearing for the proposed ‘Pen Monument’ in memory of late Tamil Nadu chief minister and DMK patriarch M Karunanidhi… Continue reading Tamil Nadu’s proposed Pen Monument to Karunanidhi’s memory — the plan and the criticism

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Budget 2023: 80,000 start-ups exempt from angel tax, says gov

Source: The post is based on the article “Budget 2023: 80,000 start-ups exempt from angel tax, says gov” published in Business Standard on 3rd February 2023 What is the News? The Finance Minister has made several announcements related to the startup sector in the Union Budget 2023-24. What are the announcements made in the Budget… Continue reading Budget 2023: 80,000 start-ups exempt from angel tax, says gov

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Union Budget 2023-24: Push for ELS cotton yield to reduce imports

Source: The post is based on the article “Union Budget 2023-24: Push for ELS cotton yield to reduce imports” published in The Hindu on 3rd February 2023 What is the News? The Budget has proposed to enhance the productivity of extra-long staple (ELS) cotton through public-private partnerships. This is meant to lower the import dependence… Continue reading Union Budget 2023-24: Push for ELS cotton yield to reduce imports

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No bar on contesting two seats in one poll

Source: The post is based on the article “No bar on contesting two seats in one poll” published in The Hindu on 3rd February 2023 What is the News? The Supreme Court has refused to set aside a provision in the election law which allows candidates to contest polls from two constituencies simultaneously. What was… Continue reading No bar on contesting two seats in one poll

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CITES database reveals red sanders smuggling

Source: The post is based on the article “CITES database reveals red sanders smuggling” published in The Hindu on 3rd February 2023 What is the News? The CITES trade database has recorded 28 incidents of red sanders confiscation, seizure and specimens from the wild being exported from India. What is Red Sanders? Red Sanders(Pterocarpus santalinus)… Continue reading CITES database reveals red sanders smuggling

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Health ministry’s fight against sickle cell anaemia to follow Gujarat playbook

Source: The post is based on the article “Health ministry’s fight against sickle cell anaemia to follow Gujarat playbook” published in Economic Times on 2nd February 2023 What is the News? The Finance Minister has announced that the government will work towards the mission to eliminate sickle-cell anaemia while presenting the Union Budget 2023-24 in… Continue reading Health ministry’s fight against sickle cell anaemia to follow Gujarat playbook

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Cut in MGNREGS outlay is not a concern: Somanathan

Source: The post is based on the article “Cut in MGNREGS outlay is not a concern: Somanathan” published in The Hindu on 3rd February 2023. What is the News? In the Union Budget 2023-24, the Union Government has reduced the allocation for the Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Scheme(MGNREGS). What is the MGNREGA allocation… Continue reading Cut in MGNREGS outlay is not a concern: Somanathan

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Union Budget 2023-24: Key Highlights – Explained, pointwise

For 7PM Editorial Archives click HERE → Introduction The Union Finance Minister has presented the Union Budget 2023-24 in the Parliament. This is the last full budget before the next year’s General Elections. There were apprehensions that the Budget may resort to populist measures ahead of the election year. However, most economic experts have observed that the Government… Continue reading Union Budget 2023-24: Key Highlights – Explained, pointwise

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[UPSC Interview 2022] – Transcript #12 : M Sathiyavathy Board, Law Optional,

Date of Interview: 1/02/2023 afternoon session. Board: M Sathiyavathy Background: Biomedical science Optional: law. Profession: Deputy jailor. Hobbies: feeding stray animals, mimicking Bollywood artists. As usual start by ma’am reading daf to all members. To view all IAS Interview Transcripts 2022, visit this page Chairman Explain ur gap year ….. feeding stray is menace don’t you… Continue reading [UPSC Interview 2022] – Transcript #12 : M Sathiyavathy Board, Law Optional,

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[UPSC Interview 2022] – Transcript #11 : RN Choubey Board, Maharashtra Home State, Cooking Hobby

Date of Interview: 2nd Feb to be interviewed, Forenoon Session Board: Shri Rajiv Nayan Choubey Home State: Maharashtra Background: IRS (IT), Hyderabad, Hobby: Cooking, CSE, International Mathematical Olympiad, Google summer of code(GSC), Stray animal rescue and rehabilitation, chess 4th attempt, 3rd Interview(including this — every time, Chaubey Sir chaired them) To view all IAS Interview… Continue reading [UPSC Interview 2022] – Transcript #11 : RN Choubey Board, Maharashtra Home State, Cooking Hobby

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