9 PM Daily Current Affairs Brief – January 13th, 2023

Dear Friends,

We have initiated some changes in the 9 PM Brief and other postings related to current affairs. What we sought to do:

  1. Ensure that all relevant facts, data, and arguments from today’s newspaper are readily available to you.
  2. We have widened the sources to provide you with content that is more than enough and adds value not just for GS but also for essay writing. Hence, the 9 PM brief now covers the following newspapers:
    1. The Hindu  
    2. Indian Express  
    3. Livemint  
    4. Business Standard  
    5. Times of India 
    6. Down To Earth
    7. PIB
  3. We have also introduced the relevance part to every article. This ensures that you know why a particular article is important.
  4. Since these changes are new, so initially the number of articles might increase, but they’ll go down over time.
  5. It is our endeavor to provide you with the best content and your feedback is essential for the same. We will be anticipating your feedback and ensure the blog serves as an optimal medium of learning for all the aspirants.
    • For previous editions of 9 PM BriefClick Here
    • For individual articles of 9 PM BriefClick Here

Current Affairs Compilations for UPSC IAS Prelims 2022

Mains Oriented Articles

GS Paper 2

GS Paper 3

Prelims Oriented Articles (Factly)

Mains Oriented Articles

GS Paper 2

Under Constitution, law declared by the Supreme Court is binding on all

Source: The post is based on an article “Under Constitution, law declared by the Supreme Court is binding on allpublished in The Hindu on 13th January 2023.

Syllabus: GS 2 – Governance

Relevance: judicial review and related issues

News: The Vice-President of India has recently made a statement regarding the power of the court on judicial review. This article discusses the tussle between the center and the court regarding judicial review.

What are the statements made by the Vice-President of India?

He is not happy with the Kesavananda Bharati judgment of 1973 which gave the idea of the Basic Structure, upheld judicial review and limited the Parliament’s power under Article 368 to amend the Constitution.

He has also criticized the National Judicial Appointments Commission (NJAC) judgment through which the SC struck down the law and upheld the collegium system.

What is the stand of the court on the criticism?

Article 141 of the Constitution mandates that a law declared by the Supreme Court is binding on all courts, even the Supreme Court. Therefore, the court is bound to comply with the NJAC verdict and the judgment made was within the law.

Further, the Parliament is free to bring a new law on judicial appointments through a constitution amendment but that will also be subject to judicial review.

The SC has also advised the government and constitutional authorities that it is necessary that all follow the law as laid down by the court, else it may have a negative impact on the society and people will follow their will.

Why is judicial review needed?

Kesavananda Bharati verdict had made clear that judicial review is not a means to curb parliamentary sovereignty. 

It is only part of a “system of checks and balances” to ensure constitutional functionaries do not exceed their limits. Judicial review holds an important place in a federal Constitution and it in no way makes the judiciary supreme.

SC in its past judgment has also observed that judicial review is in accordance with the law laid down by the Constitution.

Moreover, the court said that how the Parliament in the past has tried to curb the judicial power of the court through the 42nd Constitution amendment and therefore, there is a need to have checks and balances.

However, regarding Article 368, the SC has said that it is only a procedure for amendment of the Constitution. It could not be treated as a power vested in Parliament to amend the Constitution and alter the ‘basic structure’ of the Constitution.


Remove Raj From Raj Bhawans

Source: The post is based on an article “Remove Raj From Raj Bhawanspublished in The Times of India on 13th January 2023.

Syllabus: GS 2 – Indian Polity

Relevance: issue associated with the Governor

News: The article discusses the changing role of the Governor from the British period to the recent times.

What were the roles of the Governor of the British era?

Governors of British provinces could overrule elected ministers, make laws and ordinances, restrict proceedings in the legislatures, dismiss a minister, or even dismiss the entire government and take back the reins.

They could withhold assent to any legislation according to their will. In appointing ministers, the governor could choose representatives from any community he wanted.

However, this changed after the adoption of the Constitution.

What changes were brought in the role of Governors by the Constitution?

Governors were made nominal heads of state, with the powers of appointing ministers, summoning the legislature, assenting to Bills, and calling for President’s rule.

However, with time, governors became a medium through which the Union could interfere in state politics. For example, misuse of the President’s rule.

The Supreme Court in 1994 said that issues of forming a government had to be settled through votes of confidence in the state legislature.

However, even here the governor could influence the outcome of the vote by deciding which party would get the first chance to prove its majority.

Governors have an important role to play in handling political crises and cautioning elected governments while remaining non-aligned with any political party.

However, this has not been the case as it is evident from the tussle between Tami Nadu government and the Governor, Delhi government and the L-G, etc.

Read More: Bad and ugly – A Governor’s departure from convention has set off unsavoury events

What can be the way ahead?

The appointment and removal process of the governor should change. Today, the Union government enjoys this power which ultimately misuses it.

Therefore, a new system should be brought for the appointment and removal of the Governor. Governors should also be made accountable to the Union, the state and the Rajya Sabha through their appointments and removals.


Delhi LG has got it wrong, India doesn’t need new prisons — it needs prison reform

Source– The post is based on the article “Delhi LG has got it wrong, India doesn’t need new prisons — it needs prison reform” published in The Indian Express on 13th January 2023.

Syllabus: GS2- Functioning of judiciary

Relevance– Criminal justice system

News– The article explains the issues related to prison inmates in India

What are the issues faced by prisoners in India?

The criminal justice system is inherently biassed against disadvantaged sections. The prison inmates include 20.9% SC, 11.24% ST, 35.06% OBC, and 20% Muslims. Further, 25% of the prisoner population is illiterate.

Prison Statistics of India 2021 report of the National Crime Records Bureau show that more than 77% of jail inmates are undertrials and every year this number goes up. The undertrial prisoners in Indian jails registered a 15% increase from 3.72 lakh in 2020 to 4.27 lakh in 2021. The same data set also records 25% of the prisoner population is illiterate.

There is a blanket ban on the voting rights of prisoners despite India being the world’s largest democracy. This includes incarcerated prisoners as well as undertrials. The ban lacks any reasonable classification based on the nature of the crime or duration of the sentence.

In other countries such as South Africa, Germany, France, Canada undertrials who are out on bail can enjoy the right to vote.

The number of custodial deaths has registered a 12% increase from 1,887 in 2020 to 2,116 in 2021.

There is a lack of medical staff in prisons. On December 31, 2021, the actual strength of medical staff was 2,080. The sanctioned strength of medical staff is 3,497

Instances of manual scavenging inside prisons have also been reported in the media.

They are still governed by the colonial Prisons Act, 1894, which treats prisoners as sub-par citizens and provides for strict punishment rather than rehabilitation.

What is the stand of SC and legal provisions on prisoners?

and The Supreme Court has outlined three broad principles regarding imprisonment and custody. First, a person in prison does not become a non-person. Second, a person in prison is entitled to all human rights within the limitations of imprisonment. Third, there is no justification for aggravating the suffering already inherent in the process of incarceration.

In Hussain and Anr. v/s Union of India (2017), the apex court had ordered expeditious disposal of bail applications along the principle of bail being the norm and jail being the exception.

Section 436A of the CrPC stipulates that a person having undergone detention for half time of maximum period of imprisonment is entitled to be released on bail with or without sureties.

What is the way forward to improve the conditions of prisons?

The criminal justice system is based on four pillars — deterrence, retribution, prevention, and reformation.

There is a need to liberalise the bail system.


Capital stalemate

Source– The post is based on the article “Capital stalemate” published in The Hindu on 13th January 2023.

Syllabus: GS2- Issues and challenges pertaining to federal structure

Relevance– Issues related to division of powers between centre and states

News– The article explains the issue of continuous tussle between Delhi government and Lieutenant governor over their respective powers.

What are the points of conflict between the Delhi government and Lieutenant governor?

Recently the Lieutenant governor of Delhi appointed 10 aldermen and a BJP councilor to preside over polls.

Main opposition party alleged that the Lieutenant governor had bypassed the tradition of appointing the senior most councillor as the presiding officer. Giving voting rights to the appointed alderman is in violation of the MCD Act.

There are allegations that the Lieutenant Governor is ignoring the Council of Ministers and issuing orders to the bureaucracy directly on all matters.

What is the authority enjoyed by the Lieutenant governor of Delhi?

The Lieutenant Governor has executive control over only the three reserved subjects of police, public order and land. All other subjects lie with the elected government.

The Lieutenant Governor’s authority extends beyond those. She has control over the bureaucracy, and can exercise the power to transfer. She can suspend or take any action against any employee of the Delhi government.

What is the way forward?

The Supreme Court has called for statesmanship and wisdom by actors.

The legal ambiguity over exercise of power should be removed.


V-P Jagdeep Dhankhar sparks debate with remarks on Basic Structure of Constitution; what is it?

Source: The post is based on the following articles

“V-P Jagdeep Dhankhar sparks debate with remarks on Basic Structure of Constitution; what is it?” published in the Indian Express on 13th January 2023.

“Jagdeep Dhankhar’s criticism of the basic structure doctrine should ring alarm bells” published in the Indian Express on 13th January 2023.

Syllabus: GS 2 – Structure, organization and functioning of the Executive and the Judiciary.

Relevance: About basic structure doctrine.

News: The Vice President of India has addressed the 83rd All-India Presiding Officer’s conference. In that, he criticised the Supreme Court once again, for using the doctrine of basic structure to strike down the constitutional amendment that introduced the National Judicial Appointments Commission Act.

What are the major highlights of the Vice President’s address?
Read here: Vice-President says court can’t dilute Parliament’s sovereignty
What is the basic structure doctrine, and how was the doctrine developed?

The Doctrine of Basic Structure is a form of judicial review that is used to test the legality of any legislation by the courts.

Under this, the Parliament has vast powers to change the Constitution, but it cannot touch certain “basic features” or foundational principles that give the Constitution its coherence or identity, make it what it is. In short, the Parliament can amend, but not destroy the Constitution.

In the Kesavananda ruling, the Supreme Court cited several aspects of the Constitution that could be identified as “basic features” of the document but added that it was not an exhaustive list.

For example, judicial review, rule of law, federalism, and democratic republic structure are identified as basic features.

In 2015, while striking down the National Judicial Appointments Commission Act, the court held “judicial independence” as a basic feature of the Constitution.

Must read: Basic structure Doctrine
What is the history of basic structure doctrine?

The origins of the basic structure doctrine are found in the post-war German Constitution law. After the Nazi regime, the German Constitution amended some provisions to protect some basic laws.

What are the criticisms associated with the basic structure doctrine criticised?

The Basic structure is a) Not found in the text of the Constitution itself, b) Enables the judiciary to encroach on the Parliament’s powers, c) Makes “unelected judges” to strike down amendments to the Constitution on the basis of this doctrine. This is “anti-democratic and counter-majoritarian.”

Why the basic structure doctrine is essential for the smooth functioning of the Constitution?

Both the legislature (governed by the majoritarian principle) and the court are an integral part of the democratic framework. These constraints help India to maintain the fine balance that makes democracy work better for the people.

Read more: Supreme Court’s basic structure doctrine in a new context

GS Paper 3


India may be in better economic shape to create a rupee trade zone

Source– The post is based on the article “India may be in better economic shape to create a rupee trade zone” published in the Business Standard on 13th January 2023.

Syllabus: GS3- Economy

Relevance: Issues related to trade

News- The article explains the possibility of the rupee becoming a trade zone.

What was the situation in the past?

In the early 1990s, the modus operandi was to prepare export shipment documents from India in the name of Russian importers.

Goods were switched to some other destination and then Russian were paid 70-80% of the consignment value in hard currency.

It was easy money. But as more traders piled in; the commissions shrank to 5%. As a result, the trade fizzled out.

What does the statistics reveal about trade with Russia?

Business Standard analysis found that India’s merchandise terms of trade from Russia has been worsening.

In 1992, as the Russian Federation was rebuilding after the breakup of the Soviet Union, India was a net exporter of goods.

The situation reversed in 2003-04, and terms of trade have worsened since.

India’s exports to Russia have tripled in the last two decades, but imports from Russia have grown faster.

What is the journey of rupee trade so far?

In the past, India did not make concessions on investment in government securities. Then, starved of foreign exchange, India proposed bilateral rupee trade agreements.

These agreements enabled India to import critical defence goods, often on easy rupee payment terms.

Agreements concluded between 1953 and 1958 accepted the rupee as the unit of account, but imbalances were settled in sterling or convertible currency.

From 1959, payments for all transactions were to be affected in inconvertible rupees, and contracting countries agreed to hold rupee balances.

The value of the rupee was fixed in terms of gold for the purpose of these agreements until the devaluation of the rupee in 1966 created issues with Russia over the rate of the currency.

Why is a rupee trading zone distinct possibility?

Unlike in the past, India can supply many goods, commodities and medicines to Russia to better balance the rupee trade. Russia is facing western sanctions

Such an arrangement may not be easy due to China’s growing influence. In 2001, China accounted for 3.9% of Russia’s total imports, whereas India’s share was 1.3 per cent. In 2021, a quarter of Russia’s imports were from China, whereas India’s share had barely changed to 1.5 per cent.


India missed a chance to reform the Public Distribution System

Source– The post is based on the article “India missed a chance to reform the Public Distribution System” published in the mint on 13th January 2023.

Syllabus: GS3- PDS and Food security

Relevance: Issue related to distribution of foodgrains

News- The article explains the recent government move to end the PMGKY and the need to reform the Public Distribution System.

The government finally ended the free foodgrain scheme under the Pradhan Mantri Garib Kalyan Yojana (PMGKY) from 1 January.

What is the PMGKY?

The scheme was introduced as part of the pandemic relief effort in March 2020. It provided 5kg of free cereals, rice or wheat to eligible Public Distribution System (PDS) beneficiaries.

PDS beneficiaries are entitled to 5kg of rice/wheat/millets at ₹3/2/1 per kg as part of the National Food Security Act (NFSA). The PMGKY was over and above that.

What are the reasons for the discontinuation of the scheme?

The primary reason for the discontinuation of the scheme is the ballooning fiscal deficit of the government.

This additional step will cost the government a small sum of ₹18,000 crore.

However, the impact of both these measures taken together is likely to be an additional monthly spending of around ₹500-600 for a household of four members to purchase an additional 5kg from the market if they need it.

Why is this not the best option?

The PMGKY was meant to provide a cushion to the majority of rural and urban poor against the loss of income and employment during the pandemic.

While pandemic-related disruptions are over, most indicators of the rural economy suggest that distress persists.

Cereal inflation has been in double digits with no signs of slowing. The additional foodgrain could have been continued until inflationary pressures cooled.

A more serious matter of priority is for the government to reform the PDS as it exists today.

What is the way forward?

The PDS plays an important role for consumers and farmers. It enables the government to procure foodgrains for distribution. There is need take bold steps towards reforming the PDS in line with NFSA goals

Diversifying to oilseeds and pulses is essential to incentivize their production.

A better option would be to expand the beneficiary roll while retaining subsidised issue prices for food staples. That would have been a fiscally neutral step.

Government needs to simply increase prices a little to keep real prices constant. It enables the government to raise the quantum of grains given to beneficiaries without affecting its fiscal discipline. It is also possible to provide pulses and edible oil, which were given during the pandemic.


Terra Pharma – WHO ruling on two India-made cough syrups should lead to a thorough, transparent investigation at home

Source: The post is based on the article “Terra Pharma – WHO ruling on two India-made cough syrups should lead to a thorough, transparent investigation at home” published in The Times of India on 13th January 2023.

Syllabus: GS 2 – Issues relating to the development and management of Social Sector/Services relating to Health.

Relevance: About the concerns with Indian cough syrups makers.

News: The production licence of a drug firm was suspended after the WHO edict that two cough syrups made by the company should not be used for children.

What are the recent concerns associated with Indian cough syrups makers?

a) Ambronol and DOK-1 Max were found in Indian drugs these contain toxic ethylene glycol. This is linked to 19 children’s deaths in Uzbekistan, b) A similar tragedy occurred in the Gambia where the deaths of 70 children were linked to the consumption of four contaminated syrups made by an Indian pharma manufacturer.

In both cases, poor manufacturing of solvents used in the medicines is the reason behind the issue.

Note: Medicines manufactured for export to rich countries are made according to the specifications of the importing country.

Must read: Uzbekistan says 18 children die due to cough syrup made by an Indian firm; blame it on ethylene glycol
Why is this a cause of concern for the Indian pharma sector?

Problems in India: These products were not sold in India. The medicines manufactured for use in India generally meet adequate standards. However, the problem of fake or less-than-ideally- effective pills persists.

Loss of India’s reputation: The malpractices of Indian pharma companies will create a wrong impact on India’s manufacturing/regulatory capability.

What should be done to ensure proper manufacturing of pharma products?

The government must undertake a thorough and transparent inquiry focussed on the supply chain. This should happen from vendors of active pharmaceutical ingredients to the manufacturing process to regulatory processes.

The government should ensure proper pharma manufacturing standards in India.

India deserves the tag ‘pharmacy of the world’. But with that tag, India should understand the global responsibility of ensuring the strictest standards for products.

Prelims Oriented Articles (Factly)

Goyal rules out mini trade pact with U.S., says GSP not a priority for India

Source: The post is based on the article “Goyal rules out mini trade pact with U.S., says GSP not a priority for India” published in The Hindu on 13th January 2023.

What is the News?

The 13th India-U.S. Trade Policy Forum (TPF) was held in Washington.

What are the key issues discussed in the India-US TPF?

The Indian government and the US government ruled out any mini-trade deal or a free trade agreement. The Indian government has said that the restoration of the Generalized System of Preferences (GSP) was not a priority for India.

Both India and US have intensified their work to find mutually-agreed solutions on outstanding WTO disputes between the two countries.

The US appreciated India’s a) Initial public consultation on the draft Drugs, Medical Devices and Cosmetics Act, b) Domestic consultations regarding the administration of IP (intellectual property) regime.

What is the Generalized System of Preferences (GSP)?
Read here: Generalized System of Preferences (GSP)

The previous US administration had revoked the GSP benefit for India. The system allows eligible developing countries to export duty-free goods to the U.S., for India.

What is India-U.S. Trade Policy Forum (TPF)?

It is a forum to resolve bilateral trade and investment issues with five focus groups—agriculture, investment, innovation and creativity (intellectual property rights), services and tariff and non-tariff barriers.


India has made marked progress in LAC infra development: Army chief

Source: The post is based on the article “India has made marked progress in LAC infra development: Army chief” published in The Hindu on 13th January 2023.

What is the News?

Recently, the Indian Army chief General has said that there has been a “marked improvement” in India’s infrastructure development along the Line of Actual Control (LAC).

What are the infrastructure developments along border areas?

-In the past five years, the Border Roads Organisation has constructed close to 6,000 km of roads; of this, 2,100 km has been along the northern borders.

-The frontier road, which runs a total of 1,800 km, will connect various valleys in Arunachal Pradesh. The plan has been re-energised and funding has been assigned. Some work on it is already underway.

-The aspect of all-weather connectivity in both Ladakh and Kameng in Arunachal is already started.

-Further, Atal tunnel has been inaugurated and Shinku la tunnel along the Nemu-Padam-Daricha road is in the final stages of approval.

-The Zojila tunnel and the Z-Morh tunnel, which will link the valley to Ladakh and will be operationalised by the end of the year. The Sela tunnel is likely to get operational by the middle of the year.


First time in India, FSSAI notifies comprehensive regulatory standards for Basmati Rice; Will be enforced from 1st August, 2023

Source: The post is based on the article First time in India, FSSAI notifies comprehensive regulatory standards for Basmati Rice; Will be enforced from 1st August, 2023published in PIB on 13th January 2023.

What is the News?

Food Safety and Standards Authority of India (FSSAI) has notified standards for basmati rice. They will be enforced from August 1,2023. 

What are the standards released by FSSAI for basmati rice?

Aim: To protect consumer interest and ensure the basmati rice sold in the market has the characteristic fragrance identified with this variety and is free from artificial fragrances and colouring.

Applicable to: The standards are applicable to brown basmati rice, milled basmati rice, parboiled brown basmati rice and milled parboiled basmati rice.

Key features of the standards: Basmati rice shall possess the natural fragrance characteristics of basmati rice and be free from artificial colouring, polishing agents, and artificial fragrances. 

– These standards also specify various identity and quality parameters for basmati rice such as the average size of grains, maximum limits of moisture, uric acid, and damaged grains.

About Basmati Rice

Basmati rice is a premium variety of rice cultivated in the Himalayan foothills of the Indian sub-continent. It is universally known for its long grain size, fluffy texture and unique aroma and flavour.

Agro-climatic conditions of the specific geographical areas where Basmati Rice is grown as well as the method of harvesting, processing and ageing of the rice contribute to the uniqueness of Basmati Rice. 

In India, rice is grown in specific parts of Punjab, Haryana, Himachal Pradesh, Delhi, Uttarakhand, Uttar Pradesh and Jammu and Kashmir can be labelled as basmati.

It is a widely consumed variety of rice both in the country and abroad and India accounts for two-thirds of its global supply.


Rural Health Statistics report – Missing doctors: CHCs face 80% shortfall of specialists, show Health Ministry data

Source: The post is based on the article “Missing doctors: CHCs face 80% shortfall of specialists, show Health Ministry data” published in The Hindu on 13th January 2023.

What is the News?

The Union Health and Family Welfare Ministry has released the Rural Health Statistics report.

What is the Rural Health Statistics report?

It is an annual publication of the Ministry of Health and Family Welfare (MoHFW) since the year 1992. 

The report provides data on health infrastructure including manpower up to 31st March of every year. 

What are the key findings of the report?
Rural Health Statistics report
Source: The Hindu

Community Health Centres(CHCs): CHCs are 30-bed block-level health facilities which are ideally supposed to provide basic care related to surgery, gynecology, paediatrics and general medicine. There are 6,064 CHCs across India.

India is reeling under an acute shortage of specialist doctors with a shortfall of nearly 80% of the required specialists at Community Health Centres(CHCs).

This is despite the fact that in 2005, the number of specialist doctors in the CHCs was 3,550, which has seen a 25% increase to 4,485 in 2022. 

However, with the number of CHCs growing, the requirement for specialists required to make the centres functional has also increased.

Primary health centres and sub-centres: There is a shortage of women health workers and auxiliary nursing midwives with up to 14.4% of these posts lying vacant in primary health centres and sub-centres.


Levy anti-dumping duty on viscose fibre

Source: The post is based on the article “Levy anti-dumping duty on viscose fibre published in The Hindu on 13th January 2023.

What is the News?

The Association of Man-made Fibre Industry of India(AMFII) has appealed to the Union Finance Ministry to accept the recommendations of the Directorate General of Trade Remedies(DGTR) on the levy of anti-dumping duty(ADD) on imports of Viscose Staple Fibre from Indonesia.

What is Viscose Fibre?

Viscose is a type of rayon. It was originally known as artificial silk. But in the late 19th century, the term “rayon” came into effect in 1924.

The name “viscose” is derived from the way this fibre is manufactured; a viscous organic liquid used to make both rayon and cellophane.

It is the generalized term for a regenerated manufactured fibre, made from cellulose, obtained by the viscose process.

As a manufactured regenerated cellulose fibre, it is neither truly natural (like cotton, wool or silk) nor truly synthetic (like nylon or polyester) – it falls somewhere in between.

Chemically, viscose resembles cotton, but it can also take on many different qualities depending on how it is manufactured.


New reactor powered by sun can convert plastic, CO2 into fuel

Source: The post is based on the article New reactor powered by sun can convert plastic, CO2 into fuelpublished in Down To Earth on 12th January 2023.

What is the News?

Researchers from the University of Cambridge (UK) have developed a system that can transform plastic waste(PET) and greenhouse gases into sustainable fuels and other valuable products – using just the energy from the sun.

What have the researchers from the University of Cambridge developed?

Greenhouse gases and plastic waste are two of the biggest environmental problems the world faces today. 

Researchers from Cambridge have designed a reactor to tackle both at once, converting CO2 and used plastic bottles into useful materials, powered entirely by sunlight.

What is the reactor made of?

The reactor is made up of two separate compartments – one for plastic and one for CO2 – as well as a unit in each compartment that absorbs energy from light and uses it to trigger a catalyst that converts the feedstock into something more useful. 

– The light absorber is perovskite which is emerging as a promising material for solar cells while the catalyst can be changed depending on the desired final product.

How does it work?

Generally, CO2 conversion requires a lot of energy, but with this reactor, basically, one needs to shine a light at it, and it starts converting harmful products into something useful and sustainable.

What is Polyethylene Terephthalate(PET)? 

Polyethylene terephthalate is the most common thermoplastic polymer resin of the polyester family. It is used in fibres for clothing, containers for liquids and foods, thermoforming for manufacturing and in combination with glass fibre for engineering resins.


‘India’s much-hyped tiger recovery needs a total reboot and official monopoly over tiger research should end’

Source: The post is based on the article “‘India’s much-hyped tiger recovery needs a total reboot and official monopoly over tiger research should end’” published in The Times of India on 4th February 2023. Syllabus: GS 3 – Environment and Bio-diversity Conservation. Relevance: About issues of tiger conservation. News: According to a world-renowned conservation scientist, India… Continue reading ‘India’s much-hyped tiger recovery needs a total reboot and official monopoly over tiger research should end’

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AI chatbot, my future colleague

Source– The post is based on the article “AI chatbot, my future colleague” published in The Indian Express on 4th February 2023. Syllabus: GS3- Awareness in the field of IT and Robotics Relevance– AI enabled technologies News– Over the past few months, a chatty bot has become a sensation. What is chatbot? It is a… Continue reading AI chatbot, my future colleague

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Co-ops Get Their Moment In The Sun

Source: The post is based on the article “Co-ops Get Their Moment In The Sun” published in The Times of India on 4th February 2023. Syllabus: GS 3 – Government Budgeting Relevance: Budget 2023-24 for the cooperative sector News: The article discusses measures announced by this year’s budget to boost the cooperative sector. What are some of… Continue reading Co-ops Get Their Moment In The Sun

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Going green – The Budget can help India transition out of its dependence on fossil fuels

Source: The post is based on the article “Going green – The Budget can help India transition out of its dependence on fossil fuels” published in The Hindu on 4th February 2023. Syllabus: GS 2 – Energy. Relevance: About green initiatives in budget 2023-24. News: In the recent budget highlighted the government’s commitment to move towards… Continue reading Going green – The Budget can help India transition out of its dependence on fossil fuels

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Pakistan Conundrum – Islamabad’s economic collapse won’t be good for India

Source: The post is based on the article “Pakistan Conundrum – Islamabad’s economic collapse won’t be good for India” published in The Times of India on 4th February 2023. Syllabus: GS 2 – India and its neighbourhood- relations. Relevance: About Pakistan’s economic crisis. News: Recently, the IMF review mission rejected Pakistan’s debt management plan and demanded… Continue reading Pakistan Conundrum – Islamabad’s economic collapse won’t be good for India

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Charge sheet scrutiny is not a case of prying eyes

Source– The post is based on the article “Charge sheet scrutiny is not a case of prying eyes” published in The Hindu on 4th February 2023. Syllabus: GS2- Functioning of judiciary Relevance– Issues related to Criminal justice system News–  The Supreme Court has ruled that a charge sheet filed against an accused in a criminal… Continue reading Charge sheet scrutiny is not a case of prying eyes

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On Budget 2023: Health in Amrit Kaal

Source– The post is based on the article “On Budget 2023: Health in Amrit Kaal” published in The Indian Express on 4th February 2023. Syllabus: GS2- Issues related to development and management of health Relevance– Health spending News– Recently, the central government presented the budget for this year. The total central government budget for health… Continue reading On Budget 2023: Health in Amrit Kaal

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Two years after Myanmar coup, how the country is a mess — and India’s headache has worsened

Source: The post is based on the article “Two years after Myanmar coup, how the country is a mess — and India’s headache has worsened” published in The Indian Express on 4th February 2023. Syllabus: GS 2 – International Relations Relevance: India-Myanmar Relations News: The article discusses the changing political scenario of Myanmar and its effect on… Continue reading Two years after Myanmar coup, how the country is a mess — and India’s headache has worsened

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There’s a lot in a name: Use of the term ‘northeast’ doesn’t do justice to the complex history of the region’s states

Source– The post is based on the article “There’s a lot in a name: Use of the term ‘northeast’ doesn’t do justice to the complex history of the region’s states” published in The Indian Express on 4th February 2023. Syllabus: GS1- Regionalism Relevance– News– The article explains the issues related to use of term northeast… Continue reading There’s a lot in a name: Use of the term ‘northeast’ doesn’t do justice to the complex history of the region’s states

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[UPSC Interview 2022] – Transcript #20 : M Sathiyavathy Board, PSIR Optional, Karnataka Home State, Football, silk farming Hobbies

Date of Interview: Feb 02 Board: M Sathiyavathy Optional: PSIR Home State: Karnataka Background: Mechanical Engg Work: Sports Authority Hobbies: Football, silk farming, documentaries Chair asked to remove mask. Read the DAF. To view all IAS Interview Transcripts 2022, visit this page Chairman What doing since graduation? What is your salary? Ok gross salary? What… Continue reading [UPSC Interview 2022] – Transcript #20 : M Sathiyavathy Board, PSIR Optional, Karnataka Home State, Football, silk farming Hobbies

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Yaya Tso to become Ladakh’s first biodiversity heritage site

Source: The post is based on the article “Yaya Tso to become Ladakh’s first biodiversity heritage site” published in Livemint on 2nd February 2023. What is the News? Yaya Tso has been proposed as Ladakh’s first biodiversity heritage site(BHS). What is Yaya Tso? Yaya Tso is located in Ladakh. It is known as a birds’… Continue reading Yaya Tso to become Ladakh’s first biodiversity heritage site

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Newly-discovered ancient ‘marine crocodile’ fossil could be the oldest of its kind ever found

Source: The post is based on the article “Newly-discovered ancient ‘marine crocodile’ fossil could be the oldest of its kind ever found” published in Indian Express on 4th February 2023. What is the News? A new study has uncovered a new thalattosuchian — an ancient ancestor of the modern-day crocodile. What is Thalattosuchian? Thalattosuchia is… Continue reading Newly-discovered ancient ‘marine crocodile’ fossil could be the oldest of its kind ever found

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Who is a ‘puisne’ judge, and what does the term mean?

Source: The post is based on the article “Who is a ‘puisne’ judge, and what does the term mean?” published in Indian Express on 4th February 2023 What is the News? Chief Justice of India (CJI) has recently reiterated that the collegium takes into consideration the seniority of Chief Justices and senior puisne judges while… Continue reading Who is a ‘puisne’ judge, and what does the term mean?

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Government initiates various steps under National Bioenergy Programme to promote and encourage establishment of new waste to energy plants

Source: The post is based on the article “Government initiates various steps under National Bioenergy Programme to promote and encourage establishment of new waste to energy plants” published in PIB on 3rd February 2023. WGovernment initiates various steps under National Bioenergy Programme to promote and encourage establishment of new waste to energy plantshat is the… Continue reading Government initiates various steps under National Bioenergy Programme to promote and encourage establishment of new waste to energy plants

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Operation Sadbhavana in Ladakh

Source: The post is based on the article “ Operation Sadbhavana in Ladakh” published in PIB on 4th February 2023 What is the News? The Indian Army is running Operation Sadbhavana in Ladakh. What is Operation Sadbhavana? Operation Sadbhavana (Goodwill) is a unique humane initiative undertaken by the Indian Army in Ladakh. Purpose: The focus… Continue reading Operation Sadbhavana in Ladakh

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Tihar jail to get AI-powered surveillance system

Source: The post is based on the article “Tihar jail to get AI-powered surveillance system” published in The Hindu on 4th February 2023. What is the News? Tihar jail is installing artificial intelligence(AI)-powered CCTV cameras to monitor inmates and fight crime.The premises will also have a real-time grievance redressal system. What is Tihar Jail? Tihar… Continue reading Tihar jail to get AI-powered surveillance system

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Supreme Court eases procedures for terminally ill patients to withdraw medical treatment

Source: The post is based on the article “Supreme Court eases procedures for terminally ill patients to withdraw medical treatment” published in The Hindu on 4th February 2023. What is the News? The Supreme Court has modified its 2018 judgment on passive euthanasia and living wills. What is a Living Will/advance medical directive(AMD)?  Click Here… Continue reading Supreme Court eases procedures for terminally ill patients to withdraw medical treatment

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Govt. extends deadline for laggard solar scheme

Source: The post is based on the article “Govt. extends deadline for laggard solar scheme” published in The Hindu on 4th February 2023. What is the News? The deadline for the PM KUSUM scheme to install 30,000 MW solar power capacity in rural India by 2022 has now been pushed to March 2026. What is… Continue reading Govt. extends deadline for laggard solar scheme

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Govt eases rules to help disabled register vehicle

Source: The post is based on the article “Govt eases rules to help disabled register vehicle” published in The Hindu on 4th February 2023. What is the News? The Ministry of Road Transport and Highways has asked states to register vehicles owned by people with disabilities under the ownership category of ‘Divyangjan’ and extend necessary… Continue reading Govt eases rules to help disabled register vehicle

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Pradhan Mantri National Dialysis Programme

Source: The post is based on the article “Pradhan Mantri National Dialysis Programme” published in PIB on 3rd February 2023 What is the News? The Union Minister of State for Health and Family Welfare has informed Lok Sabha about Pradhan Mantri National Dialysis Programme(PMNDP). What is Dialysis? Dialysis is a procedure that removes waste and… Continue reading Pradhan Mantri National Dialysis Programme

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Working of the MGNREGS: Challenges and Solutions – Explained, pointwise

For 7PM Editorial Archives click HERE → Introduction The Economic Survey 2022-23 showed that 6.49 crore households demanded work under the Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Scheme (MGNREGS). Of these, 6.48 crore households were offered employment by the government and 5.7 crore actually availed it. The Scheme was hailed for its role in mitigating the impact of… Continue reading Working of the MGNREGS: Challenges and Solutions – Explained, pointwise

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[UPSC Interview 2022] – Transcript #19 : RN Choubey Board, Geography Optional, Haryana Home State, Cricket Hobby

Date of Interview: 2nd February 2023, Afternoon Session Board: RN Choubey Sir Home State: Haryana Background: Physics Optional: Geography Hobbies: Stargazing, Flute, Cricket Other Keywords: Police, CAPFs To view all IAS Interview Transcripts 2022, visit this page Chairman You had lunch today? What? ( I said Poha). That is a breakfast item. We will arrange… Continue reading [UPSC Interview 2022] – Transcript #19 : RN Choubey Board, Geography Optional, Haryana Home State, Cricket Hobby

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[UPSC Interview 2022] – Transcript #18 : Lt. Gen. Raj Shukla Board, Anthropology Optional, Telangana Home state, farming Hobby

Board: Lt. Gen. Raj Shukla (Retd.) Optional: Anthropology Home State: Telangana Hobbies: Helping parents in farming activities Worked as software engineer and Panchayat secretary Interview went well and it’s more than 35 minutes To view all IAS Interview Transcripts 2022, visit this page Chairman Are you happy with new state Telangana? Why you are happy? Any… Continue reading [UPSC Interview 2022] – Transcript #18 : Lt. Gen. Raj Shukla Board, Anthropology Optional, Telangana Home state, farming Hobby

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[UPSC Interview 2022] – Transcript #17 : RN Choubey Board, Geography Optional, Travel Hobby

Date of Interview: 2nd February Board: RN Choubey Optional: Geography Background: MSc Chemistry In service: State Civil Service Hobby: Travel documentary To view all IAS Interview Transcripts 2022, visit this page Chairman Introduce with educational and work experience. What’s your opinion on farmer protest ? What are the 3 laws ? Why they opposed ?… Continue reading [UPSC Interview 2022] – Transcript #17 : RN Choubey Board, Geography Optional, Travel Hobby

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[UPSC Interview 2022] – Transcript #16 : RN Choubey Board, Andhra Pradesh Home State

Board: RN Choubey In service: ICLS, Home State: Andhra Pradesh Background: Mechanical Engineering To view all IAS Interview Transcripts 2022, visit this page Chairman What are u doing at present What is the role of mca in ease of doing bussiness Different cities selected for the rank and the last rank of india Is the… Continue reading [UPSC Interview 2022] – Transcript #16 : RN Choubey Board, Andhra Pradesh Home State

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[UPSC Interview 2022] – Transcript #15 : RN Choubey Board, Anthropology Optional, Maharashtra Home State, playing harmonium Hobby

Date of Interview: 31 Jan 2023, Afternoon session. Board: RN Choubey Sir Background: Physics and statistics. Optional: anthropology Home State: Maharashtra Hobby: playing harmonium, To view all IAS Interview Transcripts 2022, visit this page Chairman Introduce yourself with work experience Tell me Types of leaders What type of leader was Gandhi ji? What are the… Continue reading [UPSC Interview 2022] – Transcript #15 : RN Choubey Board, Anthropology Optional, Maharashtra Home State, playing harmonium Hobby

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Must Read Current Affairs Articles – February 4th, 2023

About Must Read News Articles: Must Read News Articles is an initiative by Team ForumIAS to provide links to the most important news articles of the day. It covers The Hindu newspaper. This saves the time and effort of students in identifying useful and important articles. With newspaper websites requiring a paid subscription beyond a certain… Continue reading Must Read Current Affairs Articles – February 4th, 2023

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[UPSC Interview 2022] – Transcript #14 : M Sathiyavathy Board, Haryana Home State, Reading, Meditation Hobbies

Date of Interview: 30/01/2023 Board: M Sathiyavathy Background: Electrical Engg, IIT Delhi Home State: Haryana Employee: Intel, Currently in IDAS Hobbies: Reading Biographies, Meditation, Playing piano To view all IAS Interview Transcripts 2022, visit this page Chairman Satyavathi Mam read out the DAF loudly and asked the following questions : Tell us about the recent reforms in… Continue reading [UPSC Interview 2022] – Transcript #14 : M Sathiyavathy Board, Haryana Home State, Reading, Meditation Hobbies

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Trading more within Asia makes economic sense

Source– The post is based on the article “Trading more within Asia makes economic sense” published in The Hindu on 3rd February 2023. Syllabus: GS2- Bilateral, Regional and Global Groupings and Agreements Relevance– Trade and Economic relations across Asia News– IMF has warned that global trade would slow down from 5.4% in 2022 to 2.4%… Continue reading Trading more within Asia makes economic sense

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System Bails Out – Kappan finally free on bail but many aren’t, in contravention of juridical principles

Source: The post is based on an article “System Bails Out – Kappan finally free on bail but many aren’t, in contravention of juridical principles” published in The Times of India on 3rd February 2023. Syllabus: GS 2 – Governance News: The Kerala journalist Siddique Kappan has been freed from jail after 846 days. He was charged… Continue reading System Bails Out – Kappan finally free on bail but many aren’t, in contravention of juridical principles

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India’s G20 Presidency: LiFE lessons for global markets

Source– The post is based on the article “India’s G20 Presidency: LiFE lessons for global markets” published in The Indian Express on 3rd February 2023. Syllabus: GS3- Environment Relevance– Sustainable development News– The world is facing its first truly global energy crisis, with turbulent markets and sharp price spikes. It is creating difficulties for citizens,… Continue reading India’s G20 Presidency: LiFE lessons for global markets

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Decluttering the defence budget

Source: The post is based on an article “Decluttering the defence budget” published in Business Standard on 3rd February 2023. Syllabus: GS 3 – Government Budgeting Relevance: Budget 2023-24 for the defence News: The article discusses the shortcomings of the Budget 2023-24 in the defence sector. What are the shortcomings with the budget in the defence sector?… Continue reading Decluttering the defence budget

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Fire and ice – Problem facing Ladakh

Source– The post is based on the article “Fire and ice” published in The Hindu on 3rd February 2023. Syllabus: GS2- Polity. GS1- Regionalism Relevance– Regional political issues News– The people of Ladakh are on agitation for their demands. What are the demands of agitating people in Ladakh? They are demanding the inclusion of the… Continue reading Fire and ice – Problem facing Ladakh

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SFG 2023 Level-2 by ForumIAS | Entrance Test 11th February 2023

Dear Friends, Please be informed that we will be conducting the Level-2 of Select Focus Group (SFG) starting from 28th February 2023. The entrance test for the program will take place on 11th February 2023 at 9:30 AM. ForumIAS SFG is a test-based self-study program that emphasizes on three parameters: a) discipline, b) rigor, and c) revision. It balances static and dynamic content and… Continue reading SFG 2023 Level-2 by ForumIAS | Entrance Test 11th February 2023

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[UPSC Interview 2022] – Transcript #13 : RN Choubey Board, public administration Optional, Maharashtra Home State, Reading, web series Hobbies

Date of Interview: 1st FEB Afternoon 2nd to go Board: RN Choubey sir Optional: public administration Background: Computer Engg. Home State: Maharashtra Hobbies: Reading non fiction, web series To view all IAS Interview Transcripts 2022, visit this page Chairman Briefly tell abt educational b/g nd work experience Why pubad? Major internal security challenges India is… Continue reading [UPSC Interview 2022] – Transcript #13 : RN Choubey Board, public administration Optional, Maharashtra Home State, Reading, web series Hobbies

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A ‘waterfall’ for insolvency resolution

Source– The post is based on the article “A ‘waterfall’ for insolvency resolution” published in the Business Standard on 3rd February 2023. Syllabus: GS3- Changes in Industrial Policy and their Effects on Industrial Growth Relevance– Exit process of the business News– The Ministry of Corporate Affairs has recently issued a discussion paper inviting comments on… Continue reading A ‘waterfall’ for insolvency resolution

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The Union budget ticks all the right boxes for India Inc

Source: The post is based on the following articles “The Union budget ticks all the right boxes for India Inc” published in the Livemint on 3rd February 2023. “Express View on Budget 2023: Adding it up” published in the Indian Express on 3rd February 2023. Syllabus: GS 3 – Government Budgeting. Relevance: Budget 2023-24 is… Continue reading The Union budget ticks all the right boxes for India Inc

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Get to know about macrosomia, the condition that creates gigantic babies

Source: The post is based on the article “Get to know about macrosomia, the condition that creates gigantic babies” published in Economic Times on 2nd February 2023 What is the News? A mother in Brazil recently gave birth to a two-foot-tall baby weighing 7.3kg. This is called as Macrosomia. Note: A newborn boy typically weighs… Continue reading Get to know about macrosomia, the condition that creates gigantic babies

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New income tax regime: A nudge on income tax mustn’t become a shove

Source: The post is based on the article “A nudge on income tax mustn’t become a shove” published in the Livemint on 3rd February 2023. Syllabus: GS 3 – Government Budgeting. Relevance: About the new income tax regime. News: In the Budget 2023-24, the government introduced a new income tax regime. About the new tax regime… Continue reading New income tax regime: A nudge on income tax mustn’t become a shove

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Current insight on the mechanisms of Cobra venom cytotoxins can help anti-venom therapy

Source: The post is based on the article “Current insight on the mechanisms of Cobra venom cytotoxins can help anti-venom therapy” published in PIB on 3rd February 2023 What is the News? Scientists have traced the mechanisms of the toxic action of cobra venom paving a path towards developing strategies for application of antivenom which… Continue reading Current insight on the mechanisms of Cobra venom cytotoxins can help anti-venom therapy

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Tamil Nadu’s proposed Pen Monument to Karunanidhi’s memory — the plan and the criticism

Source: The post is based on the article “Tamil Nadu’s proposed Pen Monument to Karunanidhi’s memory — the plan and the criticism” published in Indian Express on 3rd February 2023. What is the News? A public hearing for the proposed ‘Pen Monument’ in memory of late Tamil Nadu chief minister and DMK patriarch M Karunanidhi… Continue reading Tamil Nadu’s proposed Pen Monument to Karunanidhi’s memory — the plan and the criticism

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Budget 2023: 80,000 start-ups exempt from angel tax, says gov

Source: The post is based on the article “Budget 2023: 80,000 start-ups exempt from angel tax, says gov” published in Business Standard on 3rd February 2023 What is the News? The Finance Minister has made several announcements related to the startup sector in the Union Budget 2023-24. What are the announcements made in the Budget… Continue reading Budget 2023: 80,000 start-ups exempt from angel tax, says gov

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Union Budget 2023-24: Push for ELS cotton yield to reduce imports

Source: The post is based on the article “Union Budget 2023-24: Push for ELS cotton yield to reduce imports” published in The Hindu on 3rd February 2023 What is the News? The Budget has proposed to enhance the productivity of extra-long staple (ELS) cotton through public-private partnerships. This is meant to lower the import dependence… Continue reading Union Budget 2023-24: Push for ELS cotton yield to reduce imports

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No bar on contesting two seats in one poll

Source: The post is based on the article “No bar on contesting two seats in one poll” published in The Hindu on 3rd February 2023 What is the News? The Supreme Court has refused to set aside a provision in the election law which allows candidates to contest polls from two constituencies simultaneously. What was… Continue reading No bar on contesting two seats in one poll

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CITES database reveals red sanders smuggling

Source: The post is based on the article “CITES database reveals red sanders smuggling” published in The Hindu on 3rd February 2023 What is the News? The CITES trade database has recorded 28 incidents of red sanders confiscation, seizure and specimens from the wild being exported from India. What is Red Sanders? Red Sanders(Pterocarpus santalinus)… Continue reading CITES database reveals red sanders smuggling

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Health ministry’s fight against sickle cell anaemia to follow Gujarat playbook

Source: The post is based on the article “Health ministry’s fight against sickle cell anaemia to follow Gujarat playbook” published in Economic Times on 2nd February 2023 What is the News? The Finance Minister has announced that the government will work towards the mission to eliminate sickle-cell anaemia while presenting the Union Budget 2023-24 in… Continue reading Health ministry’s fight against sickle cell anaemia to follow Gujarat playbook

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Cut in MGNREGS outlay is not a concern: Somanathan

Source: The post is based on the article “Cut in MGNREGS outlay is not a concern: Somanathan” published in The Hindu on 3rd February 2023. What is the News? In the Union Budget 2023-24, the Union Government has reduced the allocation for the Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Scheme(MGNREGS). What is the MGNREGA allocation… Continue reading Cut in MGNREGS outlay is not a concern: Somanathan

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Union Budget 2023-24: Key Highlights – Explained, pointwise

For 7PM Editorial Archives click HERE → Introduction The Union Finance Minister has presented the Union Budget 2023-24 in the Parliament. This is the last full budget before the next year’s General Elections. There were apprehensions that the Budget may resort to populist measures ahead of the election year. However, most economic experts have observed that the Government… Continue reading Union Budget 2023-24: Key Highlights – Explained, pointwise

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[UPSC Interview 2022] – Transcript #12 : M Sathiyavathy Board, Law Optional,

Date of Interview: 1/02/2023 afternoon session. Board: M Sathiyavathy Background: Biomedical science Optional: law. Profession: Deputy jailor. Hobbies: feeding stray animals, mimicking Bollywood artists. As usual start by ma’am reading daf to all members. To view all IAS Interview Transcripts 2022, visit this page Chairman Explain ur gap year ….. feeding stray is menace don’t you… Continue reading [UPSC Interview 2022] – Transcript #12 : M Sathiyavathy Board, Law Optional,

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[UPSC Interview 2022] – Transcript #11 : RN Choubey Board, Maharashtra Home State, Cooking Hobby

Date of Interview: 2nd Feb to be interviewed, Forenoon Session Board: Shri Rajiv Nayan Choubey Home State: Maharashtra Background: IRS (IT), Hyderabad, Hobby: Cooking, CSE, International Mathematical Olympiad, Google summer of code(GSC), Stray animal rescue and rehabilitation, chess 4th attempt, 3rd Interview(including this — every time, Chaubey Sir chaired them) To view all IAS Interview… Continue reading [UPSC Interview 2022] – Transcript #11 : RN Choubey Board, Maharashtra Home State, Cooking Hobby

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