9 PM Daily Current Affairs Brief – January 19th, 2023

Dear Friends,

We have initiated some changes in the 9 PM Brief and other postings related to current affairs. What we sought to do:

  1. Ensure that all relevant facts, data, and arguments from today’s newspaper are readily available to you.
  2. We have widened the sources to provide you with content that is more than enough and adds value not just for GS but also for essay writing. Hence, the 9 PM brief now covers the following newspapers:
    1. The Hindu  
    2. Indian Express  
    3. Livemint  
    4. Business Standard  
    5. Times of India 
    6. Down To Earth
    7. PIB
  3. We have also introduced the relevance part to every article. This ensures that you know why a particular article is important.
  4. Since these changes are new, so initially the number of articles might increase, but they’ll go down over time.
  5. It is our endeavor to provide you with the best content and your feedback is essential for the same. We will be anticipating your feedback and ensure the blog serves as an optimal medium of learning for all the aspirants.
    • For previous editions of 9 PM BriefClick Here
    • For individual articles of 9 PM BriefClick Here

Current Affairs Compilations for UPSC IAS Prelims 2022

Mains Oriented Articles

GS Paper 1

GS Paper 2

GS Paper 3

Prelims Oriented Articles (Factly)

Mains Oriented Articles

GS Paper 1


Overtaking China – New population estimates have wider implications

Source: The post is based on the article “Overtaking China – New population estimates have wider implications” published in Business Standard on 19th January 2023.

Syllabus: GS 1 – Population and Associated Issues

Relevance: challenges with increasing population

News: The article discusses the challenges with India due to the increasing population.

What is the news?

According to the World Population Review, India’s population has become 1.417 billion.

According to China’s National Statistics Bureau, in 2022 China saw its first decline in population since the famine-hit 1960s. The population count in China is now 1.412 billion.

This means India is now the world’s largest country by population.

What are the challenges for India due to increasing population?

It is true that a higher population brings more tax to the government leading to increase in spending. However, it also has challenges associated with it.

Some of the challenges with increasing population are – a) pressure on man-made infrastructure such as apartments, b) pressure on natural resources, c) create challenges for sustainability of India’s natural habitats; e.g., Joshimath crisis.

Must Read: China, India population: Implications of slowing dragon, racing elephant

What can be the way ahead?

There is a need for India to have quality population; i.e., it needs to enhance its human resource capability by refocusing its public policy.

This would help India in reaping the benefits out of its demographic dividend and become an upper-income country.

GS Paper 2


Admonishments that endanger the Constitution

Source– The post is based on the article “Admonishments that endanger the Constitution” published in The Hindu on 19th January 2023.

Syllabus: GS2- Indian constitution and Basic structure

Relevance– Working of the constitution

News– The article explains the basic structure and its importance for Indian constitutional structure. It also explains the recent attack of judiciary by executive

What is the basic structure?

The judgment is widely recognized as a milestone in India’s history. It held that Parliament’s power to amend the Constitution was not plenary. Any change that damages the basic structure of the constitution would be declared void.

What is the recent attack on the judiciary by the executive and why is it not healthy criticism?

Much of this criticism has been aimed at the functioning of the collegium. The Union Minister of Law and Justice, and Vice President  have repeatedly doubted the Court’s judgment in 2015, in which it struck down NJAC.

Mr. Dhankhar claimed that the striking down of the NJAC had no parallels in democratic history. In a democratic society, the basic of any basic structure is supremacy of people, sovereignty of parliament.

He said that the ultimate power is with the legislature. Legislature also decides who will be there in other institutions. All institutions must confine themselves to their domains. One must not interfere in the domain of others.

Genuine criticism of the Collegium’s functioning ought to be welcomed. But the Government confirmed in Parliament that it has no plans to implement any systemic change in the way we appoint judges.

The Government itself has done little to promote transparency in the process. Therefore, the present reproach is unprincipled. It is an attempt at subverting the judiciary’s autonomy.

Why is basic structure the foundation of the constitution and inherent part of it?

India’s Constitution comprises a set of principles that together give it an identity. The Constitution is a product of a collective vision. That vision was built on distinct but interwoven ideals.

These ideals consist of rule of law, Westminster parliamentary form of governance, separation of powers, independence of judiciary and federal structure. These cannot be amended as they would change the fundamental pillars of the constitution.

In Minerva Mills vs Union of India, SC held that Parliament too is a creature of the Constitution. Therefore, it can only have such powers that are expressly vested on it.

If those powers are unlimited, it would cease to be an authority under the Constitution. It would become supreme over it, because it would have power to alter the entire Constitution including its basic structure.

SC in the Keshvananda Bharati case gave the interpretation of the word “amendment”. The dictionary definition of “amendment” means “minor change or addition designed to improve a text”.


Look Who’s Feeding Pendency

Source– The post is based on the article “Look Who’s Feeding Pendency” published in The Times of India on 19th January 2023.

Syllabus: GS2- Functioning of judiciary

Relevance– Issues impacting the justice delivery

News– The article explains the issue of judicial delays and pendency of cases in courts of India.

Over 4 crore cases are pending in the subordinate judiciary, apart from 56 lakh in HCs and about 70,000 in SC.

Government has proposed engaging lawyers as judges and bringing back retired judges as ‘ad hoc’ judges as out-of-the-box remedies to tackle this issue

What are three important factors for the huge pendency of cases and delays in the judicial system?

AdjournmentMechanical adjournment at all tiers of the judiciary is the single biggest contributor to the pendency of cases.

Procedure for adjournment is not codified in our statute book. Adjournments are asked and given casually.

A faint attempt was made when the Civil Procedure Code was amended exactly two decades ago. It says that each adjournment decision should specify the reason for the adjournment. It should not exceed three adjournments before the verdict is pronounced. These rules are not followed in true spirit.

Admission– Admissions of new cases are also responsible for long pendency. Admission rate in SC is a healthy 11%, HCs are too permissive. HCs admit almost all cases brought before them. There are no rules for admission.

Appeal- Appeals is the third factor contributing to judicial delays. The government is the biggest culprit here. Bureaucrats opt for appeal against every single order to save their own reputation and to delay losses.

What is the way forward to resolve the issue of judicial delays?

The issues related to frequent adjournments, admissions and appeals must be addressed. Constitutional courts must first practise prudence on the three ‘A’s and then ensure it percolates down to magistrate courts.

Every adjournment should be treated as a minor judicial decision requiring a written reason. As a result, the rate of adjournments will reduce.

Judges should disallow adjournments at least in cases where either of the parties enjoys an interim order of stay or injunction or status quo.


Check, do not cross – Government should work towards systemic reform; not attack the judiciary

Source: The post is based on an article “Check, do not cross – Government should work towards systemic reform; not attack the judiciary” published in The Hindu on 19th January 2023.

Syllabus: GS 2 – Governance

Relevance: issues associated with the Collegium system

News: The Union Law Minister Kiren Rijiju has written to the Chief Justice of India to request that the executive be given a role in the appointment process of judges, which now is being handled by a Collegium of judges.

What are some demands of the central government asked in the letter?

As per the report, the Minister wants the formation of a search-and-evaluation committee, with Government representatives. It will suggest names to the collegiums in the High Courts and the Supreme Court for appointments.

Government is also demanding for a representative of the Union government in the Supreme Court collegium, and a state government’s representative in the High Court collegiums.

Moreover, the Law Minister has repeatedly been highlighting the flaws of the collegium system.

What has been the stand of court regarding the demand of the government?

The Court has earlier said that the government at any time can come up with law which is more transparent, independent and establishes a neutral mechanism in the appointment of judges and which does not affect the independence of the judiciary.

Till a new law comes, the government has to abide by the law of the land, that is, the present system of appointments through the Collegium.

What can be the course of action?

The government has often tried to delay the appointment of judges by deliberately delaying action on recommendations; ignoring reiterated names even after multiple reconsiderations; and carrying on a campaign to delegitimise the institution.

However, this is not acceptable as each and every democratic institution has its boundary and limitation under which it functions.

Therefore, a system of checks and balances that prevents any one branch gaining the upper hand is essential for democratic functioning.


Check, do not cross – Government should work towards systemic reform; not attack the judiciary

Source: The post is based on the article “Check, do not cross – Government should work towards systemic reform; not attack the judiciary” published in The Hindu on 19th January 2023.

Syllabus: GS 2 – Structure, organization and functioning of the Executive and the Judiciary.

Relevance: About the process of appointing judges.

News: Recently, Union Minister for Law and Justice has written to the Chief Justice of India (CJI) “suggesting” that a nominee of the government should be included in the collegium that makes recommendations for the appointment of judges.

The Minister also wants the formation of a search-and-evaluation committee, with Government representatives, to suggest names to the collegiums in the High Courts and the Supreme Court for appointments.

Read more: MoP for the appointment of judges: Law Minister’s suggestion to CJI on appointment of judges: The context and background, explained

Why does the government want to change the process of appointing judges?

Ever since the formation of the National Judicial Appointments Commission (NJAC) Act, the government wants to be part of selecting judges. But the 2015 judgment of a Constitution Bench struck down the formation of a National Judicial Appointments Commission (NJAC).

Since then, the government is frequently questioning the collegium system by highlighting some of its acknowledged flaws. Further, the government also doing  a) deliberately delaying action on recommendations; b) ignoring reiterated names even after multiple reconsiderations; and c) carrying on a campaign to delegitimise the institution.

What should be done?

The Collegium system needs reform. This can be done by infusing more transparency and independency in the process by making a fresh legislative effort to establish a neutral mechanism.

A system of checks and balances that prevents any one branch gaining the upper hand is essential for democratic functioning.

GS Paper 3


The conflict behind eco-sensitive zones

Source– The post is based on the article “The conflict behind eco-sensitive zones” published in The Hindu on 19th January 2023.

Syllabus: GS3- Environment conservation

Relevance– Issues related to protected areas

News– The article explains the concept of protected areas and ESZ. It explains the issues related to the concept of ESZ. It also tells about the reason for recent protests in Kerala due to creation of these zones.

What are protected areas?

Protected areas cover 5.26% of India’s land area as 108 national parks and 564 wildlife sanctuaries. They are notified under the Wildlife (Protection) Act 1972. Protected areas do away with even the activities permitted in ‘reserve forests’

The rights of forest-dependent communities are impacted. Therefore, this conservation model has come under repeated criticism from conservation scientists.

It led to the bringing of the Forest Rights Act, 2006. FRA recognizes the customary and traditional rights of forest-dwellers on forest land, including in protected areas.

How is the FRA being implemented?

FRA was an attempt to undo the historic injustice done to the forest-dwelling community of India. The MoEFCC reckoned in 2009  that it needs to hand over at least four lakh sq. km to village-level institutions. But as of June 2022, only 16% has come under the FRA.

However, this has been achieved in only a decade and a half. This is attributed to the gram sabhas which took over the power to determine rights through open democratic process from government officials.

These gram sabhas are now the statutory authorities empowered to conserve, protect and manage forests, and wildlife lying within the traditional village boundaries.

These areas under gram sabhas come under a new category of forests called ‘community forest resource’ (CFR). Gram sabhas have to integrate their CFR conservation and management plan into the working plan of the Forest Department, with the required modifications.

What are ESZs?

What are the issues with ESZ?

Significantly, parts of the ESZs in ten States fall within the Scheduled Areas notified under the Fifth Schedule of the Constitution. They are mostly populated by Scheduled Tribe groups.

The Provisions of the PESA Act, 1996 apply in these areas. The PESA recognises gram sabhas competence to safeguard and preserve community resources on forest and revenue lands in Scheduled Areas.

However, the MoEFCC has shown no inclination to amend the Indian Forest Act 1927, the Wildlife (Protection) Act, 1972 and the Environment (Protection) Act 1986 to comply with the PESA and FRA.

How exactly were the ESZs implemented?

In 2005, the National Board for Wildlife decided to delineate site-specific ESZs to regulate specific activities instead of prohibiting them. In May 2005, the MoEFCC asked the States and UTs to propose ESZs.

The MoEFCC guidelines for ESZs stated that a committee consisting of the Wildlife Warden, an ecologist, and an official from the local government will determine the extent of each ESZ. It will be based on the forest rangers’ inventory of land-use and wildlife corridors within 10 km of each protected area.

The Chief Wildlife Warden was to then list the activities that were to be prohibited, restricted and permitted.

After this process, the State government would submit this list, the geographical description of the area and the biodiversity values, the rights and entitlements of local communities, and their economic potential and implications for their livelihoods, as a proposal to the MoEFCC for notification.

Within two years of notification, the State government is required to draft a Zonal Master Plan for each ESZ in consultation with a number of departments.

State government has to set up a monitoring committee for each ESZ to monitor compliance with the various provisions of each notification. The committee is required to report the actions taken to the Chief Wildlife Warden every year.

The guidelines and the ESZ notifications disregarded many legal facts and statutory requirements. They set aside the gram sabhas in Scheduled Area and CFR forests and the Panchayati-raj institutions. It follows a ‘one size fits all’ approach.

What has led to the protests?

In June, 2022, the Supreme Court gave further directions on ESZs. Court said that the MoEFCC guidelines are also to be implemented in the area proposed in the draft notification awaiting finalisation and within a 10-km radius of yet-to-be-proposed protected areas.

The Court also allowed States to increase or decrease the minimum width of ESZs. It vested the powers to ensure compliance with the Principal Chief Conservator of Forests and the Home Secretary of the State.

The PCCF was to make a list of all structures within the ESZs and report it to the Supreme Court within three months. The Court also ordered that no new permanent structure could come up for any purpose within an ESZ.

This effectively meant that all the activities can continue only if the PCCF grants permission. The Court’s directions have put the lives of many people in the hands of the PCCF. Its  authority now extends beyond the forest to revenue lands falling within an ESZ.

The new structures that are banned could include electric poles, buildings, walls, roads and bridges. Millions of forest-dwellers living on forest land and on the fringes of forests are the most affected.


Margin of safety

Source– The post is based on the article “Margin of safety” published in the Business Standard on 19th January 2023.

Syllabus: GS3- Indian economy and mobilisation of resources

Relevance– Issues related to money and capital markets

News– The article explains the recently released consultation paper “Blocking of Funds for Trading in Secondary Market” for public comment by SEBI

It seeks to extend the application supported by the blocked amount (ASBA) system to the secondary market.

What is ASBA In the Primary market?

When an investor applies for shares in an IPO, a security is placed on the requisite funds. It remains in the investor’s bank account and generates interest. If the allotment occurs, the funds are transferred. If it doesn’t occur, the money goes to investor

What is the reason behind this move of SEBI?

The objective is to eliminate the need to transfer funds in advance to a broker. Therefore, it reduces chances of misuse or losses caused by broker defaults.

In the secondary market, investors have to submit collateral or transfer funds in advance to the broker before executing a trade. This results in brokerages holding substantial sums. This practice also places the investor’s funds at risk in case the broker defaults.

What method has been suggested by SEBI for creating ASBA mechanism for the secondary market?

The regulator believes that it can use the new multiple debits facility for the Unified Payments Interface  to create a new ASBA mechanism.

This will allow investors to block funds in their bank account for trading in the secondary market, instead of transferring upfront to the broker. When the trade occurs, the funds would be transferred directly to the clearing corporation.

Brokerage and securities transaction tax may be deducted by the clearing corporation and passed on to brokers, or paid directly by investors to them.

What are the main concerns related to this new proposal?

There is a need to ensure a level playing field. Brokerages that are subsidiaries of banks can offer 3-in-1 accounts. The brokerage can access the funds and demat account when the need arises.

Standalone brokerages currently compete by charging lower fees, offering more advisory support and more flexible margins. The ASBA for the secondary market may be in favour of bank-backed brokerages.

The technicalities are much more complex for secondary market trades. An IPO is a static process. There is only one security involved and only one agency handling allotment. Reconciling IPO accounts is not difficult.

Secondary-market operations involve far more stakeholders and far more instruments, including equities, derivatives, and forex and commodity futures. Each has different prices and different margins.

A trade may be placed simultaneously on both exchanges.There are massive volumes of such highly dynamic trades. The secondary ASBA mechanism would have to be well designed and stress-tested to prevent slowdowns, and glitches in practice.


Prelims Oriented Articles (Factly)

ASER 2022: ASER Report flags widening learning gaps

Source: The post is based on the articleASER Report flags widening learning gapspublished in The Hindu on 19th January 2023.

What is the News?

Annual Status of Education Report(ASER) 2022 has been released by Pratham, a non-governmental organization.

What is the ASER?

ASER is a household survey conducted across 616 rural districts covering 6.9 lakh children in the three-to-16 age group to record their schooling status and assess their basic reading and arithmetic skills. 

The report is being brought out after four years and records the impact of school closures in 2020 and 2021 as well as the return to school of children in 2022. 

What are the key findings of ASER 2022?

ASER 2022
Source: Indian Express

Increase in school enrollment: Despite the prolonged closure of schools, the overall enrollment in schools across the country has increased at all levels, with 98.4% in the age group of 6-14 years currently enrolled in schools. The figure stood at 97.2% in 2018.

Girl’s enrollment increased: The proportion of girls not enrolled in schools has also reduced across age groups. For girls aged 11-14, this share dropped from 4.1% in 2018 to 2% in 2022.

Drop in Learning levels: Between 2014 and 2018, learning levels in terms of foundational skills in reading and arithmetic had been rising gradually. For example, the proportion of Class 3 students who could read a Class 2 textbook had gone up from 23.6% in 2014 to 27.2% in 2018, while those who could do at least subtraction rose from 25.3% to 28.2%.

– However, in 2022, the basic reading ability of children in Class 3 dipped by 6.8% points from 2018 and the proportion of children in Class 3 who could do at least subtraction fell to 25.9% in 2022.

– Clearly, the pandemic has resulted in a learning loss. However, the loss is much greater in reading as compared to arithmetic.

Increase in children availing private tuitions: A small, steady increase in the proportion of children availing private tuitions. Between 2018 and 2022, this proportion increased further – from 26.4% to 30.5%.

Enrollment in government schools: The percentage of children aged 11 to 14 who are enrolled in government schools has risen from 65% in 2018 to 71.7% in 2022.

– This phenomenon can be attributed to several factors, including job losses and the closure of budget private schools in rural areas during the pandemic.

Read more: ASER Survey and issues in school education – Explained, pointwise

NHAI implementing an advanced traffic management system to reduce accidents

Source: The post is based on the article “NHAI implementing an advanced traffic management system to reduce accidents” published in Livemint on 19th January 2023.

What is the News?

National Highways Authority of India(NHAI) is implementing the Advanced Traffic Management System(ATMS) on national highways and expressways for managing incidents of road crashes and enforcement of speed limits and other regulations on highways. 

What is an Advanced Traffic Management System(ATMS)?

ATMS involves a set of intelligently integrated roadside equipment that are connected to ensure a safe and secure journey, including smooth traffic movement and timely reaction to untoward incidents.

The ATMS has already been implemented for around 3,000 km of National Highways.

How will ATMS work?

The ATMS will be linked to the vehicle database of the transport department(RTOs). It will identify those vehicles, which do not have valid papers. The data will be shared with local traffic police for issuing challans.

All this will be made possible by capturing the number plate of a vehicle. This will tell ATMS about the insurance of the vehicle, its age, pollution certificate and CNG kit testing certificate since the system will be linked to the RTO database.

Moreover, ATMS will not only be capable of capturing a photo of the number plate of the vehicle but will also alert the authorities if travellers are not wearing seat belts.

What are the other steps taken by NHAI to improve safety on highways?

NHAI is looking at leveraging GIS technology for analyzing drone videos and Network Survey Vehicle data for identifying safety issues on highways.

NHAI is imparting mandatory 15 days of Road Safety Audit Training to its engineers. The completion of training has been made a key criterion for the promotion of engineers to the post of Manager and Deputy General Manager.


Halteria – Viral nutrition: new study reveals microbes nourished by consuming viruses

Source: The post is based on the article “Viral nutrition: new study reveals microbes nourished by consuming viruses” published in The Hindu on 19th January 2023.

Halteria – Viral nutrition: new study reveals microbes nourished by consuming viruseshers at the University of Nebraska-Lincoln have reported that a particular genus of plankton, namely Halteria, can consume viruses as well as survive on a virus-only diet.

What are Planktons?

Plankton are microscopic organisms that can only move with a current. They don’t have any facilities to actively propel themselves. 

A type of plankton — the phytoplankton — is found nearer the surface of many water bodies. It is an autotroph, which means it can make its own food by consuming carbon dioxide among other compounds through photosynthesis. 

When phytoplankton dies, they drift around where they are, becoming part of a coastal nutrient cycle, or they drift down towards the seafloor, where they decompose. Their constituents then become available for microbes or are sequestered into the seafloor.

So, phytoplankton brings carbon and other nutrients from the atmosphere and sea surface down to the seafloor and help replenish the food chain (and also ‘trap’ carbon into their own bodies and as sediments). 

They are joined by bacteria that make their own food by oxidizing sulphur, iron or hydrogen in a process called chemosynthesis.

What are Halteria?

Halteria plankton are ciliates, meaning they have hair-like structures called cilia on their surface. Sometimes they can beat some of these cilia to jump short distances, but not often as it requires too much energy.

Halteria plankton are found in large numbers in freshwater bodies. They are heterotrophs meaning they can’t produce their own food. Instead, they are well-known bacterivores — they consume bacteria to power themselves.

What did the researchers find about Halteria?

Halteria ciliates are virovores which means they are able to survive on a virus-only diet. These single-celled creatures are the first known to thrive when viruses alone are on the menu.


Why India needs a fresh fertilizer policy

Source: The post is based on the article “Why India needs a fresh fertilizer policypublished in Livemint on 19th January 2023.

What is the News?

Niti Aayog has set up a task force to examine the production and promotion of bio-fertilizer and organic fertilizers.

What are the steps taken by the government to improve the availability of fertilizers?

Some of the steps undertaken by the government to improve the availability of fertilizers include 1) Assessment of state-wise requirements every month, 2) 100% neem coating of urea which increases nutrient efficiency; monitoring of crop yield and soil health and 3) online monitoring of the movement of fertilizers through the integrated Fertilizer Monitoring System. 

The gap between demand and production was met through timely imports.

What is the impact of the current fertilizer policy?

Heavy subsidies have prompted many farmers to use chemical fertilizers like urea, which leads to higher productivity, but affects soil fertility in the long run. 

As per the UN report, excessive and inefficient use of fertilizers leads to nutrient losses to the environment and could also result in drinking water contamination and impact human lives as a result of unsafe storage practices. 

Also, with the subsidy being released directly to companies, technology-inefficient companies are being protected. 

What has been the trend in government expenditure on fertilizers?

The Ukraine war spiked the government’s spending on food, fertilizer and fuel subsidies by nearly 70%. 

For 2023-24, the fertilizer ministry might seek budgetary support of ₹2.5 trillion subsidy – outgo for FY23 has already crossed ₹2 trillion.

What steps has the Centre taken in 2022 for fertilizers?

The Department of Fertilizers has disbursed subsidies for urea and nutrient-based subsidy and implemented direct benefit transfer. 

It also implemented the ‘One Nation One Fertilizers’ scheme which aims to ensure timely supply of fertilizers.This eliminates the dilemma of choosing from the many brands available by introducing a single brand. 

The existing village, block/sub district/taluk and district-level fertilizer retail outlets are being converted into model fertilizer retail outlets.

What will the new policy on fertilizers seek to address?

The new policy could propose lower duty on imported phosphoric acid to raise the competitiveness of local fertilizer manufacturers and an incentive for promoting organic fertilizers.


Spot-bellied eagle owl spotted in A.P.’s Seshachalam forest for the first time

Source: The post is based on the article “Spot-bellied eagle owl spotted in A.P.’s Seshachalam forest for the first time” published in The Hindu on 19th January 2023.

What is the News?

A wildlife team has stumbled upon a Spot-bellied Eagle Owl (Bubo Nipalensis) for the first time in the Seshachalam forest and for the third time in Andhra Pradesh.

What is a Spot-bellied Eagle Owl?

Spot bellied eagle owl
Source: The Hindu

The Spot-bellied Eagle-Owl also known as the forest eagle-owl is a large bird of prey with a formidable appearance. 

IUCN Status: Least Concern

Geographical distribution: It is a forest-inhabiting species found across the Indian Subcontinent.

Characteristics: The bird is found on large trees in thick forests. It feeds on small rodents and lizards.

Significance: The bird makes a strange scream similar to humans and it is hence called the ‘ghost of the forest’ in India and ‘devil bird’ in Sri Lanka.


India’s fertility rate dips, but the decline is faster in Bangladesh, Nepal

Source: The post is based on the article “India’s fertility rate dips, but the decline is faster in Bangladesh, Nepal” published in Business Standard on 19th January 2023.

What is the News?

India’s fertility rate has declined to below the replacement rate. But Nepal’s and Bangladesh’s fertility rates declined faster between 1990 and 2020.

What is the Replacement level of fertility?

Replacement level is the level of fertility at which a population replaces itself exactly from one generation to the next. 

The United Nations(UN’s) prescribed fertility rate is 2.1 births per woman.

China’s population declined: China’s National Statistics Bureau showed that the country’s population shrank to 1.41 billion in 2022. 

India’s population: If data from World Population Prospects is to be believed, then India with a population of 1.412 billion in 2022, would be the most populous country in the world.

A significant reason for this is India’s higher fertility rates or the number of children born per woman.

India’s Fertility rate data: India’s fertility rate has halved between 1990 and 2020. It has declined to 2 — a level much below the UN’s prescribed fertility rate (of 2.1 births per woman).

A rural-urban comparison shows that even though fertility rates in rural areas declined much faster between 2005-06 and 2019-21, the rural fertility rate at 2.14 was much higher than the urban rate of 1.63.


The Secretary, MeitY launches Technology for Air Quality Monitoring System (AI-AQMS v1.0)

Source: The post is based on the article The Secretary, MeitY launches Technology for Air Quality Monitoring System (AI-AQMS v1.0)published in PIB on 18th January 2023.

What is the News?

The Union Ministry for Electronics and Information Technology(MeitY) has launched Technology for Air Quality Monitoring System(AI-AQMS v1.0).

What is the Air Quality Monitoring System(AI-AQMS v1.0)?

Developed by: Centre for Development of Advanced Computing(C-DAC), Kolkata in collaboration with TeXMIN, ISM, Dhanbad.

Purpose: It is an outdoor air quality monitoring station to monitor environmental pollutants which includes parameters like PM 1.0, PM 2.5, PM 10.0, SO2, NO2, CO, O2, ambient temperature, relative humidity etc.

Funded under: National programme on Electronics and ICT applications in Agriculture and Environment (AgriEnIcs).

What is AgriEnIcs: National Programme on Electronics and ICT Applications in Agriculture and Environment?

It is a national-level programme initiated to reform the agriculture and environment sectors with the interventions of IoT, ICT, machine learning and robotics technology.


Survival of the Richest: The India story – India’s richest 1% own more than 40% of total wealth: Oxfam

Source: The post is based on the article “India’s richest 1% own more than 40% of total wealth: Oxfam” published in The Hindu on 18th January 2023.

What is the News?

Oxfam has released a report  titled “Survival of the Richest: The India story”.

What are the key findings of the Survival of the Richest: The India story?

Wealth Inequality: The richest 1% in India now own more than 40% of the country’s total wealth, while the bottom half of the population together share just 3% of the wealth.

– The combined wealth of India’s 100 richest has touched USD 660 billion (Rs 54.12 lakh crore) — an amount that could fund the entire Union Budget for more than 18 months.

Gender and social inequality: Female workers earned only 63 paise for every 1 rupee earned by male workers.

– The situation is even worse for Scheduled Castes and rural workers, as they earned 55% and half of what the advantaged social groups earned respectively, between 2018 and 2019.

GST: Approximately 64% of the total Rs 14.83 lakh crore in Goods and Services Tax (GST) came from the bottom 50% of the population in 2021-22, with only 3% of GST coming from the top 10%.

What are the suggestions given by the report to combat inequality?

Implement inheritance, property and land taxes, as well as net wealth taxes, in order to reduce inequality and generate revenue for social programs.

– For instance, taxing India’s ten-richest at 5% can fetch entire money to bring children back to school or if India’s billionaires are taxed once at 2% on their entire wealth, it would support the requirement of Rs 40,423 crore for the nutrition of malnourished in the country for the next three years. 

Enhance the budgetary allocation of the health sector to 2.5% of GDP by 2025, as envisaged in the National Health Policy.

Enhance the budgetary allocation for education to the global benchmark of 6% of GDP.

Impose a windfall tax on food companies that are making large profits as inflation has surged.


[UPSC Interview 2022] – Transcript #7 : RN Choubey Board, Medical science Optional, J&K Home State

Date of Interview: 31st January, forenoon session Board: RN Choubey Sir Optional: Medical science Home State: J&K To view all IAS Interview Transcripts 2022, visit this page Chairman 1.tell us about consumer protection architecture in India 2.you r a doctor, why civil services? 3.what do you know about Ross island, who is Ross? 4.who discovered the… Continue reading [UPSC Interview 2022] – Transcript #7 : RN Choubey Board, Medical science Optional, J&K Home State

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Locally made green trains to be rolled out

Source: This post is created based on the article “Locally made green trains to be rolled out”, published in Live Mint on 2nd Feb 2023. Why in the News? Under the ‘Amrit Bharat Station’ scheme, the central government plans to redevelop about 1,275 stations across the country. About ‘Amrit Bharat Station’ scheme Under the scheme,… Continue reading Locally made green trains to be rolled out

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Tourism to go into mission mode

Source– The post is based on the article “Tourism to go into mission mode” published in The Hindu on 2nd February 2023. What is the news? The Union Budget announced a slew of measures for promotion of tourism that will go into Mission Mode.There was no increase in Budget allocation. It remained at ₹2,400 crore.… Continue reading Tourism to go into mission mode

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FM Sitharaman announces PM PRANAM scheme to push states to promote alternative fertilisers

Source– The post is based on the article “FM Sitharaman announces PM PRANAM scheme to push states to promote alternative fertilisers” published in The Indian Express on 2nd February 2023. What is the news? The Finance Minister announced in the budget that the government will launch a new scheme called PM PRANAM. What are some… Continue reading FM Sitharaman announces PM PRANAM scheme to push states to promote alternative fertilisers

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A raft of concessions amid consolidation

Source– The post is based on the article “A raft of concessions amid consolidation” published in The Hindu on 2nd February 2023. What is the news? The Finance Minister has presented the budget for FY2024. She termed it as the “first Budget in Amrit Kaal”. What are the key focus areas of the budget? Inclusive… Continue reading A raft of concessions amid consolidation

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The social sector has been short-changed once again

Source– The post is based on the article “The social sector has been short-changed once again” published in The Hindu on 1st February 2023. Syllabus: GS3- Mobilisation of resources Relevance– Fiscal policy News– The article explains the focus of the budget. It talks about the allocation for welfare programmes of the government. It also explains… Continue reading The social sector has been short-changed once again

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Budget 2023 pulls off an artful balance

Source: The post is based on an article “Budget 2023 pulls off an artful balance” published in The Indian Express on 2nd February 2023. Syllabus: GS 3 – Indian Economy Relevance: Budget 2023-24 News: The article discusses the concerns that the domestic economy was facing and the way this year’s budget addresses those. What are the domestic… Continue reading Budget 2023 pulls off an artful balance

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Tiresome rules out, trust-based model in

Source: This post is created based on the article “Tiresome rules out, trust-based model in”, published in Live mint on 2nd Feb 2023. Syllabus Topic: GS Paper 3, changes in industrial policy and their effects on industrial growth News: In her budget speech, Finance Minister (FM) Nirmala Sitharaman emphasized on trust-based governance. To enhance ease… Continue reading Tiresome rules out, trust-based model in

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India-US: The high tech boost

Source– The post is based on the article “India-US: The high tech boost” published in The Indian Express on 2nd February 2023. Syllabus: GS2- Bilateral Groupings and Agreements involving India and affecting India’s interests. Relevance– India and US bilateral relations News– The article explains the outcome of the recent inaugural dialogue of iCET between the… Continue reading India-US: The high tech boost

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Is judicial majoritarianism justified?

Source: The post is based on an article “Is judicial majoritarianism justified?” published in The Hindu on 2nd February 2023. Syllabus: GS 2 – Governance Relevance: Concerns associated with judicial majoritarianism News: The article discusses judicial majoritarianism and issues surrounding it. What is judicial majoritarianism? Judicial majoritarianism refers to numerical majorities, i.e., number of judges supporting a… Continue reading Is judicial majoritarianism justified?

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[UPSC Interview 2022] – Transcript #6 : RN Choubey Board, Malayalam Literature Optional, Kerala Home State

Date of Interview: 30th January Afternoon Session Board: RN Choubey Sir Optional: Malayalam Literature Background: Economics Home State: Kerala To view all IAS Interview Transcripts 2022, visit this page Chairman Introduction – Educational background and Work experience What is licence raj system? What is inspector raj system? Do we need a inspector raj system? In… Continue reading [UPSC Interview 2022] – Transcript #6 : RN Choubey Board, Malayalam Literature Optional, Kerala Home State

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Union Budget 2023-24 Highlights

Source: The post is based on the following articles “SUMMARY OF THE UNION BUDGET 2023-24” and “HIGHLIGHTS OF THE UNION BUDGET 2023-24” published in the PIB on 1st February 2023. “All that you need to know about this year’s budget” and “Agriculture to zero emissions: here’s the budget in 26 letters” published in the Livemint on 2nd February… Continue reading Union Budget 2023-24 Highlights

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MISHTI, Amrit Dharohar, PM PRANAM: Conservation initiatives in the Budget

Source: The post is based on the article “MISHTI, Amrit Dharohar, PM PRANAM: Conservation initiatives in the Budget” published in Indian Express on 2nd February 2023. What is the News? The Finance Minister in his budget speech has announced several schemes and policies aimed at ecological conservation. What are the schemes announced in Budget on… Continue reading MISHTI, Amrit Dharohar, PM PRANAM: Conservation initiatives in the Budget

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What Finance Minister’s push to end manual scavenging means

Source: The post is based on the article “What Finance Minister’s push to end manual scavenging means” published in Indian Express on 2nd February 2023. What is the News? The Finance Minister has announced that the Union government was looking to enable 100% mechanical desludging of septic tanks and sewers in all cities and towns.… Continue reading What Finance Minister’s push to end manual scavenging means

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Allocation of ₹7,000 cr. for Phase 3 of eCourt will improve justice delivery system: Law Minister

Source: The post is based on the article “Allocation of ₹7,000 cr. for Phase 3 of eCourt will improve justice delivery system: Law Minister” published in The Hindu on 2nd February 2023. What is the News? The Finance Minister has allocated ₹7,000 crore for the introduction of Phase 3 of the eCourts Project. What is… Continue reading Allocation of ₹7,000 cr. for Phase 3 of eCourt will improve justice delivery system: Law Minister

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Budget 2023: What are lab-grown diamonds, mentioned by FM

Source: The post is based on the article “Budget 2023: What are lab-grown diamonds, mentioned by FM” published in Indian Express on 3rd February 2023. What is the News? During the Budget speech, the Finance Minister announced the government’s move to focus on lab-grown diamonds.  What are Lab Grown Diamonds? Click Here to read What… Continue reading Budget 2023: What are lab-grown diamonds, mentioned by FM

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PAN to be used as common identifier for digital systems

Source: The post is based on the article “PAN to be used as common identifier for digital systems” published in The Hindu on 2nd February 2023. What is the News? The Finance Minister has said that the Permanent Account Number(PAN) would be used as a common identifier for all digital systems of specified government agencies.… Continue reading PAN to be used as common identifier for digital systems

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Major thrust planned for green energy

Source: The post is based on the article “Major thrust planned for green energy” published in The Hindu on 2nd February 2023. What is the News? The Finance Minister has announced a slew of measures for “Green Growth” while presenting the Union Budget. What are the initiatives announced to promote Green Energy? “Green Growth” has… Continue reading Major thrust planned for green energy

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Government to set up 100 5G labs to develop new apps

Source: The post is based on the article “Government to set up 100 5G labs to develop new apps” published in The Hindu on 2nd February 2023. What is the News? The Finance Minister in Budget 2023-24 has announced several initiatives in the technology sector. What are the initiatives announced in the Budget in the technology… Continue reading Government to set up 100 5G labs to develop new apps

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Women get a one-time small savings scheme

Source: The post is based on the article “Women get a one-time small savings scheme” published in The Hindu on 2nd February 2023. What is the News? In the Union Budget 2023-24, the Finance Minister has announced a new small savings scheme for women called Mahila Samman Saving Certificate(MSSC). What is a Mahila Samman Saving… Continue reading Women get a one-time small savings scheme

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What is the government’s new policy of UPI for NRIs?

Source: The post is based on the article “What is the government’s new policy of UPI for NRIs?” published in The Hindu on 2nd February 2023. What is the News? National Payments Corporation of India(NPCI) has paved the way for international (phone) numbers to be able to transact using UPI.  Recently, the Union Cabinet approved an… Continue reading What is the government’s new policy of UPI for NRIs?

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Budget 2023: PM Awas Yojana share rises by 66%, with more focus on Tier 2 and 3 cities

Source: The post is based on the article “Budget 2023: PM Awas Yojana share rises by 66%, with more focus on Tier 2 and 3 cities” published in The Hindu on 2nd February 2023. What is the News? The Union Budget presented by the Finance Minister has increased the allocation for the PM Awas Yojana (PMAY)… Continue reading Budget 2023: PM Awas Yojana share rises by 66%, with more focus on Tier 2 and 3 cities

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New tax regime gives spending flexibility

Source: The post is based on the following articles “Zero tax for annual income up to ₹7 lakh under new scheme” published in The Hindu on 2nd February 2023. “‘New tax regime gives spending flexibility’” and “New tax regime is very attractive now” published in the Livemint on 2nd February 2023. “Tax rebate under the new regime, explained… Continue reading New tax regime gives spending flexibility

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Economic Survey 2022-23: Key Highlights – Explained, pointwise

For 7PM Editorial Archives click HERE → Introduction The Economic Survey 2022-23 was tabled in the Parliament by the Union Finance Minister on January 31, 2023. The document has been prepared by the Economic Division of the Department of Economic Affairs (DEA). The Survey provides a detailed report of the national economy for the year along with forecasts.… Continue reading Economic Survey 2022-23: Key Highlights – Explained, pointwise

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[UPSC Interview 2022] – Transcript #5 : M Sathiyavathy Board, History Optional, Haryana Home State, Reading fiction, cooking Hobbies

Date of Interview: 30 Jan 2023 Afternoon session Board: M Sathiyavathy Background: Haryana, B.Sc. Physical Science, ICAS Home State: Haryana Optional: History Hobbies: Reading fiction, cooking To view all IAS Interview Transcripts 2022, visit this page Chairman Read through the DAF. 1.Should we merge all accounts services? 2. What services have been merged recently? 3.… Continue reading [UPSC Interview 2022] – Transcript #5 : M Sathiyavathy Board, History Optional, Haryana Home State, Reading fiction, cooking Hobbies

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[UPSC Interview 2022] – Transcript #4 : M Sathiyavathy Board, Sociology Optional, Madhya Pradesh Home State, meditation, badminton Hobbies

Date of Interview: forenoon session, 30th January Board: Satyawati mam Optional: sociology Background: Computer science engineering Home state: Madhya Pradesh Hobbies: reading fiction, mindfulness meditation, badminton Relevant keyword from daf: worked as a software developer in fintech, To view all IAS Interview Transcripts 2022, visit this page Chairman As I entered she started reading out… Continue reading [UPSC Interview 2022] – Transcript #4 : M Sathiyavathy Board, Sociology Optional, Madhya Pradesh Home State, meditation, badminton Hobbies

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[UPSC Interview 2022] – Transcript #3 : Lt. Gen. Raj Shukla Board, PSIR Optional, Maharashtra Home State, MEDITATION Hobby

Date of Interview: 30/01 MONDAY MORNING Board: Lt. Gen. Raj Shukla (Retd.) Background: CIVIL ENG Home State: PUNE, Maharashtra Optional: PSIR Hobby: ANAPANA MEDITATION Employee: COORDINATOR OF CIVIL SERVICES ASPIRANTS CLUB ASKED TO REMOVE MASK AND BE COMFORTABLE . To view all IAS Interview Transcripts 2022, visit this page Chairman CH – AREAS IN WHICH… Continue reading [UPSC Interview 2022] – Transcript #3 : Lt. Gen. Raj Shukla Board, PSIR Optional, Maharashtra Home State, MEDITATION Hobby

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[UPSC Interview 2022] – Transcript #8 : RN Choubey Board, Sociology Optional, Kerala Home State, Movies Meditation Hobbies

Board: RN Choubey Sir Optional: Sociology Home state: Kerala Hobbies: Shyamaprasad movies , cardio exercise and meditation To view all IAS Interview Transcripts 2022, visit this page Chairman 1) About whether I had lunch( to make comfortable) 2) in 1 min about academic and professional achievements -( talked about patent) 3) About EVs having power… Continue reading [UPSC Interview 2022] – Transcript #8 : RN Choubey Board, Sociology Optional, Kerala Home State, Movies Meditation Hobbies

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[UPSC Interview 2022] – Transcript #2 : M Sathiyavathy Board, Tamil Nadu Home State, painting, reading Hobbies

Date of Interview: 30/01/2023 Board: M Sathiyavathy Background: Btech metallurgy from NIT Trichy Home State: Salem ,Tamil Nadu Employee: Sidbi Hobbies: Mandala painting / reading fiction books To view all IAS Interview Transcripts 2022, visit this page Chairman For female candidates ( please remove your chain / earring/ ring ) they are asking ur to… Continue reading [UPSC Interview 2022] – Transcript #2 : M Sathiyavathy Board, Tamil Nadu Home State, painting, reading Hobbies

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Must Read Current Affairs Articles – February 2nd, 2023

About Must Read News Articles: Must Read News Articles is an initiative by Team ForumIAS to provide links to the most important news articles of the day. It covers The Hindu newspaper. This saves the time and effort of students in identifying useful and important articles. With newspaper websites requiring a paid subscription beyond a certain… Continue reading Must Read Current Affairs Articles – February 2nd, 2023

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Why state must cede power to communities

Source– The post is based on the article “Why state must cede power to communities” published in the Business Standard on 1st February 2023. Syllabus: GS3- Economy. GS1- Society Relevance– Developmental model across the world News– The article explains the reason for the broken state of affairs across the most advanced societies. It also explains… Continue reading Why state must cede power to communities

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Expect action on our aim of carbon neutrality by 2070

Source– The post is based on the article “Expect action on our aim of carbon neutrality by 2070” published in the mint on 1st February 2023. Syllabus: GS3- Environment Relevance– Climate change NewExpect action on our aim of carbon neutrality by 2070he article explains the challenges in reducing emissions by developing countries. It also tells… Continue reading Expect action on our aim of carbon neutrality by 2070

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A new Sino-Russian alliance: What are its implications for India?

Source– The post is based on the article “A new Sino-Russian alliance: What are its implications for India?” published in The Indian Express on 1st February 2023. Syllabus: GS2- Effect of Policies and Politics of Developed and Developing Countries on India’s interests Relevance– India in changing global order News– The article explains the emerging Sino-Russian… Continue reading A new Sino-Russian alliance: What are its implications for India?

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Solar energy is not the best option for India

Source– The post is based on the article “Solar energy is not the best option for India” published in The Hindu on 1st February 2023. Syllabus: GS3- Energy Relevance– Sources of energy News– The article explains how the overemphasis on solar power is not the right option for India. It also provides arguments in support… Continue reading Solar energy is not the best option for India

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The funding and demand for MGNREGA

Source: The post is based on the article “The funding and demand for MGNREGA” published in The Hindu on 1st February 2023. Syllabus: GS 2 – Governance Relevance: MGNREGS and associated concerns News: The article discusses the performance of MGNREGS and challenges associated with it. What are some highlights of Economic Survey 2022-23 on the Mahatma Gandhi… Continue reading The funding and demand for MGNREGA

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The New Great Game In The Himalayas – China’s territorial disputes are as much about dominating important rivers as occupying land

Source: The post is based on the article “The New Great Game In The Himalayas – China’s territorial disputes are as much about dominating important rivers as occupying land” published in The Times of India on 1st February 2023. Syllabus: GS 2 – Social Issues News: All India Survey of Higher Education (AISHE) report has revealed an… Continue reading The New Great Game In The Himalayas – China’s territorial disputes are as much about dominating important rivers as occupying land

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The New Great Game In The Himalayas – China’s territorial disputes are as much about dominating important rivers as occupying land

Source: The post is based on the article “The New Great Game In The Himalayas – China’s territorial disputes are as much about dominating important rivers as occupying land” published in The Times of India on 1st February 2023. Syllabus: GS 2 – International Relations Relevance: concerns associated with water sharing between India and China. News: The… Continue reading The New Great Game In The Himalayas – China’s territorial disputes are as much about dominating important rivers as occupying land

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Shumang Leela: The art of gender-bending

Source: The post is based on the article “Shumang Leela: The art of gender-bending” published in The Hindu on 29th January 2023. What is the News? A traditional style of theatre art called Shumang Leela from Manipur has entertained and informed audiences for centuries. What is Shumang Leela? Shumang Leela is a traditional form of… Continue reading Shumang Leela: The art of gender-bending

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Survey calls for new mineral policy, extending coal usage

Source: The post is based on the article “Survey calls for new mineral policy, extending coal usage” published in Livemint on 1st February 2023. What is the News? According to the Economic Survey 2023, India needs a carefully crafted multi-dimensional mineral policy to address the issues posed by an uneven distribution of rare earth elements.… Continue reading Survey calls for new mineral policy, extending coal usage

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Shipbuilding has the potential to strengthen the mission of ‘Aatmanirbhar Bharat’: Economic Survey

Source: The post is based on the article “Shipbuilding has the potential to strengthen the mission of ‘Aatmanirbhar Bharat’: Economic Survey” published in The Hindu on 1st February 2023. What is the News? According to the Economic Survey 2023, shipbuilding has one of the highest employment multipliers and is capable of generating mass employment in… Continue reading Shipbuilding has the potential to strengthen the mission of ‘Aatmanirbhar Bharat’: Economic Survey

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India Ranks Third In Net Gain In Annual Forest Area Over The Past Decade

Source: The post is based on the article “India Ranks Third In Net Gain In Annual Forest Area Over The Past Decade” published in PIB on 31st January 2023. What is the News? According to the Economic Survey 2022–23, India is leading one of the most ambitious clean energy transitions in the world and is… Continue reading India Ranks Third In Net Gain In Annual Forest Area Over The Past Decade

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Economic Survey 2022-23: Indian start-ups exploring reverse-flipping

Source: The post is based on the article “Economic Survey 2022-23: Indian start-ups exploring reverse-flipping” published in The Hindu on 1st February 2023. What is the News? According to the Economic Survey 2022-23, the Indian startup ecosystem is facing several challenges despite recording an increase in the number of startups to 84,012 in 2022 from… Continue reading Economic Survey 2022-23: Indian start-ups exploring reverse-flipping

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Share of education in budgetary allocations has fallen over the past seven years: Survey

Source: The post is based on the article “Share of education in budgetary allocations has fallen over the past seven years: Survey” published in The Hindu on 1st February 2023. What is the News? According to the Economic Survey 2023, the share of education in budgetary allocations has fallen over the past seven years. What… Continue reading Share of education in budgetary allocations has fallen over the past seven years: Survey

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Out-of-pocket health spending still high, despite hike in government expenditure

Source: The post is based on the article “Out-of-pocket health spending still high, despite hike in government expenditure” published in The Hindu on 1st February 2023. What is the News? According to the Economic Survey 2022-23, almost half of all health spending in India is still paid by patients themselves directly at the point of… Continue reading Out-of-pocket health spending still high, despite hike in government expenditure

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Economic survey 2022-23 highlights

Source: The post is based on the following articles “The Economic Survey that wasn’t” published in The Hindu on 1st February 2023. “The Economic Survey’s growth forecast is a little too optimistic”, “An economic overview that scores on cogency” and “India’s Economic Survey has got back to its true and tested format” published in the… Continue reading Economic survey 2022-23 highlights

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India-Egypt Relationship – Explained, pointwise

For 7PM Editorial Archives click HERE → Introduction The President of Egypt, Abdel Fattah El-Sisi was the Chief Guest at India’s 74th Republic Day celebrations this year. In his meeting with the Prime Minister of India, the two nations agreed to elevate the India-Egypt Relationship to ‘strategic partnership’. The strategic partnership will have broadly four elements: political, defence,… Continue reading India-Egypt Relationship – Explained, pointwise

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Economic Survey 2022: Highlights

Source: The post is based on the article “Economic Survey 2022: Highlights” published in PIB on 1st February 2023. What is the News? The Government has tabled the Economic Survey 2022-23. The Survey laid out the outlook for India’s growth, inflation and unemployment in the coming years. What is an Economic Survey? Click Here to… Continue reading Economic Survey 2022: Highlights

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UPSC IAS Civil Services Exam 2023 Notification – 1105 Vacancies, Prelims Date 28th May 2023, last date of application 21st Feb

The UPSC IAS Civil Services Exam 2023 Notification has been released. The prelims exam will be held on 28th May 2023. The number of vacancies to be filled through the 2023 exam has increased to 1105, compared to, 1011 in the 2022 examination. The last Date for Receipt of Applications will be 21st Feb 2023… Continue reading UPSC IAS Civil Services Exam 2023 Notification – 1105 Vacancies, Prelims Date 28th May 2023, last date of application 21st Feb

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Must Read Current Affairs Articles – February 1st, 2023

About Must Read News Articles: Must Read News Articles is an initiative by Team ForumIAS to provide links to the most important news articles of the day. It covers The Hindu newspaper. This saves the time and effort of students in identifying useful and important articles. With newspaper websites requiring a paid subscription beyond a certain… Continue reading Must Read Current Affairs Articles – February 1st, 2023

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Known unknowns of the fertiliser subsidy

Source: The post is based on an article “Known unknowns of the fertiliser subsidy” published in Business Standard on 31st January 2023. Syllabus: GS 3 – Indian Economy Relevance: concerns associated with subsidy on fertilisers News: The government last year came up with measures to bring down the fertiliser subsidy bill. The article provides an analysis of… Continue reading Known unknowns of the fertiliser subsidy

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