9 PM Daily Current Affairs Brief – January 20th, 2023

Dear Friends,

We have initiated some changes in the 9 PM Brief and other postings related to current affairs. What we sought to do:

  1. Ensure that all relevant facts, data, and arguments from today’s newspaper are readily available to you.
  2. We have widened the sources to provide you with content that is more than enough and adds value not just for GS but also for essay writing. Hence, the 9 PM brief now covers the following newspapers:
    1. The Hindu  
    2. Indian Express  
    3. Livemint  
    4. Business Standard  
    5. Times of India 
    6. Down To Earth
    7. PIB
  3. We have also introduced the relevance part to every article. This ensures that you know why a particular article is important.
  4. Since these changes are new, so initially the number of articles might increase, but they’ll go down over time.
  5. It is our endeavor to provide you with the best content and your feedback is essential for the same. We will be anticipating your feedback and ensure the blog serves as an optimal medium of learning for all the aspirants.
    • For previous editions of 9 PM BriefClick Here
    • For individual articles of 9 PM BriefClick Here

Current Affairs Compilations for UPSC IAS Prelims 2022

Mains Oriented Articles

GS Paper 2

GS Paper 3

Prelims Oriented Articles (Factly)

Mains Oriented Articles

GS Paper 2


Judging a decade of the POCSO Act

Source– The post is based on the article “Judging a decade of the POCSO Act” published in The Hindu on 20th January 2023.

Syllabus: GS2- Vulnerable sections of population. GS1- Social empowerment

Relevance– Issues related to crime against children and adolescents

News– The article explains the working of POCSO Act in India and issues faced in implementing its provisions.

What is the POCSO Act?

It was enacted in consequence to India’s ratification of the UN Convention on the Rights of the Child in 1992. The aim of this special law is to address offences of sexual exploitation and sexual abuse of children.

What are some positive points about the POCSO Act?

A significant feature of the POCSO Act is its gender-neutral nature. In Chhattisgarh, male child victims accounted for about eight in every 1,000 POCSO cases.

There is sufficient general awareness about reporting of cases of sexual exploitation of children by individuals and institutions. Non-reporting has been made a specific offence under the POCSO Act.

The storage of child pornography material has been made a new offence.

The offence of ‘sexual assault’ has been defined in explicit terms unlike an abstract definition of ‘outraging modesty of a woman’ in the Indian Penal Code.

What are the issues related to implementation of the POCSO Act?

Investigation– A large part of the investigation of offences under the Act is still guided by the CrPC.

The POCSO Act provides for recording the statement of the victim by a woman sub-inspector at the child’s residence or place of choice. But it is practically impossible to comply with this provision when the number of women in the police force is just 10%.

There is a provision to record statements using audio-video means. Supreme Court in Shafhi Mohammad vs The State of Himachal Pradesh case emphasised on the need for preserving the scene of crime of heinous offences using audio-video means.

But, there is absence of proper infrastructure to ensure the integrity of electronic evidence. Therefore, admissibility of evidence recorded using any audio-video means will always remain a challenge.

Another provision mandates the recording of the statement of the female victim by a judicial magistrate. Such statements are recorded in most cases. But, judicial magistrates are neither called for cross-examination during trial nor are those who retract their statement punished. In such a scenario, such statements get nullified.

The medical examination of a girl child is conducted by a female doctor. But, there are instances where the banned two-finger test is still in use. Infrastructure of FSL is in poor condition. Many cases have a charge sheet without an accompanying FSL report.

Age determination– The age determination of a juvenile accused of crime is guided by the Juvenile Justice Act. No such provision exists under the POCSO Act for juvenile victims. The investigating officers (IOs) continue to rely on the date of birth recorded in school admission-withdrawal registers.

In most cases, parents  are not able to defend in the court. Age estimation based on medical opinion is generally so wide in scope that in most cases minors are proved to be major. Thus, the POCSO Act has made no difference in investigation when it comes to proving juvenility.

Period of investigation– The time mandated to complete investigation of rape is two months. It has resulted in two significant changes on the field. One, there is much pressure on the IOs to submit a charge sheet in two months irrespective of the stage of the investigation.

The IOs do not want to invite internal punishment as the Ministry of Home Affairs supervises POCSO cases through the CCTNS and State police headquarters. Thus, the focus is largely on completion of investigation in two months irrespective of quality.

Second, if a charge sheet was not put up in 90 days of the arrest of the accused, the accused is granted bail. Now, when a charge sheet is put up in 60 days of the FIR, the accused may seek bail immediately after the filing of the charge sheet. Thus the accused gets the benefit of completing an investigation in a shorter time.

The POCSO Act provides that the court shall presume that the accused has committed the offence. However, no such presumption is taken up by the court during trial.


Sexual harassment allegations made by women wrestlers: Wrestle with this

Source– The post is based on the article “Sexual harassment allegations made by women wrestlers: Wrestle with this” published in The Indian Express on 20th January 2023.

Syllabus: GS2- Government policies and interventions

Relevance– Issues related to sports

News– The article explains the issues of sexual exploitation of sports women by people holding important positions in sports administration.

Recently, some sportswomen levelled charges of sexual harassment against President of Wrestling Federation of India.

What are issues faced in ensuring justice for sports women who face sexual exploitation from people in sports administration?

Indian sport is characterised by a dangerous combination of political nexus and male domination of positions of power. The authorities are taking advantage of their political might.

It is not easy to fight against the powerful political appointees and those who operate in their patronage. Most women athletes who raise their voice are forced to give up their careers.

The women sportsperson who have put their lives often does not have any second professional option as back-up and have little familial support. It makes them more vulnerable to exploitation at the hands of corrupt officials.

Redressal and grievance provisions for taking up the complaints of sports women have been absolutely ineffective. They have instilled zero confidence in women to come out and report their abuse.

There is victim blaming and shaming by the accused. Their political machinery combined with the social stigma associated with cases of sexual abuse make it extremely difficult for a lone victim to fight entire apparatus.

One important case is tennis player Ruchika Girhotra from 1990 who dared to raise her voice against the then president of tennis federation and IG Haryana Police.

What is the way forward to ensure justice for sportswomen who face sexual exploitation?

There is an immediate need to formulate an effective legal process that needs to be followed in cases of harassment of women sportspersons.

Committees against sexual harassment must be constituted at all sports’ departments, federations and government sports bodies right till the highest levels.

If due processes are not followed, the authorities must be held accountable.

It is incumbent on people of this country to show solidarity towards sports women in their tough fight


The inevitable geopolitical lens in Sri Lanka

Source– The post is based on the article “The inevitable geopolitical lens in Sri Lanka” published in The Hindu on 20th January 2023.

Syllabus: GS2- India and neighbourhood- Relations

Relevance– Trade and economic relationship with Sri Lanka

News– The article explains the status of Sri Lankan relationship with India and China. It also explains the official debt owned by Sri Lanka.

What is the status of Sri Lankan relationship with India and China?

China is a close partner of Sri Lanka and its largest bilateral creditor. At The end of 2021, the island owed about $7.4 billion or 19.6% of its outstanding public debt to China. It is called the “Chinese debt trap”.

India is Sri Lanka’s closest neighbour with shared history and geography. It is Sri Lanka’s third largest bilateral lender after Japan and a key development partner.

Last year, India extended nearly $4 billion to Sri Lanka to help mitigate its crisis. Prior to 2022, Sri Lanka owed just under a billion dollars to India.

What is the reality of official debt owned by Sri Lanka?

The “Chinese debt trap” narrative is irresistible. It owes a huge sum to a very powerful partner.

Sri Lanka debt trap is not necessarily Chinese.

The largest chunk of Sri Lanka’s foreign debt is owed to Western, private creditors holding International Sovereign Bonds.

What is the way forward for the narrative on official debt owned by Sri Lanka?

There is a need for public scrutiny of official debt. It is required to access information fiercely guarded by the establishment.

People should know about the rates of lending, period of the loan,the expenditure of borrowed money, and consequences of not repaying the debt.

Projects should not merely be seen as Indian, or Chinese assisted. They need to be evaluated on the basis of their development potential for people.


Maldives polls, India’s concerns

Source: The post is based on an article “Maldives polls, India’s concerns” published in The Indian Express on 20th January 2023.

Syllabus: GS 2 – International Relations

Relevance: India-Maldives relations

News: India’s External Affairs Minister S Jaishankar visited Maldives earlier this week and met country’s President Ibrahim Solih. The article discusses the current development in India and Maldives bilateral relations.

What are the developments made between the two nations?

  1. Jaishankar and Maldives President participated in the groundbreaking ceremony of an international airport being developed by India at Hanimadhoo in Haaa Dahaalu atoll.

They also signed three MoUs, including on a proposed collaboration between Cochin University and the Maldives National University, and a $100 million grant for “high impact community development” projects.

Jaishankar handed over two sea ambulances to the Maldives Defence Ministry. He also distributed books at a pre-school in Manadhoo.

Jaishankar along with his counterpart inaugurated an India-funded community centre in the Foakaidhoo island.

Discussions were also made with a focus on development cooperation, capacity building and people-to-people ties.

Moreover, India’s Neighbourhood First and SAGAR policies have helped in the improvement of ties between the two nations. Maldives is also a part of the India-driven Colombo Security Conclave. 

Further, Maldives foreign policy focuses on India First but it also focuses on improving ties with China which might be of concern for India.

What is the significance of international airport being developed by India at Hanimadhoo in Haaa Dahaalu atoll?

The development of the airport will be executed by the Indian company JMC Projects Ltd. It has been financed by a line of credit to the Maldives from India’s Exim Bank. 

The airport is expected to help bring in more tourists to the northern areas of the Maldives as tourism is an important economic activity of Maldives.

This is the second biggest infra project that India has begun in recent months after the Greater Male Connectivity project, that aims to link the Maldives capital to three neighbouring highlands with a bridge and causeway over the sea.

These two projects are important for India to check China’s presence in the nation as it has developed Male-Hulumale-Hulhule bridge and the Hulumale airport.


ASER 2022 findings – ASER report has significant pointers on reversing post-pandemic educational losses

Source: The post is based on the following articles

“Flip the page to the chapter on middle schoolchildren” published in The Hindu on 20th January 2023.

“ASER report has significant pointers on reversing post-pandemic educational losses” published in the Indian Express on 20th January 2023.

Syllabus: GS 2 – Issues relating to the development and management of Social Sector/Services relating to Education.

Relevance: About the recent ASER findings in 2022.

News: Recently, the Annual Status of Education Report(ASER) 2022 was released by Pratham, a non-governmental organization. This is the first nationwide ASER survey in four years.

What are the key findings of ASER 2022 findings?

Read here: ASER 2022: ASER Report flags widening learning gaps

Note: The assessment is done one on one with each sampled child in the household. The child is marked at the highest level that she/he can comfortably reach. The same tasks are used for all children aged 5 years to 16 years.

What are the advantages of the Indian education system as per ASER 2022 findings?

In 2018, the all-India rural enrolment figure for the age group 6-14 years was 97.2%. In ASER 2022 data, this is now 98.4%. This means that a) More students can benefit from schooling for longer, sustained periods, b) The proportion of out-of-school girls has fallen to 2%, c) Completion of the entire cycle of eight years of schooling for 25 million students is a significant achievement, and d) Most schools — even in rural areas — “attempted to keep learning going with digital resources.

A comparative analysis of learning outcomes during the pandemic and post-pandemic years in West Bengal, Karnataka and Chhattisgarh highlights a) States have reversed their learning losses significantly in 2022,

What are the key concerns associated with the Indian education system as per ASER 2022 findings?

-More and more students going through middle school and attending secondary schools. So, there is increased competition for post-secondary opportunities.

-Acute examination stress, grade inflation in school-leaving examinations, difficulties in gaining admission into college, and lack of appropriate jobs for many school-leavers are all consequences of high enrolment and completion rates.

Low levels of reading and arithmetic skills among children: ASER evidence suggests that basic learning levels of middle school children have remained low and stagnant for over a decade. The “value” added each year of middle school is small.

Unless children have strong foundational skills, they cannot acquire higher level skills or develop advanced content knowledge.

What are the reasons highlighted by ASER 2022 for the dismal performance of the Indian education system?

Firstly, an “overambitious” curriculum and the linear age-grade organisational structure of Indian schools result in a vast majority of children getting “left behind” early in their school career.

Secondly, low motivation to learn and a lack of self-confidence are also a reason for dismal performance.

Thirdly, our school system is driven by preparations for Board examinations. Academic content transacted in schools does not mean that the students are ready for college. Further, a college degree is neither relevant nor possible for most students who finish secondary school.

What should be done to improve the Indian education system?

It is time to rethink and rework children’s educational plans once they grow past the foundational stage of schooling to fulfil the National Education Policy targets and NIPUN Bharat missions.

Middle school children urgently need support for learning recovery and “catch up”.

Empowering teachers and reaching out to students in their homes can significantly improve learning outcomes.

Overall, India needs to frame a system that synergises the roles of the home and classroom is the key to improving the Indian educational system.


A detached approach is crucial for a uniform civil code

Source: The post is based on the article “A detached approach is crucial for a uniform civil code” published in the Livemint on 20th January 2023.

Syllabus: GS 2 – Indian Constitution—significant provisions and basic structure.

Relevance: About Uniform Civil Code (UCC).

News: Uniform Civil Code (UCC) in India can be taken into consideration in India only after addressing a slew of concerns.

What is Uniform Civil Code (UCC)?

Read here: Explained | The Uniform Civil Code

A UCC envisions an exhaustive and comprehensive statute of personal laws that will govern Indian society uniformly on issues relating to marriage, maintenance, succession, guardianship, adoption and other related matters. It would encourage joint proprietorship over all benefits obtained by spouses and aim to protect vulnerable sections of society as envisaged by Ambedkar.

What are the status and judicial views on UCC in India?

Must Read: The Debate on Uniform Civil Code – Explained, pointwise

What is the view of the constituent Assembly on UCC?

The Constituent Assembly was also divided over a UCC.

Those who believed that the state and religion were of no concern to each other called for the inclusion of a UCC under fundamental rights. They argued that different personal laws drawn from religious belief would split the state into watertight compartments and result in multiplicity of laws.

Others argued that the individual right to choice of a personal code should be a fundamental one.

Finally, the fundamental rights sub-committee categorized a UCC as a directive principle. They followed Ambedkar’s equal-respect idea of secularism, granting religious liberty to all communities.

What are the benefits of implementing UCC?

If implemented well, the UCC would promise a) communal peace, b) national integration, c) equal treatment of and rights for women in inheritance and divorce, d) consistent marriage and divorce norms, among other benefits.

Overall, the UCC will address all loopholes arising out of variegated personal laws by simplifying the code and offering a coherent legal system.

What should be done to implement UCC?

A one-size-fits-all approach may have worked for countries like Italy, the US and UK, but such policies might not work well in a country that is as diverse in its practices as India.

So, to implement it, India needs clear drafting of UCC’s details. This might help to scrutinize the issue from a detached perspective and address it in a phased manner.

GS Paper 3


Prioritising stability over growth

Source– The post is based on the article “Prioritising stability over growth” published in the Business Standard on 20th January 2023.

Syllabus: GS3- Indian economy and issues relating to growth

Relevance– Issues related to fiscal policy

News– The article explains the economic outlook for India. It also provide some suggestions for the upcoming budget

What is the economic outlook for India?

Positive side– The National Statistical Office forecast a 7% gross domestic product growth for 2022-23. The threat presented by the Covid is relatively very low.

Negative sideCombined fiscal deficit of around 10%. The current account deficit projected at over 3.5%, and core inflation sticking to 6% can not be a very good sign for the economy. NSO’s forecast figures for the current year are subject to revision.

On the international front, there is uncertainty about the Russia-Ukraine conflict. Many economists are predicting an imminent global recession.

What are some suggestions for the upcoming budget?

It would be wise to have policies which favour financial and economic stability over growth aspirations in the near term. The temptation to loosen fiscal policy should be resisted at this stage.

The government should contain its revenue expenditure. The Union Budget on February 1 will be followed by state governments’ budgets. The Government of India needs to set the right example by not yielding to populist demands.

As for the capital expenditure, the increased government spending in the last few years hasn’t resulted in the desired results. It is likely to result in “crowding out” of the private sector borrowings. It will be prudent to not increase the government capital expenditure allocations for 2023-24 beyond the current year’s level.

The government should refrain from setting an unrealistic target for divestment revenue receipts.

The government shouldn’t depend on divestment proceeds to meet its revenue requirements. The government needs to prioritise corporate governance improvements in the public sector enterprises.

The Budget should announce the government’s plan to improve the IBC’s efficacy.

The government should not provide tariff duty protection to the various sectors of domestic industry without solid reasoning. Sincere efforts are needed to bring to conclude crucial free trade agreements, which have been under negotiations for several years.

The capital gains tax regime needs an overhaul. During the last few years, the capital gains tax rates have been frequently changed in an ad hoc manner. There is a  need to simplify and rationalise the existing capital gains tax framework.


Internet blues for media

Source: The post is based on an article “Internet blues for media” published in Business Standard on 20th January 2023.

Syllabus: GS 3 – IT and Computer

Relevance: reasons behind declining internet users in India

News: There has been a decrease in the use of the internet by the people. This article discusses the reasons behind low consumption of the internet by Indians.

What is the reason behind low use of the internet in India?

The prices of smartphones have gone up due to the chip shortage in the market and due to the supply constraints.

As per the IDC data, the Indian smartphone market declined 10 per cent year-on-year in the third quarter of 2022. This was the lowest third-quarter figure since 2019.

The prices of smartphones have also affected the internet growth in India because a smartphone is the first way into the internet and a primary device to go online.

What will be the effect of low use of the internet in India?

It will have ripple effects and its effects will be felt across sectors, including education and banking.

It will also affect online advertising because if fewer people will be online there will be fewer views on the advertisement which will bring uncertainty for both advertisers and digital businesses.

Further, the number of people using broadband has remained at the same level for two years now.

As per the Telecom Regulatory Authority of India (TRAI) data, internet growth fell down by 4 percent in 2021 and by June 2022 the growth in internet subscribers was less than 1 per cent compared to the same quarter in 2021.

What is the way ahead?

According to the telecom analysts, the chip capacity will improve in the second half of 2023. This will ease the demand-supply situation making chips accessible for entry-level smartphones.

Hence, the price of smartphones will fall with more people getting access to phones and the internet.


Disruptive change in education could help us tackle joblessness

Source: The post is based on the article “Disruptive change in education could help us tackle joblessness” published in the Livemint on 20th January 2023.

Syllabus: GS 2 and GS 3 – Issues relating to the development and management of Social Sector/Services relating to Education and Employment.

Relevance: About the education needs and India’s labour market.

News: Recent estimates suggest that India will need to create about 200 million jobs in the next decade to fully absorb the backlog of unemployment (and underemployment), i.e., about an additional 20 million jobs per year.

What are the key concerns of India’s labour market?

According to the author, the employment challenge in India is a man-made problem attributable to two types of policy distortions. a) Industrial regulation and b) Education policy.

Industrial regulation causes: 1)Slow growth of employment, 2) Low employment intensity of GDP growth and 3) Low labour force participation rate, especially among women.

What are the education policy-related causes of India’s employment challenge?

1) Only a small fraction of the Indian workforce has the educational foundation required for highly skilled, high-productivity jobs, 2) The education levels of most Indian workers enable them to acquire only low skills suitable for low-productivity jobs, 3) Barely 5% of the workforce have any skill training and only 2% have any formal skill certificate as compared to over 70% in advanced European countries like the UK or Germany and as much as 80% in East Asian countries like Japan or South Korea, 4) India’s long-standing neglect of primary and secondary education has limited the access to quality basic education, 5) The share of public expenditure on education in India, around 14%, is about the same as the Asian-country average. But its allocation has a sharp bias. For instance, Universal primary education (>90% net primary enrolment) was only achieved in India during the past decade but most countries in East and Southeast Asia had already achieved this goal over 50 years ago. Further, the Annual State of Education (Rural) reports (ASER) show that learning outcomes still remain abysmal.

What needs to be done in education to improve India’s labour market?

Education is primarily a state subject. Unlike welfare schemes and other popular issues with immediate poll pay-offs, education programmes take time to show results. But many of such required changes are embodied in the National Education Policy (NEP) 2020.

Some states have begun showcasing their performance on education and other public goods, and voters have been rewarding them. Such rewards will force all the state governments to focus on the service-delivery performance of education.


Prelims Oriented Articles (Factly)

Loan loss provision by banks: Why has RBI proposed a new forward-looking approach?

Source: The post is based on the article Loan loss provision by banks: Why has RBI proposed a new forward-looking approach?published in Indian Express on 19th January 2023.

What is the News?

The Reserve Bank of India(RBI) has published a discussion paper on “loan loss provision”, proposing a framework for adopting an expected loss(EL)-based approach for provisioning by banks in case of loan defaults.

What is loan-loss provision?

The RBI defines a loan loss provision as an expense that banks set aside for defaulted loans. 

Banks set aside a portion of the expected loan repayments from all loans in their portfolio to cover the losses either completely or partially. In the event of a loss, instead of taking a loss in its cash flows, the bank can use its loan loss reserves to cover the loss.

Since the bank does not expect all loans to become impaired, there is usually enough in the loan loss reserves to cover the full loss for any one or a small number of loans when needed. An increase in the balance of reserves is called Loan Loss Provision.

What is the current approach followed by banks for Loan loss provision and what are its problems?

Currently, banks follow an “incurred loss”-based approach. This approach requires banks to provide for losses that have already occurred or been incurred.

The delay in recognising expected losses under this approach was found to exacerbate the downswing during the financial crisis of 2007-09.

Further, the delays in recognising loan losses overstated the income generated by the banks which, coupled with dividend payouts, impacted their capital base because of reduced internal accruals — which too, affected the resilience of banks.

What is the expected loss-based approach proposed by RBI?

RBI has proposed a framework for adopting an expected loss (EL)-based approach for provisioning by banks in case of loan defaults.

Under this approach, a bank is required to estimate expected credit losses based on forward-looking estimations.

Under this, banks will need to classify financial assets into one of three categories — Stage 1, Stage 2, or Stage 3 — depending upon the assessed credit losses on them, at the time of initial recognition as well as on each subsequent reporting date, and make necessary provisions.

What are the benefits of this new approach?

The expected credit losses approach will further enhance the resilience of the banking system in line with globally accepted norms.

It is likely to also result in excess provisions as compared to the shortfall in provisions as seen in the incurred loss approach.


Chamundi Hills: Citizens’ committee to press for heritage panel clearance for work on Chamundi Hills

Source: The post is based on the article “Citizens’ committee to press for heritage panel clearance for work on Chamundi Hills” published in The Hindu on 20th January 2023.

What is the News?

The citizens committee to save the Chamundi Hills have urged the government to conserve and promote the religious sanctity and environmental integrity of Chamundi Hills.

They have said that the funds under the Pilgrimage Rejuvenation and Spiritual, Heritage Augmentation Drive(PRASHAD) scheme should not be utilized for creating concrete structures under the guise of new amenities at Chamundi Hills.

What is PRASHAD Scheme?

Click Here to read

What is Chamundi Hills?

Chamundi Hill is located in Mysore, Karnataka. The famous Chamundeswari Temple is located in the hills.

The temple was named after Chamundeshwari or, the fierce form of Shakti. It is believed that Goddess Durga slayed the demon king Mahishasura on the top of this hill which was ruled by him. 

The place was later known as Mahishooru (Place of Mahisha). The British changed it to Mysore and later Kannadized it into Mysuru.

Karanji lake is the most popular lake in Chamundi Hills. The lake is owned by the Mysore Zoo. 


Etalin Hydroelectric Project: Temporary relief as plan for Etalin hydel in Arunachal junked

Source: The post is based on the article “Temporary relief as plan for Etalin hydel in Arunachal junked” published in Down To Earth on 19th January 2023.

What is the News?

The proposed Etalin hydroelectric project in Arunachal Pradesh has been scrapped in its present form.

What is the Etalin Hydroelectric Project?

Etalin Hydroelectric Project is envisaged as a run-of-the-river scheme on rivers Dri and Tangon in the Dibang Valley District of Arunachal Pradesh. 

– Note: Dir and Tangon are both tributaries of the Dibang River (tributary of Brahmaputra).

It was proposed to be developed as a joint venture between Jindal Power Ltd and the Hydropower Development Corporation of Arunachal Pradesh Ltd.

What are the concerns related to the Etalin Hydroelectric Project?

Environmental concerns: The project will require the diversion of 1,165.66 hectares of forest land and the felling of more than 280,000 trees in the area. 

– The Forest Advisory Committee(FAC) highlighted that the land in which the project is proposed covers two pristine forests with riverine growth that, once cut, cannot be replaced.

Displacement of people: The project would displace thousands of people from their homes and livelihoods, many of whom are from indigenous communities who rely on those rivers for their livelihoods.

Seismic Risks: The South Asia Network on Dams, Rivers and People (SANDRP) highlighted the geological and seismic risks and threats to biodiversity in 2015 when environmental clearance (EC) for the project was underway.


Year End Review 2022: Ministry of Housing & Urban Affairs

Source: The post is based on the article Year End Review 2022: Ministry of Housing & Urban Affairspublished in PIB on 9th January 2023.

What is the News?

The Ministry of Housing & Urban Affairs has launched several initiatives and schemes in 2022.

What are the schemes and initiatives launched by the Ministry of Housing & Urban Affairs in 2022?

Swachh Bharat Mission-Urban 2.0 and Atal Mission for Rejuvenation and Urban Transformation 2.0

Pradhan Mantri Awas Yojana- Urban(PMAY-U)

‘SVANidhi se Samriddhi’ program

National Urban Digital Mission(NUDM)

Integrated Command and Control Centers(ICCC)

Urban Transport in India

 Light House Projects(LHPs)


Women officers in command soon

Source: The post is based on the article “Women officers in command soon” published in The Hindu on 19th January 2023.

What is the News?

The Army has begun the process for the selection of women officers for command postings in the rank of Colonel, which has so far been the domain of male officers.

About the reason behind promoting women offices to the rank of Colonel

Women officers are being conducted for promotion from the rank of Lieutenant-Colonel to Colonel.

This comes after the Supreme Court judgment in 2021 upholding an earlier judgement granting permanent commission as well as command postings to women officers in all arms and services other than combat.

About women in the armed forces

Women are serving proudly and confidently in various operational theatres of the Indian Army.

Recently, a woman officer from the 57 Engineers regiment was deployed in the Siachen Glacier and has been tasked in operations there.

Women soldiers are also being inducted through the Agnipath entry scheme. The first batch of over 100 women Agniveers will join their training centre in Bengaluru in March 2023.

The Army has also started deployment of women soldiers in joint exercises with friendly foreign countries and in peacekeeping missions.

The Army has also recently decided to induct women into the Corps of Artillery, a combat support arm. The proposal is currently awaiting government approval.

Note: Women are still not eligible for pure combat arms such as Infantry, Mechanised Infantry and Armoured Corps.


Year End Review 2022: Ministry of Cooperation

Source: The post is based on the articleYear End Review 2022: Ministry of Cooperationpublished in PIB on 3rd January 2023.

What is the News?

The Ministry of Cooperation has launched several initiatives and schemes in 2022.

What are the schemes and initiatives launched by the Ministry of Cooperation in 2022?

Computerization of Primary Agriculture Credit Societies(PACS) 

RBI announced very important policy decisions for the cooperative sector:

Firstly, RBI has increased the existing limits on individual housing loans provided by cooperative banks.

Secondly, rural cooperative banks have been allowed to lend to the commercial real estate residential housing sector.

Thirdly, urban co-operative banks have now been allowed to provide door-step banking facilities to their customers on the lines of commercial banks. 

Registration of cooperative societies as ‘Buyers’ on the Government e-Marketplace (GeM) platform.

A National Level Committee under the Chairmanship of former Union Cabinet Minister Suresh Prabhu has been formed for drafting the National Cooperation Policy document.

An allocation of Rs.900 crore has been made in the Union Budget for the financial year 2022-23 for the implementation of various activities of the Ministry of Cooperation which is about 2.5 times the budget provision for the year 2021-22.

Multi State Cooperative Societies (Amendment) Bill, 2022 

Krishak Bharti Cooperative Limited (KRIBHCO) Bio-ethanol project was inaugurated in Hazira, Surat (Gujarat)


New plateau type discovered from Maharashtra could prove to be a repository of information to study climate change effects on species survival

Source: The post is based on the article New plateau type discovered from Maharashtra could prove to be a repository of information to study climate change effects on species survivalpublished in PIB on 19th January 2023.

What is the News?

Researchers have discovered a rare low-altitude basalt plateau in the Western Ghats that could offer new insights into surviving climate change.

What is the importance of the Western Ghats?

The Western Ghats is one of four global biodiversity hotspots in India.

Plateaus are dominant landscapes in the Western Ghats, significant because of the predominance of endemic species.  

They are classified as a type of rock outcrop and provide a unique and challenging environment for species to adapt to. 

These outcrops have seasonal water availability, limited soil and nutrients, making them ideal laboratories to study the effects of climate change on species survival

What did the researchers discover at the Western Ghats?

Researchers discovered a rare low-altitude basalt plateau in Manjare village, Thane district, Maharashtra.

This is the fourth type of plateau to be identified in the region; the previous three are laterites at high and low altitudes and basalt at high altitudes.

Surveying the plateau, the researchers documented 76 species of plants and shrubs from 24 different families.

The authors believe this is an important discovery, as the plateau shares the vegetation with the three other rock outcrops, simultaneously holding a few unique species. 

Hence, this plateau can prove to be a repository of information for species interactions. It can also help study the effects of climate change on species survival and increase awareness of the conservation needs of rock outcrops and their immense biodiversity value in the global context.


Study traces high rainfall in Northern Bay of Bengal than the other parts of India for the last 10000 years

Source: The post is based on the article Study traces high rainfall in Northern Bay of Bengal than the other parts of India for the last 10000 yearspublished in PIB on 19th January 2023.

What is the News?

According to a study, regions surrounding the Northern Bay of Bengal(BoB) received higher precipitation than the other parts of India for the last 10,200 years.

About India’s Dependence on Monsoon

Agriculture in India is heavily dependent on the Indian Summer Monsoon rains(ISMR). 

The Bengal Basin or the ‘Bengal region’ being located at the trajectory of the Bay of Bengal (BoB) branch of the ISM is very sensitive to changes in the Indian Summer Monsoon(ISM) strength. 

Even a minor change in ISM strength may have adverse effects on the agrarian-based socioeconomic conditions of the region.

About the study on Indian Summer Monsoon Rainfall(ISMR)

The study traced the dynamics of Indian Summer Monsoon Rainfall(ISMR) over the 10000 years – a period which witnessed the development and fall of numerous ancient civilizations around the world, many of which were associated with climate instability. 

It found that regions surrounding the northern Bay of Bengal(BoB) received higher precipitation than the other parts of India for the last 10200 years.

The study also explored the drivers influencing the variability of the monsoon in the Indian part of the Bengal Basin. It found that:

– Millennial-scale variations in the ISMR may largely be attributed to changes in solar insolation and dynamics of Inter tropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ– area where the northeast and the southeast trade winds converge) 

– Centennial scale variations may be collectively triggered by phenomena like North Atlantic Oscillation, El Nino Southern Oscillation and Indian Ocean Dipole.


Three key takeaways from RBI’s report on state govt Budgets

Source: The post is based on the article “Three key takeaways from RBI’s report on state govt Budgets” published in Indian Express on 19th January 2023.

What is the News?

The Reserve Bank of India has released its report on state government budgets for 2022-23.

What are the key highlights from the RBI’s report on state govt Budgets?

Debt-to-GDP: The state debt-to-GDP ratio remains uncomfortably high. As per the report, the debt-to-GDP ratio has fallen from 31.1% in 2020-21 – a year when states had struggled to manage the economic fallout of the pandemic — to 29.5% in 2022-23.

– To put this number in perspective, the Fiscal Responsibility and Budget Management(FRBM) review committee headed by N K Singh, had recommended a debt-to-GDP ratio of 20% for states. 

– A high debt-deficit burden leaves little room for states to manoeuvre when faced with the next economic shock. A high debt burden may also imply that states may have to pay more to service their obligations. 

​​Contingent liabilities: State governments have seen a significant expansion in their contingent liabilities. Contingent liabilities here refer to the obligations of a state government to repay the principal and interest payments in case a state-owned entity defaults on a loan.

– As per the report, the guarantees issued by state governments have risen from Rs 3.12 lakh crore or 2% of GDP in 2017 to Rs 7.4 lakh crore or 3.7% of GDP. 

Old Pension Scheme: In the early 2000s, there was a growing realization that financing the old pension scheme would prove to be challenging. Thus, a new pension framework was ushered in which would limit the financial burden of the state. 

– While most states had then signed on to the new pension scheme, some states such as Rajasthan and Chhattisgarh have now chosen to revert.

– This will have adverse implications for state finances. States already allocate a significant portion of their own tax revenues towards pension — in 2020-21, Rs 3.86 lakh crore was allocated towards pension. Hence, shifting back to the old pension scheme will only end up increasing pension liabilities, leaving even less room for more productive spending.


[UPSC Interview 2022] – Transcript #7 : RN Choubey Board, Medical science Optional, J&K Home State

Date of Interview: 31st January, forenoon session Board: RN Choubey Sir Optional: Medical science Home State: J&K To view all IAS Interview Transcripts 2022, visit this page Chairman 1.tell us about consumer protection architecture in India 2.you r a doctor, why civil services? 3.what do you know about Ross island, who is Ross? 4.who discovered the… Continue reading [UPSC Interview 2022] – Transcript #7 : RN Choubey Board, Medical science Optional, J&K Home State

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Locally made green trains to be rolled out

Source: This post is created based on the article “Locally made green trains to be rolled out”, published in Live Mint on 2nd Feb 2023. Why in the News? Under the ‘Amrit Bharat Station’ scheme, the central government plans to redevelop about 1,275 stations across the country. About ‘Amrit Bharat Station’ scheme Under the scheme,… Continue reading Locally made green trains to be rolled out

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Tourism to go into mission mode

Source– The post is based on the article “Tourism to go into mission mode” published in The Hindu on 2nd February 2023. What is the news? The Union Budget announced a slew of measures for promotion of tourism that will go into Mission Mode.There was no increase in Budget allocation. It remained at ₹2,400 crore.… Continue reading Tourism to go into mission mode

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FM Sitharaman announces PM PRANAM scheme to push states to promote alternative fertilisers

Source– The post is based on the article “FM Sitharaman announces PM PRANAM scheme to push states to promote alternative fertilisers” published in The Indian Express on 2nd February 2023. What is the news? The Finance Minister announced in the budget that the government will launch a new scheme called PM PRANAM. What are some… Continue reading FM Sitharaman announces PM PRANAM scheme to push states to promote alternative fertilisers

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A raft of concessions amid consolidation

Source– The post is based on the article “A raft of concessions amid consolidation” published in The Hindu on 2nd February 2023. What is the news? The Finance Minister has presented the budget for FY2024. She termed it as the “first Budget in Amrit Kaal”. What are the key focus areas of the budget? Inclusive… Continue reading A raft of concessions amid consolidation

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The social sector has been short-changed once again

Source– The post is based on the article “The social sector has been short-changed once again” published in The Hindu on 1st February 2023. Syllabus: GS3- Mobilisation of resources Relevance– Fiscal policy News– The article explains the focus of the budget. It talks about the allocation for welfare programmes of the government. It also explains… Continue reading The social sector has been short-changed once again

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Budget 2023 pulls off an artful balance

Source: The post is based on an article “Budget 2023 pulls off an artful balance” published in The Indian Express on 2nd February 2023. Syllabus: GS 3 – Indian Economy Relevance: Budget 2023-24 News: The article discusses the concerns that the domestic economy was facing and the way this year’s budget addresses those. What are the domestic… Continue reading Budget 2023 pulls off an artful balance

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Tiresome rules out, trust-based model in

Source: This post is created based on the article “Tiresome rules out, trust-based model in”, published in Live mint on 2nd Feb 2023. Syllabus Topic: GS Paper 3, changes in industrial policy and their effects on industrial growth News: In her budget speech, Finance Minister (FM) Nirmala Sitharaman emphasized on trust-based governance. To enhance ease… Continue reading Tiresome rules out, trust-based model in

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India-US: The high tech boost

Source– The post is based on the article “India-US: The high tech boost” published in The Indian Express on 2nd February 2023. Syllabus: GS2- Bilateral Groupings and Agreements involving India and affecting India’s interests. Relevance– India and US bilateral relations News– The article explains the outcome of the recent inaugural dialogue of iCET between the… Continue reading India-US: The high tech boost

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Is judicial majoritarianism justified?

Source: The post is based on an article “Is judicial majoritarianism justified?” published in The Hindu on 2nd February 2023. Syllabus: GS 2 – Governance Relevance: Concerns associated with judicial majoritarianism News: The article discusses judicial majoritarianism and issues surrounding it. What is judicial majoritarianism? Judicial majoritarianism refers to numerical majorities, i.e., number of judges supporting a… Continue reading Is judicial majoritarianism justified?

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[UPSC Interview 2022] – Transcript #6 : RN Choubey Board, Malayalam Literature Optional, Kerala Home State

Date of Interview: 30th January Afternoon Session Board: RN Choubey Sir Optional: Malayalam Literature Background: Economics Home State: Kerala To view all IAS Interview Transcripts 2022, visit this page Chairman Introduction – Educational background and Work experience What is licence raj system? What is inspector raj system? Do we need a inspector raj system? In… Continue reading [UPSC Interview 2022] – Transcript #6 : RN Choubey Board, Malayalam Literature Optional, Kerala Home State

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Union Budget 2023-24 Highlights

Source: The post is based on the following articles “SUMMARY OF THE UNION BUDGET 2023-24” and “HIGHLIGHTS OF THE UNION BUDGET 2023-24” published in the PIB on 1st February 2023. “All that you need to know about this year’s budget” and “Agriculture to zero emissions: here’s the budget in 26 letters” published in the Livemint on 2nd February… Continue reading Union Budget 2023-24 Highlights

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MISHTI, Amrit Dharohar, PM PRANAM: Conservation initiatives in the Budget

Source: The post is based on the article “MISHTI, Amrit Dharohar, PM PRANAM: Conservation initiatives in the Budget” published in Indian Express on 2nd February 2023. What is the News? The Finance Minister in his budget speech has announced several schemes and policies aimed at ecological conservation. What are the schemes announced in Budget on… Continue reading MISHTI, Amrit Dharohar, PM PRANAM: Conservation initiatives in the Budget

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What Finance Minister’s push to end manual scavenging means

Source: The post is based on the article “What Finance Minister’s push to end manual scavenging means” published in Indian Express on 2nd February 2023. What is the News? The Finance Minister has announced that the Union government was looking to enable 100% mechanical desludging of septic tanks and sewers in all cities and towns.… Continue reading What Finance Minister’s push to end manual scavenging means

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Allocation of ₹7,000 cr. for Phase 3 of eCourt will improve justice delivery system: Law Minister

Source: The post is based on the article “Allocation of ₹7,000 cr. for Phase 3 of eCourt will improve justice delivery system: Law Minister” published in The Hindu on 2nd February 2023. What is the News? The Finance Minister has allocated ₹7,000 crore for the introduction of Phase 3 of the eCourts Project. What is… Continue reading Allocation of ₹7,000 cr. for Phase 3 of eCourt will improve justice delivery system: Law Minister

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Budget 2023: What are lab-grown diamonds, mentioned by FM

Source: The post is based on the article “Budget 2023: What are lab-grown diamonds, mentioned by FM” published in Indian Express on 3rd February 2023. What is the News? During the Budget speech, the Finance Minister announced the government’s move to focus on lab-grown diamonds.  What are Lab Grown Diamonds? Click Here to read What… Continue reading Budget 2023: What are lab-grown diamonds, mentioned by FM

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PAN to be used as common identifier for digital systems

Source: The post is based on the article “PAN to be used as common identifier for digital systems” published in The Hindu on 2nd February 2023. What is the News? The Finance Minister has said that the Permanent Account Number(PAN) would be used as a common identifier for all digital systems of specified government agencies.… Continue reading PAN to be used as common identifier for digital systems

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Major thrust planned for green energy

Source: The post is based on the article “Major thrust planned for green energy” published in The Hindu on 2nd February 2023. What is the News? The Finance Minister has announced a slew of measures for “Green Growth” while presenting the Union Budget. What are the initiatives announced to promote Green Energy? “Green Growth” has… Continue reading Major thrust planned for green energy

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Government to set up 100 5G labs to develop new apps

Source: The post is based on the article “Government to set up 100 5G labs to develop new apps” published in The Hindu on 2nd February 2023. What is the News? The Finance Minister in Budget 2023-24 has announced several initiatives in the technology sector. What are the initiatives announced in the Budget in the technology… Continue reading Government to set up 100 5G labs to develop new apps

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Women get a one-time small savings scheme

Source: The post is based on the article “Women get a one-time small savings scheme” published in The Hindu on 2nd February 2023. What is the News? In the Union Budget 2023-24, the Finance Minister has announced a new small savings scheme for women called Mahila Samman Saving Certificate(MSSC). What is a Mahila Samman Saving… Continue reading Women get a one-time small savings scheme

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What is the government’s new policy of UPI for NRIs?

Source: The post is based on the article “What is the government’s new policy of UPI for NRIs?” published in The Hindu on 2nd February 2023. What is the News? National Payments Corporation of India(NPCI) has paved the way for international (phone) numbers to be able to transact using UPI.  Recently, the Union Cabinet approved an… Continue reading What is the government’s new policy of UPI for NRIs?

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Budget 2023: PM Awas Yojana share rises by 66%, with more focus on Tier 2 and 3 cities

Source: The post is based on the article “Budget 2023: PM Awas Yojana share rises by 66%, with more focus on Tier 2 and 3 cities” published in The Hindu on 2nd February 2023. What is the News? The Union Budget presented by the Finance Minister has increased the allocation for the PM Awas Yojana (PMAY)… Continue reading Budget 2023: PM Awas Yojana share rises by 66%, with more focus on Tier 2 and 3 cities

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New tax regime gives spending flexibility

Source: The post is based on the following articles “Zero tax for annual income up to ₹7 lakh under new scheme” published in The Hindu on 2nd February 2023. “‘New tax regime gives spending flexibility’” and “New tax regime is very attractive now” published in the Livemint on 2nd February 2023. “Tax rebate under the new regime, explained… Continue reading New tax regime gives spending flexibility

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Economic Survey 2022-23: Key Highlights – Explained, pointwise

For 7PM Editorial Archives click HERE → Introduction The Economic Survey 2022-23 was tabled in the Parliament by the Union Finance Minister on January 31, 2023. The document has been prepared by the Economic Division of the Department of Economic Affairs (DEA). The Survey provides a detailed report of the national economy for the year along with forecasts.… Continue reading Economic Survey 2022-23: Key Highlights – Explained, pointwise

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[UPSC Interview 2022] – Transcript #5 : M Sathiyavathy Board, History Optional, Haryana Home State, Reading fiction, cooking Hobbies

Date of Interview: 30 Jan 2023 Afternoon session Board: M Sathiyavathy Background: Haryana, B.Sc. Physical Science, ICAS Home State: Haryana Optional: History Hobbies: Reading fiction, cooking To view all IAS Interview Transcripts 2022, visit this page Chairman Read through the DAF. 1.Should we merge all accounts services? 2. What services have been merged recently? 3.… Continue reading [UPSC Interview 2022] – Transcript #5 : M Sathiyavathy Board, History Optional, Haryana Home State, Reading fiction, cooking Hobbies

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[UPSC Interview 2022] – Transcript #4 : M Sathiyavathy Board, Sociology Optional, Madhya Pradesh Home State, meditation, badminton Hobbies

Date of Interview: forenoon session, 30th January Board: Satyawati mam Optional: sociology Background: Computer science engineering Home state: Madhya Pradesh Hobbies: reading fiction, mindfulness meditation, badminton Relevant keyword from daf: worked as a software developer in fintech, To view all IAS Interview Transcripts 2022, visit this page Chairman As I entered she started reading out… Continue reading [UPSC Interview 2022] – Transcript #4 : M Sathiyavathy Board, Sociology Optional, Madhya Pradesh Home State, meditation, badminton Hobbies

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[UPSC Interview 2022] – Transcript #3 : Lt. Gen. Raj Shukla Board, PSIR Optional, Maharashtra Home State, MEDITATION Hobby

Date of Interview: 30/01 MONDAY MORNING Board: Lt. Gen. Raj Shukla (Retd.) Background: CIVIL ENG Home State: PUNE, Maharashtra Optional: PSIR Hobby: ANAPANA MEDITATION Employee: COORDINATOR OF CIVIL SERVICES ASPIRANTS CLUB ASKED TO REMOVE MASK AND BE COMFORTABLE . To view all IAS Interview Transcripts 2022, visit this page Chairman CH – AREAS IN WHICH… Continue reading [UPSC Interview 2022] – Transcript #3 : Lt. Gen. Raj Shukla Board, PSIR Optional, Maharashtra Home State, MEDITATION Hobby

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[UPSC Interview 2022] – Transcript #8 : RN Choubey Board, Sociology Optional, Kerala Home State, Movies Meditation Hobbies

Board: RN Choubey Sir Optional: Sociology Home state: Kerala Hobbies: Shyamaprasad movies , cardio exercise and meditation To view all IAS Interview Transcripts 2022, visit this page Chairman 1) About whether I had lunch( to make comfortable) 2) in 1 min about academic and professional achievements -( talked about patent) 3) About EVs having power… Continue reading [UPSC Interview 2022] – Transcript #8 : RN Choubey Board, Sociology Optional, Kerala Home State, Movies Meditation Hobbies

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[UPSC Interview 2022] – Transcript #2 : M Sathiyavathy Board, Tamil Nadu Home State, painting, reading Hobbies

Date of Interview: 30/01/2023 Board: M Sathiyavathy Background: Btech metallurgy from NIT Trichy Home State: Salem ,Tamil Nadu Employee: Sidbi Hobbies: Mandala painting / reading fiction books To view all IAS Interview Transcripts 2022, visit this page Chairman For female candidates ( please remove your chain / earring/ ring ) they are asking ur to… Continue reading [UPSC Interview 2022] – Transcript #2 : M Sathiyavathy Board, Tamil Nadu Home State, painting, reading Hobbies

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Must Read Current Affairs Articles – February 2nd, 2023

About Must Read News Articles: Must Read News Articles is an initiative by Team ForumIAS to provide links to the most important news articles of the day. It covers The Hindu newspaper. This saves the time and effort of students in identifying useful and important articles. With newspaper websites requiring a paid subscription beyond a certain… Continue reading Must Read Current Affairs Articles – February 2nd, 2023

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Why state must cede power to communities

Source– The post is based on the article “Why state must cede power to communities” published in the Business Standard on 1st February 2023. Syllabus: GS3- Economy. GS1- Society Relevance– Developmental model across the world News– The article explains the reason for the broken state of affairs across the most advanced societies. It also explains… Continue reading Why state must cede power to communities

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Expect action on our aim of carbon neutrality by 2070

Source– The post is based on the article “Expect action on our aim of carbon neutrality by 2070” published in the mint on 1st February 2023. Syllabus: GS3- Environment Relevance– Climate change NewExpect action on our aim of carbon neutrality by 2070he article explains the challenges in reducing emissions by developing countries. It also tells… Continue reading Expect action on our aim of carbon neutrality by 2070

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A new Sino-Russian alliance: What are its implications for India?

Source– The post is based on the article “A new Sino-Russian alliance: What are its implications for India?” published in The Indian Express on 1st February 2023. Syllabus: GS2- Effect of Policies and Politics of Developed and Developing Countries on India’s interests Relevance– India in changing global order News– The article explains the emerging Sino-Russian… Continue reading A new Sino-Russian alliance: What are its implications for India?

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Solar energy is not the best option for India

Source– The post is based on the article “Solar energy is not the best option for India” published in The Hindu on 1st February 2023. Syllabus: GS3- Energy Relevance– Sources of energy News– The article explains how the overemphasis on solar power is not the right option for India. It also provides arguments in support… Continue reading Solar energy is not the best option for India

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The funding and demand for MGNREGA

Source: The post is based on the article “The funding and demand for MGNREGA” published in The Hindu on 1st February 2023. Syllabus: GS 2 – Governance Relevance: MGNREGS and associated concerns News: The article discusses the performance of MGNREGS and challenges associated with it. What are some highlights of Economic Survey 2022-23 on the Mahatma Gandhi… Continue reading The funding and demand for MGNREGA

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The New Great Game In The Himalayas – China’s territorial disputes are as much about dominating important rivers as occupying land

Source: The post is based on the article “The New Great Game In The Himalayas – China’s territorial disputes are as much about dominating important rivers as occupying land” published in The Times of India on 1st February 2023. Syllabus: GS 2 – Social Issues News: All India Survey of Higher Education (AISHE) report has revealed an… Continue reading The New Great Game In The Himalayas – China’s territorial disputes are as much about dominating important rivers as occupying land

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The New Great Game In The Himalayas – China’s territorial disputes are as much about dominating important rivers as occupying land

Source: The post is based on the article “The New Great Game In The Himalayas – China’s territorial disputes are as much about dominating important rivers as occupying land” published in The Times of India on 1st February 2023. Syllabus: GS 2 – International Relations Relevance: concerns associated with water sharing between India and China. News: The… Continue reading The New Great Game In The Himalayas – China’s territorial disputes are as much about dominating important rivers as occupying land

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Shumang Leela: The art of gender-bending

Source: The post is based on the article “Shumang Leela: The art of gender-bending” published in The Hindu on 29th January 2023. What is the News? A traditional style of theatre art called Shumang Leela from Manipur has entertained and informed audiences for centuries. What is Shumang Leela? Shumang Leela is a traditional form of… Continue reading Shumang Leela: The art of gender-bending

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Survey calls for new mineral policy, extending coal usage

Source: The post is based on the article “Survey calls for new mineral policy, extending coal usage” published in Livemint on 1st February 2023. What is the News? According to the Economic Survey 2023, India needs a carefully crafted multi-dimensional mineral policy to address the issues posed by an uneven distribution of rare earth elements.… Continue reading Survey calls for new mineral policy, extending coal usage

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Shipbuilding has the potential to strengthen the mission of ‘Aatmanirbhar Bharat’: Economic Survey

Source: The post is based on the article “Shipbuilding has the potential to strengthen the mission of ‘Aatmanirbhar Bharat’: Economic Survey” published in The Hindu on 1st February 2023. What is the News? According to the Economic Survey 2023, shipbuilding has one of the highest employment multipliers and is capable of generating mass employment in… Continue reading Shipbuilding has the potential to strengthen the mission of ‘Aatmanirbhar Bharat’: Economic Survey

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India Ranks Third In Net Gain In Annual Forest Area Over The Past Decade

Source: The post is based on the article “India Ranks Third In Net Gain In Annual Forest Area Over The Past Decade” published in PIB on 31st January 2023. What is the News? According to the Economic Survey 2022–23, India is leading one of the most ambitious clean energy transitions in the world and is… Continue reading India Ranks Third In Net Gain In Annual Forest Area Over The Past Decade

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Economic Survey 2022-23: Indian start-ups exploring reverse-flipping

Source: The post is based on the article “Economic Survey 2022-23: Indian start-ups exploring reverse-flipping” published in The Hindu on 1st February 2023. What is the News? According to the Economic Survey 2022-23, the Indian startup ecosystem is facing several challenges despite recording an increase in the number of startups to 84,012 in 2022 from… Continue reading Economic Survey 2022-23: Indian start-ups exploring reverse-flipping

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Share of education in budgetary allocations has fallen over the past seven years: Survey

Source: The post is based on the article “Share of education in budgetary allocations has fallen over the past seven years: Survey” published in The Hindu on 1st February 2023. What is the News? According to the Economic Survey 2023, the share of education in budgetary allocations has fallen over the past seven years. What… Continue reading Share of education in budgetary allocations has fallen over the past seven years: Survey

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Out-of-pocket health spending still high, despite hike in government expenditure

Source: The post is based on the article “Out-of-pocket health spending still high, despite hike in government expenditure” published in The Hindu on 1st February 2023. What is the News? According to the Economic Survey 2022-23, almost half of all health spending in India is still paid by patients themselves directly at the point of… Continue reading Out-of-pocket health spending still high, despite hike in government expenditure

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Economic survey 2022-23 highlights

Source: The post is based on the following articles “The Economic Survey that wasn’t” published in The Hindu on 1st February 2023. “The Economic Survey’s growth forecast is a little too optimistic”, “An economic overview that scores on cogency” and “India’s Economic Survey has got back to its true and tested format” published in the… Continue reading Economic survey 2022-23 highlights

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India-Egypt Relationship – Explained, pointwise

For 7PM Editorial Archives click HERE → Introduction The President of Egypt, Abdel Fattah El-Sisi was the Chief Guest at India’s 74th Republic Day celebrations this year. In his meeting with the Prime Minister of India, the two nations agreed to elevate the India-Egypt Relationship to ‘strategic partnership’. The strategic partnership will have broadly four elements: political, defence,… Continue reading India-Egypt Relationship – Explained, pointwise

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Economic Survey 2022: Highlights

Source: The post is based on the article “Economic Survey 2022: Highlights” published in PIB on 1st February 2023. What is the News? The Government has tabled the Economic Survey 2022-23. The Survey laid out the outlook for India’s growth, inflation and unemployment in the coming years. What is an Economic Survey? Click Here to… Continue reading Economic Survey 2022: Highlights

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UPSC IAS Civil Services Exam 2023 Notification – 1105 Vacancies, Prelims Date 28th May 2023, last date of application 21st Feb

The UPSC IAS Civil Services Exam 2023 Notification has been released. The prelims exam will be held on 28th May 2023. The number of vacancies to be filled through the 2023 exam has increased to 1105, compared to, 1011 in the 2022 examination. The last Date for Receipt of Applications will be 21st Feb 2023… Continue reading UPSC IAS Civil Services Exam 2023 Notification – 1105 Vacancies, Prelims Date 28th May 2023, last date of application 21st Feb

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Must Read Current Affairs Articles – February 1st, 2023

About Must Read News Articles: Must Read News Articles is an initiative by Team ForumIAS to provide links to the most important news articles of the day. It covers The Hindu newspaper. This saves the time and effort of students in identifying useful and important articles. With newspaper websites requiring a paid subscription beyond a certain… Continue reading Must Read Current Affairs Articles – February 1st, 2023

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Known unknowns of the fertiliser subsidy

Source: The post is based on an article “Known unknowns of the fertiliser subsidy” published in Business Standard on 31st January 2023. Syllabus: GS 3 – Indian Economy Relevance: concerns associated with subsidy on fertilisers News: The government last year came up with measures to bring down the fertiliser subsidy bill. The article provides an analysis of… Continue reading Known unknowns of the fertiliser subsidy

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