9 PM Daily Current Affairs Brief – January 24th, 2023

Dear Friends,

We have initiated some changes in the 9 PM Brief and other postings related to current affairs. What we sought to do:

  1. Ensure that all relevant facts, data, and arguments from today’s newspaper are readily available to you.
  2. We have widened the sources to provide you with content that is more than enough and adds value not just for GS but also for essay writing. Hence, the 9 PM brief now covers the following newspapers:
    1. The Hindu  
    2. Indian Express  
    3. Livemint  
    4. Business Standard  
    5. Times of India 
    6. Down To Earth
    7. PIB
  3. We have also introduced the relevance part to every article. This ensures that you know why a particular article is important.
  4. Since these changes are new, so initially the number of articles might increase, but they’ll go down over time.
  5. It is our endeavor to provide you with the best content and your feedback is essential for the same. We will be anticipating your feedback and ensure the blog serves as an optimal medium of learning for all the aspirants.
    • For previous editions of 9 PM BriefClick Here
    • For individual articles of 9 PM BriefClick Here

Current Affairs Compilations for UPSC IAS Prelims 2022

Mains Oriented Articles

GS Paper 2

GS Paper 3

Prelims Oriented Articles (Factly)

Mains Oriented Articles

GS Paper 2


Kerala announces menstrual leave: Time to talk period

Source: The post is based on the article Kerala announces menstrual leave: Time to talk period” published in The Indian Express on 24th January 2023.

Syllabus: GS 2 – Social Justice

Relevance: menstrual leave for women and associated concerns

News: Kerala government has announced that it will grant menstrual leave for female students in all state universities under the Department of Higher Education. This announcement is a positive step towards a gender-just society.

How menstrual leave would benefit women and what are the concerns associated with it?

Benefits: It is an important step towards acknowledging and addressing the pain and discomfort faced by women.

Period leave would help create workplaces and classrooms that are more inclusive and more accommodating.

Concerns: Menstruation in India is a taboo topic. Therefore, it is possible that a special period leave could become a source for discrimination.

South Korea and Japan have laws granting period leave but recent surveys showed a decline in the number of women availing it due to the social stigma against menstruation. This could also be in India.

Further, there is risk of medicalising a normal biological process which could further lead to biases against women.

Moreover, there are also possibilities that employers may be reluctant to hire women due to the extra leave granted to them.

How have various governments recognised menstrual leave and what are the challenges?

The government has tried to come up with menstrual laws and schemes for women.

For example, Bihar introduced period leave for working women in 1992. The Ministry of Health and Family Welfare’s Menstrual Hygiene Scheme seeks to increase access to sanitary napkins for adolescent girls in rural areas.

However, bringing laws on menstruation still remains a challenge.

The Menstruation Benefits Bill was first introduced in Parliament in 2017 and then in the Arunachal Pradesh Assembly in 2022.

However, the bill was withdrawn from the Arunachal Pradesh Assembly because the subject was deemed unsuitable for discussion in the Assembly.

Therefore, such issues and obstacles will bring difficulties in recognising the goals of gender justice and equality. 


India needs to use its fiscal armoury to fight inequality

Source– The post is based on the article “India needs to use its fiscal armoury to fight inequality” published in the mint on 24th January 2023.

Syllabus: GS2- Issues relating to poverty. GS3- Inclusive growth

Relevance– Inequality and related issues

News– The article explains the recent report of Oxfam about increasing inequality in India. It also provide some facts about inequality and suggest solution to reduce inequality in India

What are arguments favouring Oxfam report conclusion about increasing inequality in India?

Tax burden on the poor is not only through indirect taxes but also through inflationary impact of higher excise duty on petrol and diesel.

Average inflation has been above 6% for three years. For items like milk, flour and eggs, it is higher. It is running ahead of the rise in wages.

Oxfam says that worldwide 1.7 billion workers have seen wages eroded by sharp rise in inflation. It has made them relatively more poor.

The World Bank 2022 Poverty and Shared prosperity says that by the end of 2022, more than 70 million people slipped below the poverty line. A bulk of them are in India.

There has been no official poverty count for the last 11 years due to lack of consumer expenditure data. A NITI Aayog report using multi-dimensional index shows an average of double digit poverty.

Mercedes clocked a record growth of 41% during 2022. Demand for luxury goods has been booming in recent years.

What are some facts about inequality?

Inequality is an inevitable consequence of faster economic growth. Risk taking entrepreneurs create wealth and make disproportionate gains. Those left behind may benefit from trickle down.

But, if trickle down does not happen, it leads to stagnating income for the majority.

Extreme inequality leads to social tensions. It is detrimental to growth.

What is the way forward to reduce inequalities?

Monetary policy is not very useful. Loose monetary policy during Covid made inequality worse. Soaring stock markets due to infusion of central bank liquidity benefits those who invested in stocks. It is less than 3% of the population.

Fiscal policy is necessary to address the inequalities. It can be done by redistributive taxation or by more spending on public goods.

There must be focus on survival of MSMEs where most of the job creation happens. Outstanding payments due to MSMEs are nearly 10 million dollars. TReDS is a platform to sell the outstanding bills of small businesses. But, it is not working.

Fiscal action is needed for skill generation for school dropouts due to pandemic.

Higher expenditure is needed on health, education and infrastructure. It needs higher taxation on the rich.

There is a need to reduce the burden of indirect taxes and increase the share of direct taxes.


Democracy and its structural slippages

Source– The post is based on the article “Democracy and its structural slippages” published in The Hindu on 24th January 2023.

Syllabus: GS2- Polity

Relevance– Democracy in modern times

News– The article explains the features of modern and concept of equality. It also explains whether elections are truly free and fair.

What are some features of modern forms of democracy?

The democracy that is functional around the world today was essentially a 19th century to 20th century western creation. The institution of universal adult franchise and governance through regular and multi-party elections is at most a 100 years or less phenomena. In Britain, women obtained the right to vote in the 1930s, in France in 1944.

Basic to democracy is the devolution of power. It is based on the premise of the individual and equality. There has been near-universal abolition of monarchies and hereditary aristocracies and their replacement by governance through popular mandate.

The spread of economic resources, infrastructure, education, health to the masses, with some shortcomings shows the effectiveness of devolution in practice.

There is an unbreakable link between the development of devolution and capitalism. Capitalism’s basic requirement is freedom for resources such as land, labour. So, the notions of the individual’s rights and equality evolved. It culminates in the notion of a free market for every kind of resource mobilisation, including labour.

What are some facts about equality?

Human history has witnessed several experiences of equality. It is mostly in its religious form like, non-theistic Buddhism. Monotheistic religions such as Christianity and Sikhism were proponents of social equality. However, equality demands the subjugation of the individual to the community.

It is notable that no egalitarian ideology has ever been able to create an egalitarian society. These ideologies reshuffle existing social hierarchies and create some space for the upward movement of the lower rungs. It seeks to establish uniformity through the same or similar institutions and practices.

The uniformity takes the form of periodic multi-party “free and fair” elections and guarantees of various kinds of freedoms.

Are elections truly free and fair?

Elections divide voters into a dubious majority and a minority. The majority-minority division is hardly a decisive mandate. There is hardly a government anywhere in the world that governs through a majority of the mandate.

Usually, 30% to 40% of the votes give a comfortable majority. This is structured into multi-party elections through “the first past the post” principle.

In practice, voting by individuals is still conditioned by numerous demands of family, community, religion, culture. It is also conditioned by the political alternatives offered by political parties. A loss of individuality is implicated here.

The individual does not create the choices. These are given by parties and often wrapped in false propaganda and even more false promises. The individual has the “freedom” to choose between these choices.

The complete equation of democracy with electoral politics draws one’s attention away from any alternative form of governance.

What is the scenario of India?

Democratic politics has been impacted by identity politics of caste, sub-caste, community, region, language.

Nehru had hoped that education and the experience of democracy would generate a more “modern” consciousness among the masses. The very success of political mobilisations has reinforced identities instead of weakening them.


New Zealand PM Jacinda Ardern’s resignation spotlights the hard choices that women in politics often face

Source– The post is based on the article “New Zealand PM Jacinda Ardern’s resignation spotlights the hard choices that women in politics often face” published in The Indian Express on 24th January 2023.

Syllabus: GS2- Polity

Relevance– Women in politics

News– The article explains the challenges faced by women in politics.

What are the issues faced by women in politics all over the world?

Women leaders, even in some of the most developed countries, find it difficult to break the glass ceiling to the top post. If women manage to lead, they find it incredibly hard to sustain campaigns in male-dominated politics and societies.

Last year, in  Finland PM Sanna Marin was trolled, vilified and mocked. She was forced to undergo a drug test after photos of her hosting a party at her home went viral on social media.

In comparison,  there were muted reactions to UK Prime Minister Boris Johnson partying during the Covid lockdown.

The choices for women leaders are often seen in binary terms, between their personal lives and professional aspirations. There are very few women who were not forced to make a choice and balance the two. The women who manage to strike a balance are often referred to as “superwoman”.

When women secure high political office, it is often considered the result of a pathway laid by fathers, husbands or other male figures in the family.

What is the scenario of India?

India has had two women presidents and a prime minister. But, there is still a lack of equal representation of women in positions of power.

The representation of women in Parliament and assemblies is dismal. The dropout rate of women workers in political organisations is alarming.

Women politicians have neither an understanding society, nor the support mechanism that would encourage them to view politics as a career. They do not get the required support to help them balance family responsibilities and work.

Financial constraints and career uncertainties are other reasons for women choosing to drop out of political spaces.

What is the way forward for women in politics?

Women should not feel constrained to make a choice between personal and professional lives. There is a need to create a social environment conducive to mental health priorities.

The need for a temporary break for attaining personal goals should not translate into a disruption in careers for women leaders.

We need to evolve as a society, where pursuit of success should not be seen in binary choices of personal and professional responsibilities.


An India chapter for foreign universities

Source: The post is based on the article “An India chapter for foreign universities” published in The Hindu on 24th January 2023.

Syllabus: GS 2 – Issues relating to the development and management of Social Sector/Services relating to Education.

Relevance: About foreign universities in India.

News: Recently University Grants Commission (UGC) announced draft regulations for foreign universities setting up campuses in India.

What are the key provisions of UGC’s draft regulations?

Read here: UGC unveils draft norms to allow foreign universities to set up campuses in India

What are the advantages of UGC’s draft regulations?

Read here: Indian campuses of foreign universities are a win-win for students and institute

What are the challenges associated with UGC’s draft regulations?

Not address the students concern: Students do not go abroad for degrees alone; they go for the experience, post-study work visas, income opportunities and better career prospects. Studying in a foreign university in India would offer them none of these.

Read here: UGC guidelines on foreign universities: The University Gimmicks Commission

What are the contradictory provisions associated with UGC’s draft regulations?

-The regulation demands that the quality of education imparted by these institutions in India must be on a par with the quality of courses at their campus in the country of origin. Yet, it insists that they must not “offer any such programme of study which jeopardises the national interest of India or the standards of higher education in India”.

-It promises academic, administrative and financial autonomy to foreign institutions but takes that away by asserting that they should abide by all the conditions that the UGC and the Indian government prescribe from time to time.

What should be done?

Must read: Establishing Campuses of Foreign Universities in India – Explained, pointwise

Endorsement disclosure – Fine violators, do not jail them

Source: The post is based on the article “Endorsement disclosures – Fine violators, do not jail them” published in Business Standard on 24th January 2023.

Syllabus: GS 2 – Government policies and interventions for development in various sectors and issues arising out of their design and implementation.

Relevance: About guidelines for social-media influencers and celebrities.

News: Recently, the government issued guidelines for social-media influencers and celebrities.

About the endorsement guidelines for social-media influencers and celebrities

Read more: Centre releases endorsement guidelines for Celebs and Social Media Influencers

What is the need for guidelines for social-media influencers and celebrities?

Disclosures are important particularly in the case of social media because it’s relatively easy to distinguish an advertisement from other content on other mediums, such as television.

What are the concerns associated with the guidelines for social-media influencers and celebrities?

Punishment for violation is too harsh: For instance, influencers could be fined up to Rs 10 lakh, and for repeated offences, the fine can go up to Rs 50 lakh. Violations can also lead to influencers getting debarred and jailed for six months, extending up to two years.

The jail term for such an offence as a violation of endorsement disclosure rules seems contrary to the government’s broader effort to decriminalise economic offences. Further, as a 2022 study showed, stringent rules have not stopped misleading advertisements.

Not easy to identify compensation: The connection with advertisers may include monetary or non-monetary compensation, media barter, trips or hotel stay, discounts, gifts, and so on.  But, such disclosures are not easy for the audience to recognise. Further, they may not unduly influence their opinion and decision-making.

The government does not have the capacity to enforce: The government would need the significant capacity to oversee a large number of influencers.

The government needs a balance between the state’s capacity and the laws.


Open IIT Gates – More women are taking a crack at the JEE. Good, because this gender disparity was glaring

Source: The post is based on the article “Open IIT Gates – More women are taking a crack at the JEE. Good, because this gender disparity was glaring” published in The Times of India on 24th January 2023.

Syllabus: GS 2 – Issues relating to the development and management of Social Sector/Services relating to Education.

Relevance: About women students in STEM.

News: Girls routinely outperform boys in boards and medical entrance. But in JEE, the results have long highlighted glaring gendered disparity. For the first time this year, women make up 30% of the IIT-JEE applicant pool.

About women students in STEM?

In India, women make up 43% of the STEM education pool, one of the highest ratios in the world.

However, there are a few shortcomings. Such as a) Lack of interest in scientific and technical education, b) Implicit biases and the lack of role models for women in the field of STEM, c) The JEE exam usually requires years of intensive coaching in faraway locations, and d) Students from rural and lower-income backgrounds also do not pursue JEE.

How does the government is improving women students in STEM?

The government has made active interventions to spark girls’ interest in STEM studies. Such as a) There is a horizontal ‘supernumerary’ quota in IITs. This gives women who have passed the JEE Advanced an edge in courses of their choice and has improved the presence of women to 20% on IIT campuses, b) Institutions are assessed for their gender inclusion.

IITs must make sure that disparities don’t come in the way of talent.


Rock The Jailhouse – Too many Indians are locked up under dozens of obsolete laws. Legal reform must precede prison reform

Source: The post is based on the article “Rock The Jailhouse – Too many Indians are locked up under dozens of obsolete laws. Legal reform must precede prison reform” published in The Times of India on 24th January 2023.

Syllabus: GS 2 – Mechanisms, laws, institutions and Bodies constituted for the protection and betterment of vulnerable sections.

Relevance: About jail management.

News: Recently, the Prime Minister has called for repealing obsolete criminal laws and prison reforms to improve jail management.

What is the challenge in jail management?

India’s jails are horribly overcrowded. Almost 77% of India’s 5. 54 lakh prisoners are undertrials. In other words, three of four inmates have not even been convicted. As many as 11,490 prisoners had spent more than five years in jail without a conviction.

NCRB’s prison statistics for 2021 showed that the occupancy rate was 130%, a 12-percentage-point increase over the previous year. In two states, Uttarakhand and UP, the occupancy rate was as high as 185%.

How do obsolete and irrational criminal laws hamper jail management?

a) Over 10% of the prison population in 2021 were undertrials for rape and dowry deaths. Both are heinous crimes that should lead to severe punishment. However, sexual assault laws do not differentiate between rape and false promises of marriage, b) Anti-dowry laws are framed in such a way that police can arrest multiple people for one crime, c) About 25% of undertrials in 2021 were imprisoned under special and local laws – for crimes falling under the umbrella of liquor and narcotics. d) Prohibition laws are irrational and often lead to poorer citizens being jailed for long periods as India’s legal aid system is dysfunctional, and e) Section 292 of IPC (to deal with obscenity) and sedition law both introduced during the British Raj, were still in use.

Read more: About Prison reforms: What numbers don’t tell us

What needs to be done to improve jail management?

There are far too many unnecessary provisions in criminal laws that deprive many citizens of liberty. They need to be repealed. Both the political executive at the Centre and in states should initiate these changes.

GS Paper 3


Finetuning the Insolvency and Bankruptcy Code

Source: The post is based on the article Finetuning the Insolvency and Bankruptcy Code” published in The Indian Express on 24th January 2023.

Syllabus: GS 3 – Economic Development

Relevance: proposals to make changes in IBC, 2016

News: The Insolvency and Bankruptcy Code (IBC), 2016 was brought with the aim to bring structural change in the resolution architecture in the country. However, it has not lived up to the expectations.

What are the problems with IBC, 2016?

According to a recent data, the total realisable value of the cases resolved till September 2022 was only 30.8 per cent of the admitted claims. The data also shows that 64 per cent of the ongoing cases have crossed 270 days.

As per reports, the average time taken for cases to be resolved has risen and more time being spent on associated litigation.

In order to address these issues, the government has come up with proposals to bring changes in the IBC, 2016.

What are the different proposals for changes in IBC, 2016 made by the government?

The proposal – a) aims to reduce the time for admitting cases and streamline the process by a greater reliance on data from Information Utilities, b) it seeks to remove ambiguity and bring predictability in the process, c) aims at extending the pre-packaged insolvency resolution process that was introduced for MSMEs to other firms, d) seeks to address some of the issues that have arisen in the resolution of real estate firms, e) seeks to change the manner in which proceeds will be distributed, i.e.; creditors will receive proceeds up to the liquidation value as prescribed under section 53 of the Code.

And any surplus over such liquidation value will be distributed between all creditors in the ratio of their unsatisfied claims.

These proposals aim at bringing changes in the IBC, 2016. However, any such change should be with the objective of improving its functioning and outcomes.


Needed, a new approach to data protection for minors

Source– The post is based on the article “Needed, a new approach to data protection for minors” published in The Hindu on 24th January 2023.

Syllabus: GS3- Awareness in the field of IT. GS2- Vulnerable sections of population

Relevance– Children in the emerging digital ecosystem

News– The article explains the child centric issues with the draft Digital Personal Data Protection Bill, 2022.

The Bill currently provides for mandatory parental consent for all data processing activities by children, aged under 18 years.

What are issues with the draft Bill?

The Bill relies on parents to grant consent on behalf of the child in all cases. It does not incentivise online platforms to proactively build safer and better services for minors.

India has low digital literacy. Parents in fact often rely on their children to use the Internet. This is an ineffective approach to keep children safe online.

It does not take into account the “best interests of the child”. It is a standard that originated in the Convention on the Rights of the Child, 1989, to which India is a signatory.

India has upheld this standard in laws such as the Commissions for Protection of Child Rights Act, 2005, the Right of Children to Free and Compulsory Education Act, 2009, and the POCSO Act, 2012. However, it has not been applied to the issue of data protection.

The Bill does not factor in how teenagers use various Internet platforms for self-expression and personal development. They use it for activities ranging from taking music lessons to preparing for examinations to forming communities with people of similar worldviews.

The Bill does allow the government to provide exemptions in the future from strict parental consent requirements, profiling, tracking prohibitions. This aspect does not acknowledge the blurring lines between what a platform can be used for.

For example, Instagram is called a social media platform. But is regularly used as an educational and professional development tool by millions of artists around the world.

Another issue is that each platform will have to obtain ‘verifiable parental consent’ in the case of minors. This provision can change the nature of the Internet.

It is not possible to tell if the user is a minor without confirming their age. So, the platforms will have to verify the age of every user.

All platforms will now have to manage significantly more personal data than before. Citizens will be at greater risk of harms such as data breaches, identity thefts.

What is the way forward to resolve the concerns related to children in the Bill?

First, we should move from a blanket ban on tracking, monitoring and adopt a risk-based approach to platform obligations. Platforms should be mandated to undertake a risk assessment for minors.

They should not only perform age-verification-related corresponding obligations but also design services with default settings and features that protect children from harm. This approach will bring in an element of co-regulation, by creating incentives for platforms to design better products for children.

There is a need to relax the age of mandatory parental consent for all services to 13 years. This is in line with many other jurisdictions around the world. It will minimize data collection. This relaxation in age of consent in tandem with the risk mitigation approach.

The government should also conduct large-scale surveys of both children and parents to find out more about their online habits, digital literacy, preferences and attitudes.

There is a need to design a policy in India that balances the safety and the agency of children online. The onus of keeping our young safe should not be put only on parents. It should be made a society-wide obligation.


Prelims Oriented Articles (Factly)

Netherlands sticks to plan to close Groningen gas field by October

Source: The post is based on the article “Netherlands sticks to plan to close Groningen gas field by October” published in Economic Times on 22nd January 2023.

What is the News?

The Netherlands has planned to shut down the Groningen gas field this year because of safety concerns.

What is Groningen gas field?

The Groningen gas field is a natural gas field in Groningen province in the northeastern part of the Netherlands.

It is the largest natural gas field in Europe and one of the largest in the world.

The gas field was discovered in 1959. The subsequent extraction of natural gas became central to the energy supply in the Netherlands.

Why is the Netherlands closing down the Groningen gas field?

Gas extraction in the Groningen gas field resulted in subsidence above the field. From 1991 this was also accompanied by earthquakes. This led to damage to houses and unrest among residents. 

Due to this, the Netherlands has planned to shut down the Groningen gas field by the end of 2023.


INS Vagir, fifth Scorpene submarine, commissioned

Source: The post is based on the article “INS Vagir, fifth Scorpene submarine, commissioned” published in The Hindu on 24th January 2023.

What is the News?

The fifth Scorpene class conventional submarine “INS Vagir” was commissioned into the Indian Navy.

What is INS Vagir?

INS Vagir is the fifth diesel-electric Kalvari-class submarine

It is among the six submarines being built by the Mazagon Dock Shipbuilders Limited (MDL), Mumbai in collaboration with the French M/s Naval Group under Project 75. 

Four of these submarines (INS Kalvari, INS Khanderi, INS Karanj, INS Vela) have already been commissioned into the Navy and a sixth (INS Vagsheer) will be commissioned next year.

What are the key features of INS Vagir?

Kalvari class of submarines have Diesel Electric transmission systems and these are primarily attack submarines or ‘hunter-killer’ types which mean they are designed to target and sink adversary naval vessels.

They have an estimated endurance of approximately 50 days. They also have the capability of operating in a wide range of Naval combat including anti-warship and anti-submarine operations, intelligence gathering and surveillance and naval mine laying. 

These submarines are around 220 feet long and have a height of 40 feet. It can reach the highest speeds of 11 knots (20 km/h) when surfaced and 20 knots (37 km/h) when submerged.

What is the significance of induction of INS Vagir? 

India currently operates a group of nuclear-powered submarines and diesel-electric submarines.

As per naval warfare principles, for India to create a strategic deterrence, there is a specific number of submarines of both types that India needs to have in active service.

These submarines have their designated roles in the Carrier Battle Groups, which are formations of ships and submarines with Aircraft Carriers in the lead role.

However, currently, India has a less-than-ideal number of submarines, with many new ones being at various stages of construction.

With the latest induction of INS Vagir, India now has 16 conventional submarines and a nuclear submarine in service.


Explained: How nuclear-powered rockets can send missions to Mars in 45 days

Source: The post is based on the article “Explained: How nuclear-powered rockets can send missions to Mars in 45 days” published in TOI on 22nd January 2023.

What is the News?

Recently, as part of the NASA Innovative Advanced Concepts(NIAC) program for 2023, NASA selected a bimodal nuclear propulsion concept for Phase I development which could reduce transit times to Mars to just 45 days.

What is Bimodal nuclear propulsion?

Bimodal nuclear propulsion is a two-part system that includes: Nuclear Thermal and Nuclear Electric Propulsion (NTP /NEP).

The Nuclear Thermal system includes a nuclear reactor that will heat liquid hydrogen (LH2) propellant and turn it into ionized hydrogen gas (plasma) that will then be channelled through a nozzle to generate thrust.

Nuclear Electric Propulsion depends on a nuclear reactor to provide electricity to a Hall-Effect thruster (ion engine) which will generate an electromagnetic field that will ionize and accelerate an inert gas to create thrust.

What are the advantages of a Bimodal Nuclear Propulsion?

Bimodal nuclear propulsion has major advantages over conventional chemical propulsion. These benefits include fuel efficiency, a higher specific impulse (Isp) rating and unlimited energy density (virtually). 


PM participates in ceremony to name 21 largest unnamed islands of Andaman & Nicobar Islands after 21 Param Vir Chakra awardees

Source: The post is based on the articlePM participates in ceremony to name 21 largest unnamed islands of Andaman & Nicobar Islands after 21 Param Vir Chakra awardeespublished in PIB on 23rd January 2023.

What is the News?

The Prime Minister has named the 21 largest unnamed islands of the Andaman & Nicobar Islands after 21 Param Vir Chakra awardees.

He also unveiled a model of the national memorial dedicated to Netaji Subhash Chandra Bose that is to be built on Netaji Subhas Chandra Bose Dweep.

About 21 Islands named after 21 Param Vir Chakra awardees

The Prime Minister has named the 21 largest unnamed islands of Andaman & Nicobar Islands after 21 Param Vir Chakra awardees.

Throwing light on the history of Andaman and Nicobar islands, the Prime Minister informed that the Tricolour was hoisted for the first time here and the first independent government of India was formed.

Note: In 2018, to honour the memory of Netaji Subhas Chandra Bose, Ross Islands was renamed as Netaji Subhash Chandra Bose Dweep. Neil Island and Havelock Island were also renamed Shaheed Dweep and Swaraj Dweep respectively.

About the memorial for Netaji Subhash Chandra Bose

The proposed memorial will be set up on Ross Island which was renamed as Netaji Subhas Chandra Bose Dweep in 2018. 

It will have a museum, a cable car ropeway, a laser-and-sound show, a guided heritage trail through historical buildings and a theme-based children’s amusement park.


Artificial skyglow: The dark sky is a natural resource, and too much light is polluting it

Source: The post is based on the articleThe dark sky is a natural resource, and too much light is polluting itpublished in The Hindu on 24th January 2023.

What is the News?

According to a study, light pollution is growing rapidly and in some places, the number of stars visible to the naked eye in the night sky is being reduced by more than half in less than 20 years.

About the study on the artificial skyglow

The human eye should be able to perceive several thousand stars on a clear, dark night. But the growing artificial brightness at night has robbed people of the night-time starry view.

This is because as the sky brightens up with artificial light, the fainter objects are not visible to the unaided human eye and disappear. 

According to the study, over the past ten years, the sky has brightened by 9.6%. This is much more than the around 2% per annual global increase measured by satellites.

Due to this, the stars are disappearing right in front of our eyes at a startling rate and a large number of stars that were once visible to us are no longer visible to us.

The change is so fast that a child who was born in a place that had 250 visible stars would only be able to see about 100 stars by the time they turn 18.

What is the situation in India on Artificial Skyglow?

A 2016 study reported that 19.5% of India’s population — the lowest fraction among G20 countries — experiences a level of skyglow that would at least keep the Milky Way galaxy out of sight and at most render dark adaptation for human eyes impossible. 

What are the consequences of this artificial glow?

Numerous studies have found that artificial light at night affects both people and wildlife in significant ways:

According to a 2003 report, lit beaches deter sea turtles from coming ashore to nest. A 2006 review found that skyglow keeps trees from sensing seasonal variations. 

A 2017 study found that young burrow-nesting seabirds don’t take flight unless the nesting site becomes dark. 

A 2019 study reported that clownfish eggs don’t hatch when exposed to artificial light at night, killing the offspring. 

A 2020 study noted that skyglow interferes with multiple aspects of insect life and allows insect predators to hunt for longer.

A 2020 study found that disrupting the circadian rhythm, artificial light at night can hamper the production of melatonin, an influential hormone in the human body which affects sleep, moods and cognition.


Employment days under Mahatma Gandhi National Employment Guarantee Scheme at a five-year low

Source: The post is based on the article “Employment days under Mahatma Gandhi National Employment Guarantee Scheme at a five-year low” published in The Hindu on 23rd January 2023.

What is the News?

The average days of employment provided per household under the Mahatma Gandhi National Employment Guarantee Scheme (MGNREGS) are at a five-year low for this financial year.

What is MGNREGA?

Click Here to read

What were the average days of employment under MGNREGA in 2022-23?

The average days of employment provided per household under MGNREGA was 42 days in 2022-23 while it was 50 days in 2021-22, 52 days in 2020-21, 48 days in 2019-20 and 51 days in 2018-19.

Why is there a decline in employment under MGNREGA?

Activists allege that the MGNREGA has been plagued by systemic problems that are disincentivizing participation. These problems are: 

– Choking of funds: This has led to suppression of work demand and delays in wage payments.

– Technical complexities: The introduction of unnecessary technical complexities like an app for attendance at worksites has caused more hardships for workers who will be more dissuaded going forward.

– States dismal policies: With less than two-months for the financial year to close, there are at least nine States and union territories which have utilised less than 70% of projected person days.

– Budgetary cuts: With low utilisation, financial outlay for the underperforming States is expected to further shrink in the upcoming financial year.


[UPSC Interview 2022] – Transcript #7 : RN Choubey Board, Medical science Optional, J&K Home State

Date of Interview: 31st January, forenoon session Board: RN Choubey Sir Optional: Medical science Home State: J&K To view all IAS Interview Transcripts 2022, visit this page Chairman 1.tell us about consumer protection architecture in India 2.you r a doctor, why civil services? 3.what do you know about Ross island, who is Ross? 4.who discovered the… Continue reading [UPSC Interview 2022] – Transcript #7 : RN Choubey Board, Medical science Optional, J&K Home State

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Locally made green trains to be rolled out

Source: This post is created based on the article “Locally made green trains to be rolled out”, published in Live Mint on 2nd Feb 2023. Why in the News? Under the ‘Amrit Bharat Station’ scheme, the central government plans to redevelop about 1,275 stations across the country. About ‘Amrit Bharat Station’ scheme Under the scheme,… Continue reading Locally made green trains to be rolled out

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Tourism to go into mission mode

Source– The post is based on the article “Tourism to go into mission mode” published in The Hindu on 2nd February 2023. What is the news? The Union Budget announced a slew of measures for promotion of tourism that will go into Mission Mode.There was no increase in Budget allocation. It remained at ₹2,400 crore.… Continue reading Tourism to go into mission mode

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FM Sitharaman announces PM PRANAM scheme to push states to promote alternative fertilisers

Source– The post is based on the article “FM Sitharaman announces PM PRANAM scheme to push states to promote alternative fertilisers” published in The Indian Express on 2nd February 2023. What is the news? The Finance Minister announced in the budget that the government will launch a new scheme called PM PRANAM. What are some… Continue reading FM Sitharaman announces PM PRANAM scheme to push states to promote alternative fertilisers

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A raft of concessions amid consolidation

Source– The post is based on the article “A raft of concessions amid consolidation” published in The Hindu on 2nd February 2023. What is the news? The Finance Minister has presented the budget for FY2024. She termed it as the “first Budget in Amrit Kaal”. What are the key focus areas of the budget? Inclusive… Continue reading A raft of concessions amid consolidation

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The social sector has been short-changed once again

Source– The post is based on the article “The social sector has been short-changed once again” published in The Hindu on 1st February 2023. Syllabus: GS3- Mobilisation of resources Relevance– Fiscal policy News– The article explains the focus of the budget. It talks about the allocation for welfare programmes of the government. It also explains… Continue reading The social sector has been short-changed once again

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Budget 2023 pulls off an artful balance

Source: The post is based on an article “Budget 2023 pulls off an artful balance” published in The Indian Express on 2nd February 2023. Syllabus: GS 3 – Indian Economy Relevance: Budget 2023-24 News: The article discusses the concerns that the domestic economy was facing and the way this year’s budget addresses those. What are the domestic… Continue reading Budget 2023 pulls off an artful balance

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Tiresome rules out, trust-based model in

Source: This post is created based on the article “Tiresome rules out, trust-based model in”, published in Live mint on 2nd Feb 2023. Syllabus Topic: GS Paper 3, changes in industrial policy and their effects on industrial growth News: In her budget speech, Finance Minister (FM) Nirmala Sitharaman emphasized on trust-based governance. To enhance ease… Continue reading Tiresome rules out, trust-based model in

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India-US: The high tech boost

Source– The post is based on the article “India-US: The high tech boost” published in The Indian Express on 2nd February 2023. Syllabus: GS2- Bilateral Groupings and Agreements involving India and affecting India’s interests. Relevance– India and US bilateral relations News– The article explains the outcome of the recent inaugural dialogue of iCET between the… Continue reading India-US: The high tech boost

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Is judicial majoritarianism justified?

Source: The post is based on an article “Is judicial majoritarianism justified?” published in The Hindu on 2nd February 2023. Syllabus: GS 2 – Governance Relevance: Concerns associated with judicial majoritarianism News: The article discusses judicial majoritarianism and issues surrounding it. What is judicial majoritarianism? Judicial majoritarianism refers to numerical majorities, i.e., number of judges supporting a… Continue reading Is judicial majoritarianism justified?

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[UPSC Interview 2022] – Transcript #6 : RN Choubey Board, Malayalam Literature Optional, Kerala Home State

Date of Interview: 30th January Afternoon Session Board: RN Choubey Sir Optional: Malayalam Literature Background: Economics Home State: Kerala To view all IAS Interview Transcripts 2022, visit this page Chairman Introduction – Educational background and Work experience What is licence raj system? What is inspector raj system? Do we need a inspector raj system? In… Continue reading [UPSC Interview 2022] – Transcript #6 : RN Choubey Board, Malayalam Literature Optional, Kerala Home State

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Union Budget 2023-24 Highlights

Source: The post is based on the following articles “SUMMARY OF THE UNION BUDGET 2023-24” and “HIGHLIGHTS OF THE UNION BUDGET 2023-24” published in the PIB on 1st February 2023. “All that you need to know about this year’s budget” and “Agriculture to zero emissions: here’s the budget in 26 letters” published in the Livemint on 2nd February… Continue reading Union Budget 2023-24 Highlights

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MISHTI, Amrit Dharohar, PM PRANAM: Conservation initiatives in the Budget

Source: The post is based on the article “MISHTI, Amrit Dharohar, PM PRANAM: Conservation initiatives in the Budget” published in Indian Express on 2nd February 2023. What is the News? The Finance Minister in his budget speech has announced several schemes and policies aimed at ecological conservation. What are the schemes announced in Budget on… Continue reading MISHTI, Amrit Dharohar, PM PRANAM: Conservation initiatives in the Budget

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What Finance Minister’s push to end manual scavenging means

Source: The post is based on the article “What Finance Minister’s push to end manual scavenging means” published in Indian Express on 2nd February 2023. What is the News? The Finance Minister has announced that the Union government was looking to enable 100% mechanical desludging of septic tanks and sewers in all cities and towns.… Continue reading What Finance Minister’s push to end manual scavenging means

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Allocation of ₹7,000 cr. for Phase 3 of eCourt will improve justice delivery system: Law Minister

Source: The post is based on the article “Allocation of ₹7,000 cr. for Phase 3 of eCourt will improve justice delivery system: Law Minister” published in The Hindu on 2nd February 2023. What is the News? The Finance Minister has allocated ₹7,000 crore for the introduction of Phase 3 of the eCourts Project. What is… Continue reading Allocation of ₹7,000 cr. for Phase 3 of eCourt will improve justice delivery system: Law Minister

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Budget 2023: What are lab-grown diamonds, mentioned by FM

Source: The post is based on the article “Budget 2023: What are lab-grown diamonds, mentioned by FM” published in Indian Express on 3rd February 2023. What is the News? During the Budget speech, the Finance Minister announced the government’s move to focus on lab-grown diamonds.  What are Lab Grown Diamonds? Click Here to read What… Continue reading Budget 2023: What are lab-grown diamonds, mentioned by FM

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PAN to be used as common identifier for digital systems

Source: The post is based on the article “PAN to be used as common identifier for digital systems” published in The Hindu on 2nd February 2023. What is the News? The Finance Minister has said that the Permanent Account Number(PAN) would be used as a common identifier for all digital systems of specified government agencies.… Continue reading PAN to be used as common identifier for digital systems

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Major thrust planned for green energy

Source: The post is based on the article “Major thrust planned for green energy” published in The Hindu on 2nd February 2023. What is the News? The Finance Minister has announced a slew of measures for “Green Growth” while presenting the Union Budget. What are the initiatives announced to promote Green Energy? “Green Growth” has… Continue reading Major thrust planned for green energy

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Government to set up 100 5G labs to develop new apps

Source: The post is based on the article “Government to set up 100 5G labs to develop new apps” published in The Hindu on 2nd February 2023. What is the News? The Finance Minister in Budget 2023-24 has announced several initiatives in the technology sector. What are the initiatives announced in the Budget in the technology… Continue reading Government to set up 100 5G labs to develop new apps

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Women get a one-time small savings scheme

Source: The post is based on the article “Women get a one-time small savings scheme” published in The Hindu on 2nd February 2023. What is the News? In the Union Budget 2023-24, the Finance Minister has announced a new small savings scheme for women called Mahila Samman Saving Certificate(MSSC). What is a Mahila Samman Saving… Continue reading Women get a one-time small savings scheme

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What is the government’s new policy of UPI for NRIs?

Source: The post is based on the article “What is the government’s new policy of UPI for NRIs?” published in The Hindu on 2nd February 2023. What is the News? National Payments Corporation of India(NPCI) has paved the way for international (phone) numbers to be able to transact using UPI.  Recently, the Union Cabinet approved an… Continue reading What is the government’s new policy of UPI for NRIs?

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Budget 2023: PM Awas Yojana share rises by 66%, with more focus on Tier 2 and 3 cities

Source: The post is based on the article “Budget 2023: PM Awas Yojana share rises by 66%, with more focus on Tier 2 and 3 cities” published in The Hindu on 2nd February 2023. What is the News? The Union Budget presented by the Finance Minister has increased the allocation for the PM Awas Yojana (PMAY)… Continue reading Budget 2023: PM Awas Yojana share rises by 66%, with more focus on Tier 2 and 3 cities

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New tax regime gives spending flexibility

Source: The post is based on the following articles “Zero tax for annual income up to ₹7 lakh under new scheme” published in The Hindu on 2nd February 2023. “‘New tax regime gives spending flexibility’” and “New tax regime is very attractive now” published in the Livemint on 2nd February 2023. “Tax rebate under the new regime, explained… Continue reading New tax regime gives spending flexibility

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Economic Survey 2022-23: Key Highlights – Explained, pointwise

For 7PM Editorial Archives click HERE → Introduction The Economic Survey 2022-23 was tabled in the Parliament by the Union Finance Minister on January 31, 2023. The document has been prepared by the Economic Division of the Department of Economic Affairs (DEA). The Survey provides a detailed report of the national economy for the year along with forecasts.… Continue reading Economic Survey 2022-23: Key Highlights – Explained, pointwise

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[UPSC Interview 2022] – Transcript #5 : M Sathiyavathy Board, History Optional, Haryana Home State, Reading fiction, cooking Hobbies

Date of Interview: 30 Jan 2023 Afternoon session Board: M Sathiyavathy Background: Haryana, B.Sc. Physical Science, ICAS Home State: Haryana Optional: History Hobbies: Reading fiction, cooking To view all IAS Interview Transcripts 2022, visit this page Chairman Read through the DAF. 1.Should we merge all accounts services? 2. What services have been merged recently? 3.… Continue reading [UPSC Interview 2022] – Transcript #5 : M Sathiyavathy Board, History Optional, Haryana Home State, Reading fiction, cooking Hobbies

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[UPSC Interview 2022] – Transcript #4 : M Sathiyavathy Board, Sociology Optional, Madhya Pradesh Home State, meditation, badminton Hobbies

Date of Interview: forenoon session, 30th January Board: Satyawati mam Optional: sociology Background: Computer science engineering Home state: Madhya Pradesh Hobbies: reading fiction, mindfulness meditation, badminton Relevant keyword from daf: worked as a software developer in fintech, To view all IAS Interview Transcripts 2022, visit this page Chairman As I entered she started reading out… Continue reading [UPSC Interview 2022] – Transcript #4 : M Sathiyavathy Board, Sociology Optional, Madhya Pradesh Home State, meditation, badminton Hobbies

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[UPSC Interview 2022] – Transcript #3 : Lt. Gen. Raj Shukla Board, PSIR Optional, Maharashtra Home State, MEDITATION Hobby

Date of Interview: 30/01 MONDAY MORNING Board: Lt. Gen. Raj Shukla (Retd.) Background: CIVIL ENG Home State: PUNE, Maharashtra Optional: PSIR Hobby: ANAPANA MEDITATION Employee: COORDINATOR OF CIVIL SERVICES ASPIRANTS CLUB ASKED TO REMOVE MASK AND BE COMFORTABLE . To view all IAS Interview Transcripts 2022, visit this page Chairman CH – AREAS IN WHICH… Continue reading [UPSC Interview 2022] – Transcript #3 : Lt. Gen. Raj Shukla Board, PSIR Optional, Maharashtra Home State, MEDITATION Hobby

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[UPSC Interview 2022] – Transcript #8 : RN Choubey Board, Sociology Optional, Kerala Home State, Movies Meditation Hobbies

Board: RN Choubey Sir Optional: Sociology Home state: Kerala Hobbies: Shyamaprasad movies , cardio exercise and meditation To view all IAS Interview Transcripts 2022, visit this page Chairman 1) About whether I had lunch( to make comfortable) 2) in 1 min about academic and professional achievements -( talked about patent) 3) About EVs having power… Continue reading [UPSC Interview 2022] – Transcript #8 : RN Choubey Board, Sociology Optional, Kerala Home State, Movies Meditation Hobbies

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[UPSC Interview 2022] – Transcript #2 : M Sathiyavathy Board, Tamil Nadu Home State, painting, reading Hobbies

Date of Interview: 30/01/2023 Board: M Sathiyavathy Background: Btech metallurgy from NIT Trichy Home State: Salem ,Tamil Nadu Employee: Sidbi Hobbies: Mandala painting / reading fiction books To view all IAS Interview Transcripts 2022, visit this page Chairman For female candidates ( please remove your chain / earring/ ring ) they are asking ur to… Continue reading [UPSC Interview 2022] – Transcript #2 : M Sathiyavathy Board, Tamil Nadu Home State, painting, reading Hobbies

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Must Read Current Affairs Articles – February 2nd, 2023

About Must Read News Articles: Must Read News Articles is an initiative by Team ForumIAS to provide links to the most important news articles of the day. It covers The Hindu newspaper. This saves the time and effort of students in identifying useful and important articles. With newspaper websites requiring a paid subscription beyond a certain… Continue reading Must Read Current Affairs Articles – February 2nd, 2023

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Why state must cede power to communities

Source– The post is based on the article “Why state must cede power to communities” published in the Business Standard on 1st February 2023. Syllabus: GS3- Economy. GS1- Society Relevance– Developmental model across the world News– The article explains the reason for the broken state of affairs across the most advanced societies. It also explains… Continue reading Why state must cede power to communities

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Expect action on our aim of carbon neutrality by 2070

Source– The post is based on the article “Expect action on our aim of carbon neutrality by 2070” published in the mint on 1st February 2023. Syllabus: GS3- Environment Relevance– Climate change NewExpect action on our aim of carbon neutrality by 2070he article explains the challenges in reducing emissions by developing countries. It also tells… Continue reading Expect action on our aim of carbon neutrality by 2070

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A new Sino-Russian alliance: What are its implications for India?

Source– The post is based on the article “A new Sino-Russian alliance: What are its implications for India?” published in The Indian Express on 1st February 2023. Syllabus: GS2- Effect of Policies and Politics of Developed and Developing Countries on India’s interests Relevance– India in changing global order News– The article explains the emerging Sino-Russian… Continue reading A new Sino-Russian alliance: What are its implications for India?

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Solar energy is not the best option for India

Source– The post is based on the article “Solar energy is not the best option for India” published in The Hindu on 1st February 2023. Syllabus: GS3- Energy Relevance– Sources of energy News– The article explains how the overemphasis on solar power is not the right option for India. It also provides arguments in support… Continue reading Solar energy is not the best option for India

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The funding and demand for MGNREGA

Source: The post is based on the article “The funding and demand for MGNREGA” published in The Hindu on 1st February 2023. Syllabus: GS 2 – Governance Relevance: MGNREGS and associated concerns News: The article discusses the performance of MGNREGS and challenges associated with it. What are some highlights of Economic Survey 2022-23 on the Mahatma Gandhi… Continue reading The funding and demand for MGNREGA

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The New Great Game In The Himalayas – China’s territorial disputes are as much about dominating important rivers as occupying land

Source: The post is based on the article “The New Great Game In The Himalayas – China’s territorial disputes are as much about dominating important rivers as occupying land” published in The Times of India on 1st February 2023. Syllabus: GS 2 – Social Issues News: All India Survey of Higher Education (AISHE) report has revealed an… Continue reading The New Great Game In The Himalayas – China’s territorial disputes are as much about dominating important rivers as occupying land

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The New Great Game In The Himalayas – China’s territorial disputes are as much about dominating important rivers as occupying land

Source: The post is based on the article “The New Great Game In The Himalayas – China’s territorial disputes are as much about dominating important rivers as occupying land” published in The Times of India on 1st February 2023. Syllabus: GS 2 – International Relations Relevance: concerns associated with water sharing between India and China. News: The… Continue reading The New Great Game In The Himalayas – China’s territorial disputes are as much about dominating important rivers as occupying land

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Shumang Leela: The art of gender-bending

Source: The post is based on the article “Shumang Leela: The art of gender-bending” published in The Hindu on 29th January 2023. What is the News? A traditional style of theatre art called Shumang Leela from Manipur has entertained and informed audiences for centuries. What is Shumang Leela? Shumang Leela is a traditional form of… Continue reading Shumang Leela: The art of gender-bending

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Survey calls for new mineral policy, extending coal usage

Source: The post is based on the article “Survey calls for new mineral policy, extending coal usage” published in Livemint on 1st February 2023. What is the News? According to the Economic Survey 2023, India needs a carefully crafted multi-dimensional mineral policy to address the issues posed by an uneven distribution of rare earth elements.… Continue reading Survey calls for new mineral policy, extending coal usage

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Shipbuilding has the potential to strengthen the mission of ‘Aatmanirbhar Bharat’: Economic Survey

Source: The post is based on the article “Shipbuilding has the potential to strengthen the mission of ‘Aatmanirbhar Bharat’: Economic Survey” published in The Hindu on 1st February 2023. What is the News? According to the Economic Survey 2023, shipbuilding has one of the highest employment multipliers and is capable of generating mass employment in… Continue reading Shipbuilding has the potential to strengthen the mission of ‘Aatmanirbhar Bharat’: Economic Survey

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India Ranks Third In Net Gain In Annual Forest Area Over The Past Decade

Source: The post is based on the article “India Ranks Third In Net Gain In Annual Forest Area Over The Past Decade” published in PIB on 31st January 2023. What is the News? According to the Economic Survey 2022–23, India is leading one of the most ambitious clean energy transitions in the world and is… Continue reading India Ranks Third In Net Gain In Annual Forest Area Over The Past Decade

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Economic Survey 2022-23: Indian start-ups exploring reverse-flipping

Source: The post is based on the article “Economic Survey 2022-23: Indian start-ups exploring reverse-flipping” published in The Hindu on 1st February 2023. What is the News? According to the Economic Survey 2022-23, the Indian startup ecosystem is facing several challenges despite recording an increase in the number of startups to 84,012 in 2022 from… Continue reading Economic Survey 2022-23: Indian start-ups exploring reverse-flipping

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Share of education in budgetary allocations has fallen over the past seven years: Survey

Source: The post is based on the article “Share of education in budgetary allocations has fallen over the past seven years: Survey” published in The Hindu on 1st February 2023. What is the News? According to the Economic Survey 2023, the share of education in budgetary allocations has fallen over the past seven years. What… Continue reading Share of education in budgetary allocations has fallen over the past seven years: Survey

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Out-of-pocket health spending still high, despite hike in government expenditure

Source: The post is based on the article “Out-of-pocket health spending still high, despite hike in government expenditure” published in The Hindu on 1st February 2023. What is the News? According to the Economic Survey 2022-23, almost half of all health spending in India is still paid by patients themselves directly at the point of… Continue reading Out-of-pocket health spending still high, despite hike in government expenditure

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Economic survey 2022-23 highlights

Source: The post is based on the following articles “The Economic Survey that wasn’t” published in The Hindu on 1st February 2023. “The Economic Survey’s growth forecast is a little too optimistic”, “An economic overview that scores on cogency” and “India’s Economic Survey has got back to its true and tested format” published in the… Continue reading Economic survey 2022-23 highlights

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India-Egypt Relationship – Explained, pointwise

For 7PM Editorial Archives click HERE → Introduction The President of Egypt, Abdel Fattah El-Sisi was the Chief Guest at India’s 74th Republic Day celebrations this year. In his meeting with the Prime Minister of India, the two nations agreed to elevate the India-Egypt Relationship to ‘strategic partnership’. The strategic partnership will have broadly four elements: political, defence,… Continue reading India-Egypt Relationship – Explained, pointwise

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Economic Survey 2022: Highlights

Source: The post is based on the article “Economic Survey 2022: Highlights” published in PIB on 1st February 2023. What is the News? The Government has tabled the Economic Survey 2022-23. The Survey laid out the outlook for India’s growth, inflation and unemployment in the coming years. What is an Economic Survey? Click Here to… Continue reading Economic Survey 2022: Highlights

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UPSC IAS Civil Services Exam 2023 Notification – 1105 Vacancies, Prelims Date 28th May 2023, last date of application 21st Feb

The UPSC IAS Civil Services Exam 2023 Notification has been released. The prelims exam will be held on 28th May 2023. The number of vacancies to be filled through the 2023 exam has increased to 1105, compared to, 1011 in the 2022 examination. The last Date for Receipt of Applications will be 21st Feb 2023… Continue reading UPSC IAS Civil Services Exam 2023 Notification – 1105 Vacancies, Prelims Date 28th May 2023, last date of application 21st Feb

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Must Read Current Affairs Articles – February 1st, 2023

About Must Read News Articles: Must Read News Articles is an initiative by Team ForumIAS to provide links to the most important news articles of the day. It covers The Hindu newspaper. This saves the time and effort of students in identifying useful and important articles. With newspaper websites requiring a paid subscription beyond a certain… Continue reading Must Read Current Affairs Articles – February 1st, 2023

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Known unknowns of the fertiliser subsidy

Source: The post is based on an article “Known unknowns of the fertiliser subsidy” published in Business Standard on 31st January 2023. Syllabus: GS 3 – Indian Economy Relevance: concerns associated with subsidy on fertilisers News: The government last year came up with measures to bring down the fertiliser subsidy bill. The article provides an analysis of… Continue reading Known unknowns of the fertiliser subsidy

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