9 PM Daily Current Affairs Brief – January 3rd, 2023

Dear Friends,

We have initiated some changes in the 9 PM Brief and other postings related to current affairs. What we sought to do:

  1. Ensure that all relevant facts, data, and arguments from today’s newspaper are readily available to you.
  2. We have widened the sources to provide you with content that is more than enough and adds value not just for GS but also for essay writing. Hence, the 9 PM brief now covers the following newspapers:
    1. The Hindu  
    2. Indian Express  
    3. Livemint  
    4. Business Standard  
    5. Times of India 
    6. Down To Earth
    7. PIB
  3. We have also introduced the relevance part to every article. This ensures that you know why a particular article is important.
  4. Since these changes are new, so initially the number of articles might increase, but they’ll go down over time.
  5. It is our endeavor to provide you with the best content and your feedback is essential for the same. We will be anticipating your feedback and ensure the blog serves as an optimal medium of learning for all the aspirants.
    • For previous editions of 9 PM BriefClick Here
    • For individual articles of 9 PM BriefClick Here

Current Affairs Compilations for UPSC IAS Prelims 2022

Mains Oriented Articles

GS Paper 2

GS Paper 3

Prelims Oriented Articles (Factly)

Mains Oriented Articles

GS Paper 2


When degrees lose their worth

Source– The post is based on the article “When degrees lose their worth” published in The Hindu on 3rd January 2023.

Syllabus: GS2- Issues related to development and management of education

Relevance– Higher education

News– The article explains the phenomena of increasing emphasis on gaining more degrees and certificates.

What is the reason behind the increasing proliferation of degrees in our educational system?

A vast and varied market of qualifications has grown since the mid-1990s. Its growth feeds on itself. If a greater variety of qualifications are on offer, their demand grows faster. A young candidate enrolled in one course wants to enrol in other courses. Permission for dual degree admission has further boosted the urge.

The driving force of this urge is located both within and outside the system of education. Internally, the system encourages students to gather additional qualifications by defining course content and its aims narrowly. It is known as specialisation. This phenomenon is a response to the understanding of skills as distinct from knowledge.

The external driving force is the economy. Economic growth has not resulted in expansion of satisfying employment. The fear of joblessness fuels the urge to gain new eligibility. The volatility of the job market also implies that no job can last for long. Hence, candidates want to become eligible for as many types of jobs as possible.

Why has the experiment of delinking  degrees from jobs in 1980 has not been successful?

It was believed that delinking degrees from jobs will reduce the pressure on institutions of higher learning. If jobs were delinked from formal qualification, it would discourage the young from accumulating certificates and degrees.

But, the pressure to enrol in one course or another remained high. Correspondence courses proliferated. Later, the Internet also enabled the self-learning market. It has boosted self-employment to some extent. But, the lure of formal jobs has not diminished.

In fact, it has maintained remarkably high growth in the coaching market. Competitive exams now attract countless youths.

How the emphasis on degrees and qualification has impacted our educational system?

It has led to lowering of standards in the field of higher education. When a course does not give expected benefits, students go for a higher level of the same course.

Public institutions of higher education have suffered due to it. These are unable to maintain standards while being forced to accommodate an increased number of students. It has resulted in the mass exodus to foreign systems and expensive private institutions. Students from deprived strata can’t avail of these options.

It has led to a fall in standards of teaching and also in the expected diligence of students. Digital technology has made its own contribution to the noticeable changes in student behaviour.

A plethora of reforms introduced may not succeed in resolving the basic issues and tendencies. There is a considerable gap between the discourse of reform and the reality of our higher education system.


Towards reducing India’s prison footprint

Source: The post is based on the article “Towards reducing India’s prison footprint” published in The Hindu on 3rd January 2023.

Syllabus: GS 2 – Governance

Relevance: measures needed to prevent overcrowding of prisons

News: Lieutenant-Governor of Delhi in June last year directed the Delhi Development Authority (DDA) to allocate land to Delhi’s prison department to construct a district prison complex in Narela to prevent overcrowding.

How is the district prison complex in Delhi being built up?

The prison is to be constructed in two phases, the first for high-risk offenders and the second for undertrials.

In phase 1, a high-security jail is to be built in the complex with a capacity to lodge 250 high-risk prisoners.

High walls are being constructed between cells to prevent prisoners from viewing others, and interacting with each other, as well as building office spaces between cells to facilitate surveillance.

The Delhi prison administration is creating solitary confinement which can have a severe harmful effect on prisoners’ mental health.

Therefore, L-G’s claim to decongest Delhi’s prison complexes by setting up prisons in Narela is not appreciable and not a proper way of preventing overcrowding.

What are the reasons behind overcrowding of prisons?

One of the reasons behind it is that India has not done enough to truly prevent crime. Dalits and Adivasis are over-represented in Indian prisons.

As per a report, social, systemic, legal, and political barriers are the reason behind this. Laws such as the Habitual Offenders Act and Beggary Laws allow the police to target Dalit and Adivasis for reported crimes.

Furthermore, prisons in India are still governed by the colonial law Prisons Act, 1894. It treats prisoners as sub-par citizens, and provides for strict punishment rather than rehabilitation.

What can be the way ahead?

President Murmu said that rather than building more prisons to prevent overcrowding we must adopt measures like releasing unwell or old inmates, reducing penalties, allowing bail at affordable costs, etc.

India is a progressing country, so its approach to crime should be preventive rather than reactive.

Therefore, the L-G should work with the Delhi government to channel public funds towards public goods such as housing, education, and employment, so that crimes could be prevented.


The case against- state control of Hindu temples

Source– The post is based on the article “The case against state control of Hindu temples” published in The Hindu on 3rd January 2023.

Syllabus: GS2- Significant provisions of Indian constitution.

Relevance– Issues related to secularism in India

News– The article explains the issue of state governments managing the affairs of Hindu religious endowments.

What are the constitutional provisions for state regulating secular activities associated with religious practices?

Article 25(2)(b) empowers the state to provide for social welfare and reform or the throwing open of Hindu religious institutions” to “all classes and sections of Hindus”. Hence, the issue of regulating secular aspects of religious practice is distinct from providing access to worship.

What are the judicial precedents for state management of temples?

In the Shirur Mutt judgement (1954) case, Supreme Court impugned many provisions of the Madras Hindu Religious and Charitable Endowments Act, 1951. It termed these provisions as “extremely drastic” in character. Even the Advocate General of Madras stated that he “could not support the legality of these provisions”.

The legislature of the erstwhile Madras State enacted in 1954 an amendment Act for removing the defects pointed out by the Supreme Court. Again, the Act was struck down by Madras High Court.

The Orissa Hindu Religious Endowments Act, 1939 was struck down by the Supreme Court twice in 1954 and 1956.

What are issues with the state management of temples?

In the guise of administering Hindu religious endowments, the states are interfering in religious affairs. This is more prevalent in Tamil Nadu where temples cannot even conduct pujas as the state has depleted their income.

As per the HR&CE policy note of 2012-13 of Tamil Nadu, Hindu temples own land covering 29 crore sq. ft in area. Its estimated value would be almost ₹10 lakh crore. But the income realised by the Tamil Nadu HR&CE Department is ₹120 crore per year.

The state is silencing temple activists by initiating arbitrary criminal action against them.

The Tamil Nadu HR&CE Department does not even have records of its own executive notifications justifying its management of certain temples.

What is the way forward?

A long line of judicial precedents emphasise that secularism means the state cannot mix with religion. Nothing justifies a state official directing a religious functionary for conducting worship. The purpose should be to involve the community, which has been excluded by the state. The participation of different stakeholders and the building of consensus among them will determine who will take over temples.


Mountainous Question – China’s growing influence in Nepal means India’s diplomacy and project delivery will need to improve

Source: The post is based on the following articles

“Why China is happy with Nepal’s new PM” published in the Indian Express on 3rd January 2022.

“Mountainous Question – China’s growing influence in Nepal means India’s diplomacy and project delivery will need to improve” published in the The Times of India on 3rd January 2022.

Syllabus: GS 2 – India and its neighbourhood- relations.

Relevance: About India-Nepal relations.

News: Recently, Pushpa Kamal Dahal “Prachanda” has become the new Prime Minister of Nepal. He was the leader of the third-largest party in parliament and was not even considered a serious contender for the post. But some last-minute political moves ensured his Prime Ministership.

He will face a mandatory vote of confidence in parliament. His failure to secure a vote of confidence would work in favour of the single-largest party which, under such circumstances, would gain the first opportunity to form the government as per article 76(3) of the constitution.

What are the Chinese concerns with the previous government in Nepal?

The previous PM dampened the prospects of the execution of China’s Belt and Road Initiative by stating that Nepal would prefer projects under grants over loans.

The Nepal parliament also ratified the $-500 million Millenium Challenge Corporation (MCC) compact in February. This effectively overruled Chinese objections and awarded two mega hydroelectricity power projects — West Seti and Seti Water — with a combined production capacity and worth of 1200 MW and $2.4 billion to the US.

Hence, China sent multiple messages that attest to engagement with and interest in recent developments in Nepal.

Must read: What West Seti power project can mean for India-Nepal ties
Why China is happy with Nepal’s new PM?

The new PM was inspired by the ideologies of Mao Zedong. China’s acting ambassador met the Nepalese PM to congratulate him on the same day as his elevation.

He also conveyed that China had lifted the suspension of business and supply of goods from the Rasuwa-Kerung and Hilsa-Parang 2 checkpoints that had not been commissioned for use since the Covid-19 pandemic hit.

A high-level Chinese team was already in Kathmandu to conduct a feasibility study for the ambitious Kerung-Kathmandu railway line, a major project under the BRI.

Read more: India-Nepal relations has been deteriorated in recent times and need to be strengthened
What India can do to counter the Chinese involvement in Nepal?

-India needs to reach out and build equally robust ties with all political stakeholders in Nepal, be they on the left, right or centre.

-Given its geographic position, it is natural for Nepal to seek infrastructure investment from both India and China. India should be competitive and prove to Nepal that Indian projects are best suited for the Himalayan nation than the Chinese.

-Many Indian projects in the past were marred by delays due to local environmental objections, cost overruns and the selection of poor local contractors. Hence, India should help Nepal correct these and deliver on big-ticket infrastructure like the Arun III hydroelectric project by the scheduled deadlines.

-Further, India should also maintain close political communication to avoid disputes like the one over territory in the Kalapani region


The New Year looks decidedly gloomy in India’s political neighbourhood

Source: The post is based on the article “The New Year looks decidedly gloomy in India’s political neighbourhood” published in the Business Standard on 3rd January 2022.

Syllabus: GS 2 – India and its neighbourhood- relations.

Relevance: About challenges in India’s political neighbourhood.

News: Three key Indian neighbourhood countries with which India has economic ties — Sri Lanka, Bangladesh and Nepal — are facing risks that appear to be worsening.

What are the risks associated with India’s political neighbourhood?

Sri Lanka: Its economic crisis needs International Monetary Fund (IMF) loans – a combination of the Extended Credit Facility (ECF) and the Extended Fund Facility (EFF).

But for that, Sri Lanka will have to reach a deal with its bilateral creditors, principally, India, Japan and China that the terms of their loans do not work at cross purposes with the IMF loan.

Bangladesh: It also having economic trouble. The collapse of global trade, on which the economy is acutely dependent, and high oil prices have hit the economy hard. There is a “sharp widening of the current account deficit, the rapid decline of foreign exchange reserves, rising inflation and slowing growth” in Bangladesh.

Due to these, the country has just signed a 42-month arrangement to secure a $3.2-billion IMF loan under ECF and EFF, with another $1.3 billion under the climate-linked Resilience and Sustainability Facility (RSF).

Nepal: The general elections had led to no clear verdict. Recently, the country finally got a new government in place with a left-wing orientation. The previous government’s repair work was made necessary by the IMF loan. The current inflation rate of 8.08%.

Pakistan: Standard & Poor recently reduced the sovereign rating to CCC-plus. This puts it deep in junk grade.

The supply shock-led crisis in South Asia highlights the policy missteps of different governments. The growth of South Asia now depends on how the countries implement the IMF support programmes.

GS Paper 3


‘Demonetisation arose from the Centre …it should have enacted a law’

Source– The post is based on the article “Demonetisation arose from the Centre …it should have enacted a law” published in The Indian Express on 3rd January 2023.

Syllabus: GS3- Indian economy and mobilisation of resources

Relevance– Issues related to banking and monetary policy

News– The article explains the issue of legality of demonetisation by the central government in 2016.

What are the legal provisions for demonetisation initiated by RBI?

According to sub-section (1) of Section 26 of the RBI Act, 1934, every bank note shall be legal tender at any place in India and shall be guaranteed by the central government. This provision is subject to sub-section (2) of Section 26 of the Act.

Sub-section (2) of Section 26 of the Act applies only when a proposal for demonetisation is initiated by the RBI. It should be a recommendation being made to the central government. The recommendation can be in respect of any series of bank notes of any denomination

The word “any” will mean a specified series or a particular series of bank notes. Similarly, “any” denomination will mean any particular or specified denomination of bank notes.

If the word “any” is interpreted to mean “all series of bank notes” of “all denominations”, it would give the central board of the bank unguided and unlimited powers. It would be arbitrary and  unconstitutional.

On receiving the said recommendation made by the central board of the bank under sub-section (2) of Section 26 of the Act, the central government may accept or reject the said recommendation.

If the central government accepts the recommendation, it may issue a notification in the Gazette of India. It should specify the date from which the bank notes shall cease to be legal tender.

What are the legal provisions for demonetisation initiated by the central government?

The provisions of the Act do not bar the central government from initiating demonetisation. It could do so by using the powers under Entry 36 of List I of the Seventh Schedule of the Constitution. However, it has to be done only by an ordinance or legislation.

The central government cannot demonetise bank notes by issuance of a gazette notification under sub-section (2) of Section 26 of the Act.

When the central government proposes demonetisation of any bank note, it must seek the opinion of the central board of the bank. The bank is the sole authority to regulate circulation of bank notes and secure monetary stability.

The opinion of the central board of the bank should be independent after a meaningful discussion by the central board of the bank. If the central bank gives negative opinion, the central government may still go ahead with demonetisation after weighing the pros and cons.

What are arguments against the legality of demonetisation initiated by the central government in 2016?

The proposal for demonetisation in 2016 came from the central government. Therefore, it could not be given effect by way of a notification under Section 26 of the Act.

The decision making process did not include independent advice by the central board of the bank. The central bank acted on behalf of the central government.

Therefore, notification dated November 8, 2016 for demonetisation is unlawful.


Being pragmatic about energy sources

Source: The post is based on the article “Being pragmatic about energy sources” published in Business Standard on 3rd January 2023.

Syllabus: GS 3 – Environment

Relevance: concerns associated with adoption of clean energy.

News: The Russia-Ukraine war has again made countries dependent on fossil fuels for energy generation which has impacted the adoption of clean energy.

What is needed towards adoption of clean energy?

There is a need for proper storage technology for renewables and without it solar and wind capacities will need gas-powered plants for energy generation.

There are announcements made about giga-storage factories that can power the world but we are still several years away from such energy storage technologies.

What are the reasons behind delay in storage technology?

First, laboratory experiments for bringing up storage technology that can power large numbers of homes, factories and offices require time, capital and engineering expertise.

Second, better battery capacities for storage requires an increase in the mining activities and mineral supply. For example, solar panels and wind turbines need minerals. Some varieties are easily available but there are many minerals that are relatively rare.

As per the expert, billions of tones of minerals will need to be mined over the next few decades to ensure that ambitious clean energy goals of developed countries are met.

However, the problem with mining is that it is not clean, causes ecological damage and requires a large amount of energy from thermal-fueled power plants.

What are other concerns with the adoption of green hydrogen?

Green hydrogen is produced by the process of electrolyzing water using renewable energy sources such as solar or wind power. It is considered among the cleanest of fuels.

However, green hydrogen costs too much to be a replacement for natural gas.

Furthermore, there are leakage problems associated with hydrogen. Hydrogen is highly inflammable and requires special containers and pipes to transport safely. Still, some of the gas leaks into the atmosphere causing environmental damage.

Therefore, all energy sources have negatives and the government must keep this in mind that fossil fuel will be needed for the energy generations in the coming decades.


It’s time to consider a wealth tax that may lessen Indian inequality

Source– The post is based on the article It’s time to consider a wealth tax that may lessen Indian inequality” published in the mint on 3rd January 2023.

Syllabus: GS3- Indian economy and mobilisation of resources

Relevance– Issues related to fiscal policy

News– The article explains the case of levying wealth tax in India .

Why is there a need to introduce wealth tax in India?

There has been massive accumulation of wealth in a few hands. It remains completely untaxed and unavailable for public allocation.

Wealth is largely dependent on inheritance and opportunities. It comes with the advantages associated with belonging to a privileged class and caste.

According to the World Inequality Database of 2022, India’s top 10% population owns 65% of the country ‘s wealth while, bottom 10% owns only 6%. An Oxfam report highlighted how India’s richest doubled their wealth during the pandemic.

One argument in support of wealth accumulation is that it could lead to investment. But this is not true in the case of India. Government lowered corporate tax significantly from 30% to 22% in 2019-20. But, it has not generated much private investment.

Investment has not created employment opportunities for youth. The unemployment rate in the 15-24 age group during May-July 2022 was 28.3%. In post-covid recovery phase, economic growth has largely been jobless.

What is wealth tax and its prevalence in India?

Wealth tax is a direct tax. It can take several forms such as property tax, inheritance or gift tax and capital gains tax. Capital gains tax exists in India but applies only to transactions. Hence, it has a very limited base.

India scrapped its estate duty in 1985 and has no inheritance tax. The receipt of gifts is subjected to income tax but it is subjected to various exemptions.

At present, India does not have any wealth tax that is tax levied on an entire property.

What is the way forward?

India needs a shift in its fiscal policy. It needs to adopt measures that create employment opportunities and drive demand for products made by small and medium producers.

Public investment is needed to boost the capabilities of small players across various sectors like agriculture and manufacturing. It is also required for essential public services to enhance the capabilities of youth.  One potential source of revenue to fund such investments is wealth tax

A number of Latin American countries have introduced annual wealth tax on wealth gains each year. This is the right time for the country to introduce a progressive wealth tax along with other fiscal steps that can reduce the growing inequalities.


Popularize the e-rupee even at the cost of UPI

Source: The post is based on the article “Popularize the e-rupee even at the cost of UPI” published in the Livemint on 3rd January 2022.

Syllabus: GS 3 – Indian Economy and issues relating to planning, mobilization, of resources.

Relevance: About the promoting e-rupee and concerns associated with the Unified Payments Interface (UPI).

News: Recently, the supreme court upheld the demonetization done by the government in 2016. The government plans to improve the rupee digitisation. But, India’s cash intensity remains roughly on the same incline as it was earlier.

About the success of Unified Payments Interface (UPI)

The UPI has been a spectacular success since its 2016 launch. It is designed for instant transfers between bank accounts done via mobile phones.

According to the National Payments Corporation of India (NPCI), UPI operator, UPI processed more than 74 billion transactions in 2022. This is up 90% over 2021. It is worth almost ₹126 trillion, a 76% leap from 2021.

With 381 banks in the loop, net-linked handsets everywhere and UPI adoption now so wide.

Must read: UPI and Digital Payments in India – Explained, pointwise
What are the concerns associated with the UPI?

The government levies no user fee for UPI transactions. Public funds are used in strengthening UPI and funding bank transfers done by UPI. The government justifies that it’s a “digital public good with immense convenience for the public and productivity gains for the economy.”

Why India should promote RBI’s retail e-rupee instead of UPI?

This is because a) The digital rupee will better serve the cause of economic stability than an over-reliance on banks that square off transfers among themselves, b) With increasing UPI Payments, the public money spent for strengthening it will also increase. But this is not the case with the e-rupee, c) The mass usage of the e-rupee would involve the circulation of money that’s a direct liability of the central bank. On the other hand, UPI relies more on money in bank accounts.

Must read: e-Rupee: Here’s a Quixplained on India’s first official digital currency

Prelims Oriented Articles (Factly)

Draft Rules for Online Gaming: Online games must register with self-regulatory body, say draft rules

Source: The post is based on the article “Online games must register with self-regulatory body, say draft rules” published in The Hindu on 3rd January 2023

What is the News?

The Union Ministry of Electronics and Information Technology(MeitY) has released draft rules for online gaming companies.

It has also proposed an amendment to bring online gaming within the ambit of the Information Technology (Intermediary Guidelines and Digital Media Ethics Code) Rules, 2021.

What are the Draft Rules for Online Gaming?

Aim: 1) To safeguard users against potential harm from skill-based games, 2) To regulate online gaming platforms as intermediaries and place due diligence requirements on them and 3) To grow the online gaming sector and encourage innovation.

Key Provisions of the rules

Register with a self-regulatory body: Online games will have to register with a self-regulatory body and only games that are cleared by the body will be allowed to legally operate in India.

Composition of the self-regulatory body: The self-regulatory body will have a board of directors with five members from diverse fields including online gaming, public policy, IT, psychology and medicine. 

– The body must ensure that the registered online games don’t have anything which is not in the interest of the sovereignty and integrity of India, defence of India, security of the state, friendly relations with foreign states or public order or incites the commission of any cognizable offence relating to the aforesaid.

– There could be more than one self-regulatory body and all of them will have to inform the Centre about the online games they have registered.

No betting on the outcome of the game: Online gaming companies will not be allowed to engage in betting on the outcome of a game.

Self-due diligence: Online gaming firms will be required to undertake additional due diligence, including KYC of users, transparent withdrawal and refund of money, and a fair distribution of winnings.

– They will also have to appoint a compliance officer who will ensure that the platform is following the norms, a nodal officer who will act as a liaison official with the government and assist law enforcement agencies and a grievance officer who will resolve user complaints.


Year-End Review -2022: Ministry of Rural Development

Source: The post is based on the articleYear-End Review -2022: Ministry of Rural Developmentpublished in PIB on 3rd January 2023

What is the News?

The Ministry of Rural Development has launched several initiatives and schemes in 2022.

What are the schemes and initiatives launched by the Ministry of Rural Development in 2022?

Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Act (Mahatma Gandhi NREGA) 

Achievements of Mahatma Gandhi NREGA:

GIS-based Planning of Gram Panchayats (GPs): The Ministry has initiated integrated holistic planning of the Gram Panchayats based on watershed development principles (ridge to valley approach) using the Geographical information system (GIS).

Yuktdhara Portal

National Electronic Fund Management System (NeFMS)/ DBT: Under the Mahatma Gandhi NREGA, 99% of wage seekers are receiving their wages directly into their Bank/Post Office accounts. It is a big step towards transparency and the timely release of wages.

SECURE: It is an online application designed and developed, especially for the estimate preparation and approval for Mahatma Gandhi NREGA works. The estimates are based on the standard rates of items and specifications of works, entered for State/ District/ Block for Mahatma Gandhi NREGA-related works.

Emphasis on Social Audit: The system of Social Audit is being strengthened. In association with the office of CAG, the auditing standards have been finalized and the implementation of the same has started. Social Audit Units have been established in 27 States and 1 UT. 

Amrit Sarovar

Jaldoot App

Pradhan Mantri Awaas Yojana-Gramin (PMAY-G): In order to ensure the empowerment of women, all the houses under PMAY-G include names of women members of the household in sanction details/ownership details (either solely or in joint ownership).

Deendayal Antyodaya Yojana-National Rural Livelihood Mission -(DAY-NRLM)

Pradhan Mantri Gram Sadak Yojana (PMGSY)

Deen Dayal Upadhyaya Grameen Kaushalya Yojana (DDU-GKY): It is a demand-driven placement-linked skill training initiative of the Ministry of Rural Development (MoRD).

– The scheme is uniquely aimed at rural poor youth between 15 and 35 years of age with the purpose to create income diversity in poor families and help rural youth realize their career aspirations.      

– The program occupies a unique position amongst other skill training programs due to its focus on the rural poor youth and its emphasis on sustainable employment through the prominence and incentives given to post-placement tracking, retention and career progression.

– Under DDU-GKY two special programs are being implemented. i.e; ROSHNI program is being implemented for 27 left-wing extremist affected areas of 9 States with mandatory residential courses with 40% coverage to women candidates and Himayat- All youth of the UT of Jammu & Kashmir and Ladakh are covered under this scheme with 100% central funding.    

Rural Self-Employment Training Institutes (RSETIs)   

National Social Assistance Programme (NSAP)

Saansad Adarsh Gram Yojana (SAGY)

Shyama Prasad Mukherjee Rurban Mission (SPMRM)

District Development Coordination and Monitoring Committees(DISHA): They have been formed to ensure better coordination among all the elected representatives in Parliament, State Legislatures and Local Governments (Panchayati Raj Institutions/Municipal Bodies) for efficient and time-bound development. 

– It is a government-wide initiative that seeks to promote participative governance and deliberative democracy.DISHA seeks to achieve this by facilitating a quarterly review of all development activity at the district level. 

– The Chairperson of a DISHA committee is the senior most Member of Parliament (Lok Sabha) elected from the district and nominated by the Ministry of Rural Development. 

– DISHA committee meetings will be held on a quarterly basis, under the chairmanship of the MP, and will be attended by all elected representatives and officials from the district.


Two views on demonetisation: What the Supreme Court’s demonetisation verdict says

Source: The post is based on the article Two views on demonetisation: What the Supreme Court’s demonetisation verdict sayspublished in Indian Express on 3rd January 2023

What is the News?

The Supreme Court has upheld the government’s 2016 decision to demonetise currency notes of Rs 500 and Rs 1,000 by a 4:1 majority.

What is Demonetization?

Click Here to read

What was the majority view on Demonetization?

The majority held that the demonetization was valid on the following grounds: 

The Centre has the power, under the RBI Act to demonetise all series of bank notes: The petitioners challenging demonetisation had contended that the Union Government’s powers to demonetise bank notes under Section 26(2) of the Reserve Bank Of India Act, 1934, are restricted only for ‘one’ or ‘some’ series of bank notes and not for ‘all’ series of bank notes.

– However, the majority judgment held that the power available to the central government under Section 26(2) of the RBI Act can be exercised for all series of bank notes.

– The court said that this section cannot be interpreted to give the government “restricted power” to demonetise notes as it would lead to a situation where the authorities could demonetise some counterfeit notes of a specific denomination but not all notes. Such a scenario “will result in nothing else but absurdity.

Demonetisation notification does not suffer from any flaws in the decision-making process: There was consultation between the Centre and the Reserve Bank of India (RBI) for six months indicating a reasonable nexus between the measures undertaken and the object sought to be achieved and, therefore, the demonetisation passed the test of doctrine of “proportionality”. 

The time provided for the exchange of demonetised notes was reasonable: The court referred to the judgment of a Constitution Bench in Jayantilal Ratanchand Shah Vs RBI (1996) which upheld the validity of 1978’s Demonetisation Act. 

The 1996 judgment notes that if the time for such exchange was not limited, the high denomination bank notes could be circulated and transferred from one person to another and any such transferee could walk into the Bank on any day thereafter and demand the exchange of his notes.

What was the minority view on Demonetization?

The dissenting judge held that the government’s demonetisation exercise was well-intentioned and thought-through. But was unlawful on the following grounds: 

No independent application of mind by RBI: The dissenting judge held that the central bank did not apply its mind independently while recommending the cancellation of Rs 500 and Rs 1000 notes as proposed by the Centre.

Executive order is not enough for such a step: The demonetisation of all series of notes at the instance of the central government is a far more serious issue than the demonetisation of a particular series by the bank. So, it has to be done through legislation rather than through executive notification.

Interpretation of Section 26(2) of the RBI Act: Section 26(2) only contemplates the demonetisation of banknotes at the instance of the Central Board of the RBI. However, since in this case the proposal was not initiated by the RBI, the demonetisation exercise could have been undertaken by the central government only through an ordinance or a parliamentary law.

– The dissenting judge also said that the word ‘any’ in sub-section (2) of Section 26 cannot be read to mean ‘all series of bank notes’ as this would vest with the Central Board of the Bank unguided and unlimited powers.


What is the new delimitation exercise by Assam?

Source: The post is based on the article “What is the new delimitation exercise by Assam?published in The Hindu on 3rd January 2023

What is the News?

Assam has re-merged four districts with the ones they were carved out after the Election Commission of India(ECI) notified the initiation of the delimitation of Assembly and Parliamentary constituencies in the State.

What is Delimitation?

Click Here to read

Why was delimitation in Assam put on hold?

Delimitation panels were set up thrice (1952,1962 and 1972) regularly before the exercise was suspended in 1976 in view of the family planning programmes in the States. 

The last Commission was set up in 2002, but before its exercise was completed in 2008, the delimitation was put on hold.

Several political parties were opposed to delimitation in 2008 as they wanted it to be done only after the updating of the National Register of Citizens(NRC) to weed out “illegal immigrants”.

Why are some political parties critical of delimitation?

The Central government reconstituted the Delimitation Commission for the four north-eastern States and the Union Territory of Jammu and Kashmir in 2020. 

The exercise was imminent but Section 8A of the Representation of People Act, 1950, cited by the ECI for initiating delimitation and the use of the 2001 Census data have raised the following questions:

Firstly, Section 8A only allows reorientation and rules out any change in the total number of parliamentary and Assembly constituencies. Hence, what’s the point of delimitation if Assembly seats are not increased.

Secondly, basing the delimitation on the 2001 Census is unjust specifically after the ECI used the 2011 Census for completing the exercise in Jammu and Kashmir where the number of constituencies increased. 

Why does the government see delimitation as Assam’s saviour?

Assam Chief Minister has said that the delimitation can provide the safeguards that the NRC and the Assam Accord of 1985 envisaged to but failed. 

This is because, unlike the unsuccessful NRC, delimitation can save the future of Assam for at least two decades by ensuring the State Assembly is less affected by demographic changes.


ST Commission holds its ground on impact of new rules on Forest Rights Act

Source: The post is based on the article “ST Commission holds its ground on impact of new rules on Forest Rights Act” published in The Hindu on 3rd January 2023

What is the News?

National Commission for Scheduled Tribes(NCST) Chairman has said that the new Forest (Conservation) Rules, 2022 are violative of the Forest Rights Act, 2006.

What are the new Forest (Conservation) Rules,2022?

Click Here to read

Why has the NCST chairman called new Forest (Conservation) Rules, 2022 violative of Forest Rights Act, 2006?

NCST Chairman has said that the new FCR, 2022 has done away with the clause to mandatorily seek consent of the gram sabhas before the Stage 1 clearance or even after Stage 2 clearance for diversion of forest land.

In such a scenario, project proponents, having received partial clearance will be pushing the State governments and Union Territory administrations for “diversion at the earliest”. This would seriously impact the process of recognition of rights under the FRA.

What was the government’s response to the NCST objection?

The Union Environment Minister has argued that the new Forest Conservation rules specifies that states will release the order for diversion of forest land after it is satisfied that all provisions under the Forest Rights Act(FRA) have been complied with.

However, NCST pointed out that between 2009 and 2018, of the 128 applications for forest diversion for mining, 74 were cleared at the Stage 2 and 46 at the Stage 1 and none of the rejections were based on FRA non-compliance. Hence, the new rules will only increase such violations.


Sustainable shrimp cultivation provides hope for mangrove restoration in Sundarbans

Source: The post is based on the article “Sustainable shrimp cultivation provides hope for mangrove restoration in Sundarbans” published in The Hindu on 3rd January 2023

What is the News?

In Sundarbans, a new shrimp farming initiative named “SAIME Initiative” offers hope for mangrove restoration.

What is the SAIME Initiative?

Sustainable Aquaculture In Mangrove Ecosystem(SAIME) initiative was started in 2019. 

It is a community-based initiative for sustainable shrimp cultivation.

The initiative was conceived by NGOs- Nature Environment and Wildlife Society (NEWS) and Global Nature Fund (GNF), Naturland, Bangladesh Environment and Development Society (BEDS).

Under the initiative, farmers have taken up the cultivation of shrimp at 30 hectares in West Bengal. Additionally, they are restoring mangroves.

What is shrimp cultivation?

Shrimp farming is an aquaculture business that exists in either a marine or freshwater environment, producing shrimp or prawns for human consumption.

Shrimp cultivation is practised in about 15,000 to 20,000 hectares of the unique ecosystem in India.

About Sundarbans

Click Here to read


2022 Year Ender Review: Ministry of Skill Development and Entrepreneurship

Source: The post is based on the article 2022 Year Ender Review: Ministry of Skill Development and Entrepreneurshippublished in PIB on 3rd January 2023

What is the News?

The Ministry of Skill Development and Entrepreneurship has launched several initiatives and schemes in 2022.

What are the schemes and initiatives launched by the Ministry of Skill Development and Entrepreneurship in 2022?

Pradhan Mantri Kaushal Vikas Yojana

Skill Hubs: The Ministry of Skill Development and Entrepreneurship in consultation with the Ministry of Education(MoE) has planned to implement the ‘Skill Hub Initiative’ under Pradhan Mantri Kaushal Vikas Yojana 3.0(PMKVY 3.0). 

– Skill Hubs are nodal skill centres identified to provide skill development and vocational training opportunities to target population segments from class 6-8th (introduction to world-of-work through orientation, industry visits), 9th to 12th (aimed at exposing students to skill development avenues), school dropouts and out-of-education (aimed for academic credit, mainstreaming back to education and or apprenticeship and employment linkages).

Bharatskills Platform

Skill India for Women Empowerment: Ministry of Skill has imparted self-defense training to women under “My Safety, My Responsibility” programme.

UdyamDisha: It is an online e-mentoring platform developed to handhold and guide aspiring and existing entrepreneurs and facilitate online mentoring services.

Jan Shikshan Sansthan (Central Sector Scheme)

National Skill Qualification Framework(NSQF)

India has secured the 11th position in the WorldSkills Competition 2022(WSC 2022) as compared to the 13th position in 2019.

This improvement in position suggests the surge in awareness among youth, trainers, and other key stakeholders in the skill ecosystem about participating in the competition which inspires young people to develop a passion for skills and pursue excellence through competitions.


‘SMART’ program for Ayurveda professionals to boost R&D in Ayurveda in the country

Source: The post is based on the article SMART program for Ayurveda professionals to boost R&D in Ayurveda in the country published in PIB on 3rd January 2023

What is the News?

The Ministry of Ayush has launched the ‘SMART’ (Scope for Mainstreaming Ayurveda Research in Teaching Professionals) program.

What is a SMART program?

Launched by: National Commission for Indian System of Medicine(NCISM) and the Central Council for Research in Ayurvedic Sciences(CCRAS), the two prominent institutions under the Ministry of Ayush.

Aim: To boost scientific research in priority healthcare research areas through Ayurveda colleges and hospitals.

Under the program, the government will identify, support and promote innovative research ideas in healthcare research areas including osteoarthritis, iron deficiency anaemia, chronic bronchitis, dyslipidemia, rheumatoid arthritis, obesity, diabetes mellitus, psoriasis, generalised anxiety disorder and Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease(NAFLD).


T.N. government sets up Nilgiri Tahr conservation project

Source: The post is based on the article “T.N. government sets up Nilgiri Tahr conservation project” published in The Hindu on 3rd January 2023

What is the News?

The Tamil Nadu government has launched the Nilgiri Tahr conservation project.

What is the Nilgiri Tahr conservation project?

Launched by: Tamil Nadu

Aim: To develop a better understanding of the Nilgiri Tahr population through 1) Surveys and radio telemetry studies, 2) Reintroduce the Tahrs to their historical habitat, 3) Address proximate threats and 4) Increase public awareness of the species.

Duration: The project is to be implemented from 2022 to 2027.

Funding: ​​The funds for the project are to be provided by the Tamil Nadu Pollution Control Board.

– Note: October 7 will be celebrated as ‘Niligiri Tahr Day’ in honour of E.R.C. Davidar, who was responsible for pioneering one of the first studies of the species in 1975.

What is Nilgiri Tahr?

Nilgiri Tahr is the sole Caprinae species found in the tropical mountains of southern India. 

IUCN Status: Endangered

Wildlife (Protection) Act of India,1972: Schedule I

Habitat: The animal inhabits meadows with steep cliffs at elevations between 300 metres and 2,600 metre above sea level. 

Population: It is estimated that there are 3,122 Nilgiri Tahrs in the wild. 

Geographical range: Historically, the Nilgiri Tahr was known to inhabit a large portion of the Western Ghats. But today it remains restricted to a few scattered patches in Tamil Nadu and Kerala. 

– It has become locally extinct in around 14% of its traditional shola forest-grassland habitat.

Significance: There are multiple references to the Nilgiri Tahr in Tamil Sangam literature dating back to 2,000 years.

The late Mesolithic (10,000-4,000 BC) paintings highlight the significance of the Tahr in folklore, culture and life.

It has been designated as the State animal of Tamil Nadu in recognition of its ecological and cultural significance.


Must Read Current Affairs Articles – January 31st, 2023

About Must Read News Articles: Must Read News Articles is an initiative by Team ForumIAS to provide links to the most important news articles of the day. It covers The Hindu newspaper. This saves the time and effort of students in identifying useful and important articles. With newspaper websites requiring a paid subscription beyond a certain… Continue reading Must Read Current Affairs Articles – January 31st, 2023

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Intellectual property rights sensitivity should not be at the expense of public health obligations

Source– The post is based on the article “Intellectual property rights sensitivity should not be at the expense of public health obligations” published in The Indian Express on 30th January 2023. Syllabus: GS3- Issues relating to intellectual property rights Relevance– Innovation ecosystem News– The article explains the National IPR policy. It tells about changes introduced… Continue reading Intellectual property rights sensitivity should not be at the expense of public health obligations

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Green debut – Green bonds can help lower borrowing cost

Source: The post is based on an article “Green debut – Green bonds can help lower borrowing cost” published in Business Standard on 30th January 2023. Syllabus: GS 3 – Economic Development Relevance: About green bonds News: The Reserve Bank of India (RBI) last week for the first time issued sovereign green bonds worth Rs 8,000 crore… Continue reading Green debut – Green bonds can help lower borrowing cost

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In NREGA reforms, prioritise the worker and her dues

Source– The post is based on the article “In NREGA reforms, prioritise the worker and her dues” published in The Hindu on 30th January 2023. Syllabus: GS2- Government policies and interventions Relevance– Schemes for employment generation News– The article explains the issues with MGNREGA. It suggests the reforms needed for the scheme. What are the… Continue reading In NREGA reforms, prioritise the worker and her dues

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Welfare schemes will falter in the absence of accurate population data

Source– The post is based on the article “Welfare schemes will falter in the absence of accurate population data” published in The Indian Express on 30th January 2023. Syllabus: GS1- Population and associated issues Relevance– Population census News– The article explains the need for conducting the census, due in 2021. Why is conducting the population… Continue reading Welfare schemes will falter in the absence of accurate population data

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Gandhi’s ideals of non-violence and communal harmony remain relevant 75 years after his assassination

Source: The post is based on the article “Gandhi’s ideals of non-violence and communal harmony remain relevant 75 years after his assassination” published in The Indian Express on 30th January 2023. Syllabus: GS 1 – Indian History Relevance: Ideals of Mahatma Gandhi News: Mahatma Gandhi was assassinated on January 30, 1948. The year 2023 marks the 75… Continue reading Gandhi’s ideals of non-violence and communal harmony remain relevant 75 years after his assassination

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Revisit the tax treatment of tobacco products

Source– The post is based on the article “Revisit the tax treatment of tobacco products” published in The Hindu on 30th January 2023. Syllabus: GS3- Indian economy and mobilisation of resources Relevance– Taxation of products that generates negative externalities News– The article explains issues with taxation structure on tobacco products In 2017, the economic burden… Continue reading Revisit the tax treatment of tobacco products

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Why are milk prices so high, and what can be done about it?

Source: The post is based on the article “Why are milk prices so high, and what can be done about it?” published in Indian Express on 30th January 2023 What is the News? Since last year, the Gujarat Cooperative Milk Marketing Federation has raised the maximum retail price (MRP) of its Amul brand full-cream milk… Continue reading Why are milk prices so high, and what can be done about it?

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Hindenburg report alleged fraud by its firms, Adani Group says ‘attack on India’

Source: The post is based on the article “Hindenburg report alleged fraud by its firms, Adani Group says ‘attack on India’” published in Indian Express on 30th January 2023 What is the News? Adani Group has issued a detailed rebuttal to the allegations of stock manipulation and accounting malpractices levelled by Hindenburg Research. It has… Continue reading Hindenburg report alleged fraud by its firms, Adani Group says ‘attack on India’

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India’s call to modify the Indus Waters Treaty

Source: The post is based on the article “India’s call to modify the Indus Waters Treaty” published in The Hindu on 30th January 2023 What is the News? India has sent a notice to Pakistan calling for the ‘modification’ of the Indus Waters Treaty owing to Pakistan’s persistent objections regarding India’s Kishenganga (KHEP) and Ratle… Continue reading India’s call to modify the Indus Waters Treaty

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Nitrate radicals’ are likely making air pollution worse in China, India

Source: The post is based on the article “Nitrate radicals’ are likely making air pollution worse in China, India” published in Indian Express on 30th January 2023 What is the News? According to a study, certain regions of China and India are nighttime hotspots for the generation of nitrate radicals that could increase the amount… Continue reading Nitrate radicals’ are likely making air pollution worse in China, India

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Artificial synapse developed for brain-like computing with industry-compatible Nitride Semiconductors

Source: The post is based on the article “Artificial synapse developed for brain-like computing with industry-compatible Nitride Semiconductors” published in PIB on 29th January 2023 What is the News? A team of scientists at Bengaluru’s Jawaharlal Nehru Centre for Advanced Scientific Research (JNCASR) have developed hardware for neuromorphic computing.  They have used scandium nitride(ScN) to… Continue reading Artificial synapse developed for brain-like computing with industry-compatible Nitride Semiconductors

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Ragi poori to jowar upma, Parliament gets a new millet men

Source: The post is based on the article “Ragi poori to jowar upma, Parliament gets a new millet menu” published in Indian Express on 30th January 2023 What is the News? The menu of Parliament House canteens will soon have millet dishes such as jowar vegetable upma to bajra khichdi, ragi ladoo to bajre ka… Continue reading Ragi poori to jowar upma, Parliament gets a new millet men

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Student enrolments went up by 7.5% in 2020-21, All India Survey on Higher Education data show

Source: The post is based on the following articles: “Ministry of Education releases All India Survey on Higher Education(AISHE) 2020-2021” published in PIB on 29th January 2023 “Student enrolments went up by 7.5% in 2020-21, All India Survey on Higher Education data show” published in The Hindu on 30th January 2023 What is the News?… Continue reading Student enrolments went up by 7.5% in 2020-21, All India Survey on Higher Education data show

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50,000 years on, ‘green comet’ comes visiting again

Source: The post is based on the article “50,000 years on, ‘green comet’ comes visiting again” published in TOI on 30th January 2023 What is the News? Comet C/2022 E3(ZTF), popularly known as the “green comet” which last visited Earth’s neighbourhood 50,000 years ago when the Neanderthals were still roaming its surface can now be… Continue reading 50,000 years on, ‘green comet’ comes visiting again

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Warning bells – India’s regulatory framework must infuse confidence in investors, savers

Source: The post is based on the article “Warning bells – India’s regulatory framework must infuse confidence in investors, savers” published in The Hindu on 30th January 2023. Syllabus: GS 3 – Indian Economy and issues relating to planning, mobilization, of resources, growth, development and employment. Relevance: About India’s regulatory environment. News: The latest stock… Continue reading Warning bells – India’s regulatory framework must infuse confidence in investors, savers

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India must focus on health and education post-budget

Source: The post is based on the article “India must focus on health and education post-budget” published in the Livemint on 30th January 2023. Syllabus: GS 2 – Issues relating to development and management of Social Sector/Services relating to Health and Education. Relevance: About the status of healthcare and education. News: The government must focus… Continue reading India must focus on health and education post-budget

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[Kurukshetra January 2023 Summary] Cooperatives to FPOs: A Paradigm Shift – Explained, pointwise

For 7PM Editorial Archives click HERE → Introduction The cooperative movement is a voluntary movement of the people. The movement has been carried out democratically by pooling together of resources for completing a given activity. The purpose is to achieve or secure certain benefits or advantages that people cannot get individually. Cooperative Movement also aims to promote specific… Continue reading [Kurukshetra January 2023 Summary] Cooperatives to FPOs: A Paradigm Shift – Explained, pointwise

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Build, But Smartly – Infra along LAC is strategically vital. But Joshimath shows why projects must respect mountain ecology

Source: The post is based on the article “Build, But Smartly – Infra along LAC is strategically vital. But Joshimath shows why projects must respect mountain ecology” published in The Times of India on 30th January 2023. Syllabus: GS 3 – Disaster and disaster management. Relevance: About the infrastructure construction across LAC. News: India is… Continue reading Build, But Smartly – Infra along LAC is strategically vital. But Joshimath shows why projects must respect mountain ecology

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Rashtrapati Bhavan’s Mughal Gardens renamed as Amrit Udyan: A brief history

Source: The post is based on the article “Rashtrapati Bhavan’s Mughal Gardens renamed as Amrit Udyan: A brief history” published in the Indian Express on 30th January 2023. What is the News? The Mughal Gardens at the Rashtrapati Bhavan (President’s House) in Delhi have been renamed as Amrit Udyan. About the long history of Mughal… Continue reading Rashtrapati Bhavan’s Mughal Gardens renamed as Amrit Udyan: A brief history

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[Download] 9 PM Weekly Compilation – January, 2023 – 3rd week

Hello everyone, We are posting a Compilation of the 9 PM current affairs brief for the 3rd week of the Month of January. Click on the following link to download Download About 9 PM Current Affairs Brief: The idea behind the 9 PM Daily Current Affairs Brief is to make aspirants aware of the important news from… Continue reading [Download] 9 PM Weekly Compilation – January, 2023 – 3rd week

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[Download] Mains Marathon Weekly Compilation – January, 2023 – 3rd week

Hello everyone, We are posting a compilation of Mains Marathon for the month of January 2023 – Third week. Click on the following link to download Download About Mains Marathon Daily Mains Marathon is focused on UPSC Mains 2023. Under this initiative, we post, daily 2 articles, based on the provided weekly schedule. For More… Continue reading [Download] Mains Marathon Weekly Compilation – January, 2023 – 3rd week

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Must Read Current Affairs Articles – January 30th, 2023

About Must Read News Articles: Must Read News Articles is an initiative by Team ForumIAS to provide links to the most important news articles of the day. It covers The Hindu newspaper. This saves the time and effort of students in identifying useful and important articles. With newspaper websites requiring a paid subscription beyond a certain… Continue reading Must Read Current Affairs Articles – January 30th, 2023

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Question From The Homeless In Hills

Source: The post is based on an article “Question From The Homeless In Hills” published in The Times of India on 28th January 2023.  Syllabus: GS 3 – Disaster Management   Relevance: problems related to land subsidence in Uttarakhand  News: The land subsidence of Joshimath has been caused due to the failure of the government as well as… Continue reading Question From The Homeless In Hills

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Regional RBIs: The case for baby RBIs

Source: The post is based on the article “The case for baby RBIs” published in the Business Standard on 28th January 2023.  Syllabus: GS3- Indian economy and mobilisation of resources  Relevance: Issues relating to monetary policy  News: The article explains the possibility of regional RBIs for India.  What is the need for regional RBIs in India? … Continue reading Regional RBIs: The case for baby RBIs

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Becoming The Global Factory: How To Nail It This Time

Source: The post is based on an article “Becoming The Global Factory: How To Nail It This Time” published in The Times of India on 28th January 2023.  Syllabus: GS 3 – Indian Economy  Relevance: About the factors leading the improvement in the Indian economy  News: India has seen economic growth in recent years and received $84… Continue reading Becoming The Global Factory: How To Nail It This Time

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Why we need to focus on mental health

Source: The post is based on the article “Why we need to focus on mental health” published in The Indian Express on 28th January 2023.  Syllabus: GS2- Issues related to the development and management of health  Relevance: Issues related to mental health  News: The article explains the prevalence of mental health and its impacts. What… Continue reading Why we need to focus on mental health

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India’s groundwater governance is in better shape

Source: The post is based on the article “India’s groundwater governance is in better shape” published in The Hindu on 28th January 2023.  Syllabus: GS1- Economic geography. GS2- Government policies and interventions  Relevance: Regulation and management of groundwater resources. News: The article explains the facts and statistics about groundwater in India. What are some facts… Continue reading India’s groundwater governance is in better shape

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The moral and intellectual crises in economic policies

Source: The post is based on the article “The moral and intellectual crises in economic policies” published in The Hindu on 28th January 2023.  Syllabus: GS3- Indian economy: growth, development and employment  Relevance: Paradoxes of GDP growth  News: The article explains the intellectual and moral crisis affecting the Indian economy. What is the crisis of employment… Continue reading The moral and intellectual crises in economic policies

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Padma award is an honour for the Etikoppaka toy craft, says C.V. Raju

Source: The post is based on the article “Padma award is an honour for the Etikoppaka toy craft, says C.V. Raju” published in PIB on 27th January 2023 What is the News? Shri C V Raju from Etikoppaka village, Visakhapatnam,Andhra Pradesh has been conferred with Padma Shri for preserving the traditional method of making Etikoppaka… Continue reading Padma award is an honour for the Etikoppaka toy craft, says C.V. Raju

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MeitY Startup Hub and Meta shortlists 120 Startups and Innovators for the XR Startup Program

Source: The post is based on the article “MeitY Startup Hub and Meta shortlists 120 Startups and Innovators for the XR Startup Program” published in PIB on 27th January 2023 What is the News? MeitY Startup Hub(MSH), an initiative of the Ministry of Electronics & Information Technology (MeitY) and Meta have announced the list of… Continue reading MeitY Startup Hub and Meta shortlists 120 Startups and Innovators for the XR Startup Program

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What is BharOS software and how different is it from Google’s Android OS?

Source: The post is based on the article “What is BharOS software and how different is it from Google’s Android OS?” published in The Hindu on 25th January 2023 What is the News? IIT Madras-incubated company has recently developed the BharOS system. What is the BharOS System? BharOS is an indigenous, or homegrown, mobile operating… Continue reading What is BharOS software and how different is it from Google’s Android OS?

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Ken-Betwa Link Project: Benefits and Challenges – Explained, pointwise

For 7PM Editorial Archives click HERE → Introduction The Steering Committee for the Ken-Betwa Link Project recently held its 3rd meeting in New Delhi. The Chairperson of the Committee (Secretary, Department of Water Resources) remarked that the Ken-Betwa Link Project is a ‘flagship’ project of the Government and ‘it is critical for the water security and socio-economic development of… Continue reading Ken-Betwa Link Project: Benefits and Challenges – Explained, pointwise

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Study explains migration events that brought genetic diversity among Nepalese population

Source: The post is based on the article “Study explains migration events that brought genetic diversity among Nepalese population” published in PIB on 27th January 2023 What is the News? According to a study, Tibeto-Burman communities were pre-historic Himalayan settlers, and their East Asian ancestry can be traced back to Neolithic immigration mostly from Tibet… Continue reading Study explains migration events that brought genetic diversity among Nepalese population

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Ramcharitmanas of Tulsidas, and criticism of the holy book

Source: The post is based on the article “Ramcharitmanas of Tulsidas, and criticism of the holy book” published in Indian Express on 28th January 2023 What is the News? Bihar Education Minister has said that the Ramcharitmanas spreads hatred in society. What is Ramcharitmanas? Ramcharitmanas is an epic poem in the Awadhi language composed by… Continue reading Ramcharitmanas of Tulsidas, and criticism of the holy book

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12 cheetahs from South Africa to arrive in India by February-end

Source: The post is based on the article “12 cheetahs from South Africa to arrive in India by February-end” published in The Hindu on 28th January 2023 What is the News? India and South Africa have signed an agreement to translocate 12 cheetahs to India. About Cheetah’s Reintroduction Programme In India, the Cheetah’s population got… Continue reading 12 cheetahs from South Africa to arrive in India by February-end

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The Indus Waters Treaty, and why India has issued notice to Pakistan seeking changes

Source: The post is based on the following articles “The Indus Waters Treaty, and why India has issued notice to Pakistan seeking changes” published in Indian Express on 28th January 2023 “River Bends – Pakistan should stop subverting the Indus Water Treaty” published in The Times of India on 28th January 2023 What is the… Continue reading The Indus Waters Treaty, and why India has issued notice to Pakistan seeking changes

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[Answered] Mains Marathon I Daily Answer Writing I January 27th, 2023

Dear Friends, Following are answers to Mains Marathon questions, we posted yesterday. About Mains Marathon – This is an initiative of ForumIAS to help/aid aspirants in their writing skills, which is crucial to conquering mains examination. Every morning, we post 2 questions are based on current affairs. The questions framed are meaningful and relevant to the exam.… Continue reading [Answered] Mains Marathon I Daily Answer Writing I January 27th, 2023

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Must Read Current Affairs Articles – January 28th, 2023

About Must Read News Articles: Must Read News Articles is an initiative by Team ForumIAS to provide links to the most important news articles of the day. It covers The Hindu newspaper. This saves the time and effort of students in identifying useful and important articles. With newspaper websites requiring a paid subscription beyond a certain… Continue reading Must Read Current Affairs Articles – January 28th, 2023

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[Download] Prelims Marathon Weekly Compilation – January, 2023 – 3rd week

Hello everyone, We are posting a compilation of Prelims Marathon for the month of January 2023 – Third week. Click on the following link to download Download About Prelims Marathon Daily Prelims Marathon is focused on UPSC Prelims 2023. Under this initiative, we post, daily 10 MCQs, based on the provided weekly schedule. For More… Continue reading [Download] Prelims Marathon Weekly Compilation – January, 2023 – 3rd week

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A ‘Holocaust education’ for India to create a just present

Source: The post is based on the article “A ‘Holocaust education’ for India to create a just present” published in The Hindu on 27th January 2023. Syllabus: GS 1 – World History Relevance: learnings from the Holocaust News: 27th January is remembered as International Holocaust Remembrance Day. Six million Jews were murdered by Nazi-Germany in the Holocaust.… Continue reading A ‘Holocaust education’ for India to create a just present

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The blurred lines between gaming and gambling

Source: The post is based on the article “The blurred lines between gaming and gambling” published in The Hindu on 27th January 2023. Syllabus: GS 2 – Governance Relevance: concerns associated with the online gaming industry News: Some online gaming such as rummy and poker involves financial risks. Despite this, they are not considered as gambling. What… Continue reading The blurred lines between gaming and gambling

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A chink in the Indo-Pak ice

Source: This post is created based on the article “A chink in the Indo-Pak ice”, published in Business Standard on 27th January 2023. Syllabus Topic – GS Paper 2 – International relations – India and its neighborhood News: Lately, India- Pakistan relations have taken a positive turn after years of stagnancy. What are the developments?… Continue reading A chink in the Indo-Pak ice

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Japan to flush Fukushima wastewater

Source: This post is created based on the article “Japan to flush Fukushima wastewater”, published in The Hindu on 27th January 2023. Syllabus Topic – GS Paper 3 – Environmental Pollution News: Japan is expected to start flushing 1.25 million tonnes of wastewater from the embattled Fukushima nuclear power plant into the Pacific Ocean this… Continue reading Japan to flush Fukushima wastewater

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Invent In India – on defence indigenisation in India

Source– The post is based on the article “Invent In India” published in The Times of India on 27th January 2023. Syllabus: GS3- Security Relevance– Defence reforms and modernisation News– The article explains the need for defence indigenisation in India. It also explains the steps needed to be taken for defence indigenisation. Why is there… Continue reading Invent In India – on defence indigenisation in India

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In Good Faith: Pranam vs Pramana — why faith and science must co-exist

Source– The post is based on the article “In Good Faith: Pranam vs Pramana — why faith and science must co-exist” published in The Indian Express on 27th January 2023. Syllabus: GS4- Ethics and human interface Relevance– Conflict between values of scientific approach and faith News– The article explains the difference between faith and science.… Continue reading In Good Faith: Pranam vs Pramana — why faith and science must co-exist

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India and Egypt relationship

Source– The post is based on the article “Sisi’s visit as Republic Day chief guest: India’s Egypt opportunity” and “Delhi to Cairo” published in The Indian Express on 27th January 2023. News– The article explains the historical aspects of the bilateral relationship between India and Egypt. Sisi visited India as Chief Guest of this year’s… Continue reading India and Egypt relationship

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Fighting The Big G – on big tech’s anti-competitive practices

Source– The post is based on the article “Fighting The Big G” published in The Times of India on 27th January 2023. Syllabus: GS3- Awareness in the field of IT Relevance– Regulation of digital ecosystem News– The article explains the issue of dominant position and anti-competitive practices of big digital players in the digital space.… Continue reading Fighting The Big G – on big tech’s anti-competitive practices

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Issues Related to the Office of Governor – Explained, pointwise

For 7PM Editorial Archives click HERE → Introduction The role, powers, and discretion of the Office of Governor have been the subject of Constitutional, Political, and Legal debate for decades. The relationship between the Office of Governor and the elected Government has been strained and tense in multiple States in recent times. Critics argue that the recent political… Continue reading Issues Related to the Office of Governor – Explained, pointwise

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India and Egypt reiterate support for Non-Aligned Movement

Source: The post is based on the article “India and Egypt reiterate support for Non-Aligned Movement” published in The Hindu on 27th January 2023 What is the News? The Egyptian President was the chief guest at India’s Republic Day parade.He also met the Indian Prime Minister. What are the key highlights from the Egyptian President’s… Continue reading India and Egypt reiterate support for Non-Aligned Movement

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