9 PM Daily Current Affairs Brief – January 4th, 2023

Dear Friends,

We have initiated some changes in the 9 PM Brief and other postings related to current affairs. What we sought to do:

  1. Ensure that all relevant facts, data, and arguments from today’s newspaper are readily available to you.
  2. We have widened the sources to provide you with content that is more than enough and adds value not just for GS but also for essay writing. Hence, the 9 PM brief now covers the following newspapers:
    1. The Hindu  
    2. Indian Express  
    3. Livemint  
    4. Business Standard  
    5. Times of India 
    6. Down To Earth
    7. PIB
  3. We have also introduced the relevance part to every article. This ensures that you know why a particular article is important.
  4. Since these changes are new, so initially the number of articles might increase, but they’ll go down over time.
  5. It is our endeavor to provide you with the best content and your feedback is essential for the same. We will be anticipating your feedback and ensure the blog serves as an optimal medium of learning for all the aspirants.
    • For previous editions of 9 PM BriefClick Here
    • For individual articles of 9 PM BriefClick Here

Current Affairs Compilations for UPSC IAS Prelims 2022

Mains Oriented Articles

GS Paper 2

GS Paper 3

Prelims Oriented Articles (Factly)

Mains Oriented Articles

GS Paper 2


A late but right call by Kerala Governor

Source: The post is based on the article “A late but right call by Kerala Governorpublished in The Hindu on 4th January 2023.

Syllabus: GS 2 – Indian Polity

Relevance: Role of Governor

News: Kerala Governor Arif Mohammed Khan has finally decided to reinstate former Minister Saji Cherian into the Cabinet and administer the oath. However, he was initially reluctant.

What does the Constitution say regarding oath?

Article 164(3) provides that the Governor shall administer the oaths of office and secrecy to a Minister before he assumes office.

The Schedule III of the Constitution lays out the oath of office and oath of secrecy for a Minister of a State.  The oaths are prescribed for various constitutional posts, including Ministers and judges, and without it, one cannot assume office.

A person can become a minister if he is an MLA or MLC and has not suffered any disqualification provided under the Constitution.

In the present case, the concerned minister was made to resign for his anti-constitutional speech but was not disqualified.

However, there have been instances where the Governor has refused to administer the oath.

Can a Governor refuse to administer the oath?

This issue came up in 1978. Vasantha Pai got elected as a Member of the Tamil Nadu Legislative Council from the graduate constituency.

It is a requirement under Article 188 that the elected person should be administered the oath by the Governor or a person appointed on his behalf under Schedule III.

However, the Governor nominated Pro-tem Chairman to administer the oath on his behalf but Vasantha Pai did not want to take oath before him.

So, he expressed his wish in front of the then Governor of Tamil Nadu and informed him that he would like to be administered the oath by him. After not getting any answer, he sent a telegram asking him to fix a date for the oath.

However, he later sent his oath in the form prescribed in Schedule III duly signed by him to the Governor. He referred to Article 188 and said that it was the Constitutional duty of the Governor to administer the oath.

He also filed a writ petition before the Madras High Court and asked for the declaration that he has followed the constitutional requirement of taking oath before assuming office.

The court allowed his case and he entered the legislative council successfully.

Therefore, the same could have happened if the Kerala Governor would have refused to administer the oath and a governor cannot refused to administer the oath as it his constitutional duty.


For great road safety, India needs a change in mindset

Source– The post is based on the article “For great road safety, India needs a change in mindset” published in The Indian Express on 4th January 2023.

Syllabus: GS2- Government policies and interventions

News– The article explains the issue of road safety in India.

What are the reasons behind increasing road accidents in India?

Human error on the roads is the single-largest factor responsible. There are frequent violations of lane driving, speed limits and traffic signals and at-will parking on highways.

There is administrative and political apathy toward road safety. Road users are lacking the understanding of the basic traffic rules and road signage.

There is easier access to driving licences without a meaningful ground scrutiny of skills.

In case of a serious road crash, charges are framed against the erring drivers. They are not framed against the road-safety public officials for non-performance.

At the macro level, various institutions of road safety are engaged in routine paperwork and lack accountability.

What is the way forward for road safety in India?

The enforcement of traffic norms is the key to road safety. The priority goal should be to significantly reduce the rising number of road crashes.

There is a need for regular and professional enforcement of rules. Swift and innovative solutions by the administration could help in evolving a healthy safe-road culture.

A new Motor Vehicles Act is required. Along with it, decentralised federal structure and the Supreme Court committee on road safety and its regular monitoring of the related issues is key to road safety. A specific regime whereby road safety authorities are given clear targets for reducing road crashes over a defined period should be priority.

Parts of major roads and highways should be set up as “ideal” road safety zones. These zones will promote locally suitable, comprehensive safe road practices.

To begin with, identify the two worst roads in a specific area:

  • Notify each identified road as a Zone of Excellence in road safety
  • Provide road written instructions on road-surface and road signage
  • Take care to provide lanes for emergency vehicles, cyclists, pedestrians etc, as feasible
  • Ensure adherence to basic traffic rules. Create multiple checkpoints every 2-4 kms. Each checkpoint should be supported by road safety volunteers in addition to police
  • Use tech aids, judiciously combined with manual interventions and volunteers
  • Supplement enforcement with road safety awareness measures
  • Station ambulances and lift cranes for swift response to accidents
  • Make reliable arrangements with hospitals and trauma centres through formal MoUs

The administrative structure for the implementation of road safety can be set up in three tiers.

Tier 1 would be the Managing Group. It would look after day-to-day operations and would be autonomous and financially empowered. It will have representatives from the police, transport and health sectors, the public works department and public representatives.

Tier 2 would have district level monitoring. It would also ensure adherence to targets.

Tier 3 would have top management and control, represented at the level of the Union or state government. At this level, a dynamic road-safety ecosystem would be developed. Existing road safety institutions would either be dismantled or rejuvenated. There would be monthly reviews, with directions, accountability and disciplinary action.


India@75, Looking@100 – on healthcare sector in India

Source– The post is based on the article “India@75, Looking@100” published in The Indian Express on 4th January 2023.

Syllabus: GS2- Issues related to development and management of health

News– The article explains the problems faced by healthcare sectors and measures needed to improve the provision of healthcare services in India.

What are the issues faced by the healthcare sector in India?

There is a shortage of manpower in the healthcare sector. Multiple roles are assigned to staff.

There is a lack of facilities for specialised treatment in our hospitals.

What is the way forward for providing better healthcare services in India?

Timely recruitment and appointment of medical and paramedical staff is needed.

Nursing school education & information may quickly become outdated because the healthcare field is constantly changing and progressing. Adequate and appropriate training of medical and paramedical staff is critical.

There is a need for enough officers to conduct training sessions. A thorough review of the process is necessary so as to ensure that our trainees receive the best education.

Our focus, for the next 25 years, should be on preventative healthcare. These measures should be introduced in schools at early ages and in community spaces across the country.

A greater focus on immunisation and sensitisation campaigns would ensure better healthcare for the population.


It is crucial for India to embrace multi-domain operations

Source– The post is based on the article “It is crucial for India to embrace multi-domain operations” published in The Hindu on 4th January 2023.

Syllabus: GS2- Security

News–  The article explains the concept of multi-domain operations and its relevance for India. It also explains the steps needed to embrace the concept of MDO.

What is the concept of Multi Domain Operations?

It is not just actions on land, in sea, air, cyber, space and in the electromagnetic spectrum. It comprises operations conducted across multiple domains and contested spaces.

It needs convergence of capabilities to overcome an adversary’s strengths. This means having a common operating picture across all domains which forms the basis of any decision.

It is the best positioned and capable operator of any service using its capabilities across any domain. Thus, an Army coastal missile battery could be tasked to strike an enemy naval vessel detected by the radar of an Air Force aircraft.

What are the requirements for MDO?

It requires the technical complexity and the command, control and communication (C3) structure.

It would have inputs from all sensors for optimum engagement solution using artificial intelligence.

This demands three things. First, all sensors must be capable of being hosted on the MDO architecture.

Second, all executors must be able to receive inputs and instructions from the C3 structure and carry them out.

Third, if the link to the main structure is not available, the distributed control of mission command should ensure that operations continue.

Should India embrace the concept of MDO?

This is a complicated process. It requires pioneering technologies. Only nations with a developed scientific base and financial standing can afford it. It would require a complete relook at doctrine, planning, acquisition, staffing and training.

But, China is attempting to match U.S. military power. It has technologies and finances for Multi Domain Operations. India should acquire this capability for deterring China

Russia-Ukraine conflict has shown the utility of MDO. The West is helping Ukrainians to utilise the power of MDO to  to strike Russian targets.

What is the way forward to embrace the concept of MDO?

A four-pronged strategy is suggested. First, in the short-term, traditional physical domains must be stabilised. The critical deficiencies of the services should be plugged.

Second, Command, Control and Communication networks need to be protected against cyber threats. They need to be linked and synchronised so that seamless exchange of data is ensured.

Third, for the long term, a pilot project must be started now so that challenges in the creation of an MDO environment can be understood. The pilot project would identify the technologies and financial requirements.

Finally, it is vital to train and educate personnel starting now. There is a need to inculcate critical thinking and problem solving skills at the operational level of war amongst Joint All Domain Specialists.


Restrictions on NGO activities: Beyond civil society – ‘Protectionism’ in social services is impractical

Source: The post is based on the article “Beyond civil society – ‘Protectionism’ in social services is impractical” published in the Business Standard on 4th January 2023.

Syllabus: GS 2 – The role of NGOs, SHGs, various groups and associations, donors, charities, institutional and other stakeholders.

Relevance: About restrictions on NGO activities.

News: Recently, at least two NGOs have received letters from the government to stop their fund-raising. The government also directed states to restrict NGO activities in areas where the Central government assumes primary responsibility.

What are the recent restrictions on NGO activities?

According to the home ministry, 6,677 non-governmental organisations (NGOs) lost their licences to access foreign funding between 2017 and 2021. The government is also restricting access to domestic funding as well.

The Ministry of Women and Child Development’s letter to the states complains about the “false information being spread by NGOs” and asks local administrations to raise awareness about the government’s nutrition schemes.

Why imposing restrictions on NGO activities is not correct?

These strictures are unclear and counter-productive: For instance, serial internal surveys, including the government’s National Family Health Surveys, have flagged child malnourishment as a serious issue. So, it is in the government’s interest to work with reputed NGOs towards improving child nourishment.

Overlapping domains are unavoidable: The government, by its very nature, is active in the delivery of social services such as health and education. So, the operation of NGOs always overlaps with government domains.

Impacts CSR activities: Improving education and tribal welfare is part of the list of activities under corporate social responsibility mandates. Restrictions on NGOs might create confusion about the status of corporate programmes in which they have invested money.

Read more: The evolving role of CSR in funding NGOs
What should be done instead of imposing restrictions on NGO activities?

Lessons from Bangladesh: Bangladesh is significantly improving its human development indicators in cooperation with NGOs. So, India should co-work with NGOs.

So, enforcing protectionism in social services in a country like India cannot be considered a sound policy.

GS Paper 3


Science Congress: an appraisal

Source: The post is based on an article “Science Congress: an appraisalpublished in The Indian Express on 4th January 2023.

Syllabus: GS 3 – Science and Technology

Relevance: issues associated with the ISC and measured needed to bring reforms.

News: The Indian Science Congress is conducting its 108th edition in Nagpur after a two-year gap due to the pandemic. The event was inaugurated by PM Modi.

What are the excerpts of the PM’s speech?

He highlighted harnessing scientific knowledge for societal needs and making India self-reliant.

He said that scientific works should be such which will fulfill the needs of India and have effects on the entire humanity. Therefore, we should work on such issues which are important for the entire humanity. 

He also mentioned other priority areas like disease control, management of natural disasters, space applications, waste management, new materials, and semiconductor research.

What is the Indian Science Congress?

The Indian Science Congress was started in 1914. It brings together scientists and researchers from the premier institutions, laboratories, science teachers and professors from colleges and universities.

It offers a platform for their interaction with students and the general public on matters related to science.

It is organized by the Indian Science Congress Association (ISCA), an independent body functioning with the support of the Department of Science and Technology (DST) in the central government.

However, the purpose of organizing the Indian Science Congress is not being served these days and there have been lots of criticism of it.

What are the reasons behind the criticism and the decline of ISC?

There has been a lack of serious discussion, promotion of pseudoscience, weird claims by random speakers, and the absence of useful outcomes.

Scientists, leading scientific institutions and laboratories and others have started to avoid the event.

The attendees from colleges and universities have limited scientific knowledge and papers presented by them hardly reflect the latest advancements in science.

Some scientists have asked for the discontinuation of the event or at least withdrawal of government support. There have been talks of reforms but nothing has happened.

Why has the government not been successful in bringing reforms in ISC?

The government provides an annual grant for organizing the ISC. Government agencies, like the Science and Education Research Board, also make financial contributions because the event is seen as an effort to promote science.

Further, the government has no role to play in the selection of the panelists or speakers, the papers to be presented, or the subjects to be discussed.

But due to the grants provided by the government and presence of the PM, the event gets attached with the government and lands in a controversy.

The government is then blamed for it and also have fear of being blamed as anti-science if reforms are brought.

What can be done to bring reforms in the ISC?

Scientists say that a better way to reform the Science Congress could be to develop an alternative forum.

Top Indian and global scientists could be invited in the forum to talk about the latest developments in the science. These kinds of forums are already being organised in many countries and are extremely popular.

The forum can also serve as platforms to spread scientific knowledge among youngsters, general public and help in developing scientific temper.

It could also help in making Indian science more competitive, and lead to an increase in collaborative research with leading scientific groups and institutions.


Preventing animal cruelty is a duty of the state

Source– The post is based on the article “Preventing animal cruelty is a duty of the state” published in The Hindu on 4th January 2023.

Syllabus: GS3- Conservation. GS2- Significant provisions of constitution

News– The article explains the issue of legality of jallikattu sport in Tamil Nadu. It also explains the issue of animal welfare.

A Constitution Bench of the Supreme Court of India will deliver its verdict on the validity of Tamil Nadu’s law permitting the practice of jallikattu in the State.

In 2014, in Animal Welfare Board of India v. A. Nagaraja, a two-judge Bench of the Supreme Court declared jallikattu illegitimate. Since then, Tamil Nadu has made efforts to resurrect the sport’s legality.

What are the deficiencies in constitution and legislative structure for addressing the question of animal welfare?

None of the fundamental rights contained in Part III of the Constitution are explicitly conferred on animals. Article 14 and Article 21 are bestowed on persons.

Some of the DPSPs and the Fundamental Duties put responsibility on the state and on human beings to protect and improve the natural environment. But these are unenforceable obligations.

Legislation on animal welfare does not follow an animal rights approach. These are based on the ethical belief that collective conscience does not permit us to inflict unnecessary pain and suffering on animals. This approach was followed while enacting the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals Act.

The PCA Act has shortcomings. While it criminalises several types of actions that cause cruelty to animals, it contains exemptions. For example, the use of animals for experiments with a view to securing medical advancement.

Tamil Nadu amended the PCA Act in 2017 on the basis that both the state and the Union government have the power to legislate on issues concerning cruelty to animals. It specifically excluded jallikattu from the confines of the statute’s various protections. It also secured the President’s approval for the law.

What are the arguments by petitioners against jalikattu in the Supreme Court?

Judicial review of legislation can broadly be made on two grounds. One, the competence of the legislature to enact the law. Second, the violations of fundamental rights contained in Part III of the Constitution.

Both the Union and the State legislatures have equal power to make laws on ‘prevention of animal cruelty’. But the law regulating jallikattu by the Tamil Nadu government gives consent to cruelty on animals. Hence, it must be seen as a colourable exercise of power.

The Supreme Court arrived at clear findings of fact and law in 2014. In A. Nagaraja, the court had held that jallikatu amounted to a violation of the existing provisions of the PCA Act, and the fundamental duty contained in Article 51A(g).

The Bench said that it had a direct bearing on the right to life contained in Article 21. The expanded meaning of the word “life” now includes a right against disturbance to the basic environment.

What should be the approach towards this issue?

On any reasonable reading of the Constitution, it might be difficult to hold that animals are promised rights under Article 21 and under Article 14.

The better approach to the dispute is to maintain a greater faith in our Constitution’s text and values. It needs to be seen in the context of our own right to live in a world that treats animals with equal concern.

The judgement in A. Nagaraja hinted at this approach.  It held that Article 21 safeguards only the rights of human beings. But the word “life” today means something more than mere existence. It means an existence that allows us to live in a clean and healthy environment.


The jobs & technology trade-off

Source: The post is based on the article “The jobs & technology trade-off” published in the Business Standard on 4th January 2023.

Syllabus: GS 3 – Employment.

Relevance: About job-displacing technology.

News: The negative impact of technological progress on jobs is often ignored. With India’s G20 presidency, India is expected to bring a human-centric approach to technology.

How has technological progress impacted the job market worldwide?

Since the 1990s in the US and Europe, labour has been continuously replaced by capital due to huge advances in technology, such as the internet and digital technology.

The pace of technology has accelerated, and the vast mass of workers cannot adjust to the new realities at that speed. Labour-replacing technologies are getting better and better every year. So, every country will face a job crisis in the near future.

On the other hand, technological improvements reduce the need for skills at the bottom end of the job market. For instance, deadbeat jobs will expand in sectors such as logistics, food and grocery delivery, retail and warehousing, and cab-hailing services.

How has India’s job market impacted technological progress?

In India, the employment elasticity of growth is probably between 0.1 and 0.2 now, which means even if we grow gross domestic product at 10%, jobs will grow just by 1-2%.

The Centre for Monitoring Indian Economy produces a four-monthly estimate of employment and unemployment the employment figure has stayed stuck in the 395-405 million range.

Read more: The Great Jobs Hunt – Too few Indians are seeking work and mostly among those working quality of employment isn’t great
Why India is more vulnerable to technological progress associated with job loss?

a) India has a lower level of per capita income than the rich world, b) India’s labour market will continue to expand for another 20 years. So, job loss will be more in India, c) Rich nations finance welfare with higher taxation, d) India did not conduct factor markets (labour and land) in 1991, e) Reskill and upskilling the citizens is impossible to do so for a working age population of 900 million.

Read more: India’s big problem of low-quality employment
What can be done to reverse job-displacing technologies?

Direct tech innovation towards job-enhancing sectors and disincentivising job-replacing ones: For this to happen a global consensus is required. This is because, a) In an interconnected world, it is not possible for any one country to decide on an automation policy on its own, b) Each country will try to frame a policy for its advantage. For example, China might advocate for job displacement technology due to its own ageing population, c) Jobs crisis is global in nature.

So, India should under its G20 presidency at least launch a study on how technology impacts jobs. Without a deeper understanding of job-displacing technology, the world can never get our arms around the problem.


High Growth … But Do More – India’s humming economy isn’t yet helping much of its low-income citizens, who need the education deficit bridged and policies that promote job-creation

Source: The post is based on the article “High Growth … But Do More” published in The Times of India on 4th January 2023.

Syllabus: GS 3 – Indian Economy and issues relating to planning, mobilization, of resources, growth, development and employment.

Relevance: About the status of the Indian economy.

News: Lower-middle-class households are on their edge because of the pre-pandemic economic slowdown. Now, they have been forced by the pandemic to sell their property and borrow for consumption.

What do the various data show on the status of the Indian economy?
Data on buying

Data from SIAM shows that domestic two-wheeler sales, bought by lower-middle-class, have fallen by 36% since 2018-19 and are now back at 2012-13 levels.

The sale of domestic passenger cars, typically bought by upper-middle-class households, fell only by 9% over the same period. And luxury car maker, Mercedes Benz, reported a 64% increase in sales in the first nine months of 2022 over 2021, and expects to match or surpass its 2018-19 sales record.

Overall, the lower the income of the household, the more severe the demand.

Data on borrowing

RBI’s monthly bulletin indicates that commercial bank loans against gold jewellery increased by a huge 218% between February 2019 and August 2022.

This suggests that households across the board were borrowing to support consumption.

Data on selling

According to the National Family Health Survey, average land holdings were 22% lower in the latest round (2019-21) compared to the 2015-16 round.

This suggests that the poorest landowners seem to be engaged in substantial distress sales in recent years.

Read more: External risk factors for the Indian economy: Global storm: Overseas risk is main policy challenge
Other stress indicators of the economy

Labour market: Labour share in agriculture has increased over the last few years, in contrast to the steadily shrinking share before that. The demand for “last resort” MGNREGA jobs has increased from 1. 64 crores in 2015 to 3. 07 crores in 2022

This shows India is not creating enough jobs in manufacturing and services.

Corporate balance sheet: Large corporations have cleaned up their balance sheets, as have banks.

What are the opportunities for reviving the Indian economy?

a) As global supply chains look for alternative suppliers outside China, India could benefit, b) Indian services exports may grow significantly as new technologies to provide services have emerged, and c) Government infrastructure spending is good. But it can be enhanced further.

Read more: Post-pandemic surprises and where the indian economy truly stands today 
How India can revive the Indian economy?

Limit the long-term consequences of the damage: This can be done by ensuring children in government schools have access to remedial tutoring so that they can make up for learning losses.

Implement reforms on the business environment and tariffs: This can ensure investment pick up in both foreign and domestic to create jobs. Only with more high-quality jobs, India can restore health to the lower-middle class, without which India cannot achieve our collective dream of prosperity.


Prelims Oriented Articles (Factly)

Asian Pacific Postal Union(APPU): India takes over leadership of the Asian Pacific Postal Union

Source: The post is based on the articleIndia takes over leadership of the Asian Pacific Postal Union published in PIB on 3rd January 2023

What is the News?

India has taken over the leadership of the Asian Pacific Postal Union(APPU).

What is the Asian Pacific Postal Union(APPU)?

Asian Pacific Postal Union(APPU) is an intergovernmental organization of 32 member countries of the Asian-Pacific region. 

It is the only Restricted Union of the Universal Postal Union(UPU) in the region, which is a specialized agency of the United Nations. 

Purpose: The goal of APPU is to extend, facilitate and improve postal relations between member countries and to promote cooperation in the field of postal services.

Training Institute: APPU also runs the Asian-Pacific Postal College(APPC) supporting the training and development of member states postal staff. It is the largest intergovernmental postal training institute in the region.

Headquarters: Bangkok, Thailand.


In a first, woman officer gets operationally deployed at the forbidding Siachen GlacierIn a first, woman officer gets operationally deployed at the forbidding Siachen Glacier

Source: The post is based on the article “In a first, woman officer gets operationally deployed at the forbidding Siachen Glacier” published in TOI on 3rd January 2023

What is the News?

Captain Shiva Chauhan has become the first woman army officer to get operationally deployed on the Siachen Glacier, the world’s highest battlefield.

In another major development, 244 women officers from “combat support arms” in the Army will be considered for the rank of Colonel (selection grade) for the first time in a special promotion board.

What has been the scenario of women’s participation in India’s Armed forces?

Historical Background: The first time women joined the Indian Armed Forces was back in 1888 when the Indian Military Nursing Service was created. 

– Netaji Subhas Chandra Bose’s Azad Hind Fauj,  had an exclusive women’s combat regiment named Rani of Jhansi Regiment. This regiment fought on the battlefront against the Imperial Japanese Army in erstwhile Burma.

Women in the Armed Forces: Indian Army, Air Force and Navy began inducting women as short-service commission (SSC) officers in 1992. This was the first time when women were allowed to join the military outside the medical stream. 

One of the turning points for women in the military came in 2015 when the Indian Air Force decided to induct them into the fighter stream. 

In 2020, the Supreme Court(SC) ordered the central government to grant permanent commission (PC) to women officers in the Army’s non-combat support units on par with their male counterparts. 

In March 2021, the Indian Navy deployed four women officers on warships after a gap of 23 years. 

Two months later in May 2021, the Indian Army got its first batch of 83 women soldiers, in the Corps of Military Police. However, women are still not allowed in combat arms like Infantry and Armored Corps.

Increase in the representation of women in the armed forces: The number of women in the Indian armed forces has increased almost threefold over the last few years.

According to Government data, the Indian Navy has the highest number of women in its workforce among the three services at 6.5%. 

And, the percentage of women in the Army and the Indian Air Force is 0.56% and 1.08% respectively.


Year-End Review -2022: Department of Space

Source: The post is based on the articleYear-End Review -2022: Department of Spacepublished in PIB on 3rd January 2023

What is the News?

The Department of Space has launched several initiatives and schemes in 2022.

What are the schemes and initiatives launched by the Department of Space in 2022?

Key missions: Altogether 44 spacecraft missions, 42 launch vehicle missions and 5 technology demonstrators, have been successfully realized, since 2014 till date.

In 2017, PSLV C-37 created a world record by successfully placing 104 satellites in orbit during a single launch.

India’s second mission to the Moon, Chandrayaan-2 was successfully launched in 2019 on-board GSLV Mk III-M1.

LVM3 (GSLV MkIII) M2/OneWeb India-1 Mission was successfully accomplished in 2022. With this launch, LVM3 exemplifies Atmanirbharata and enhances India’s competitive edge in the global commercial launch service market.

ISRO successfully demonstrated new technology with Inflatable Aerodynamic Decelerator (IAD) – a game changer with multiple applications for future missions.

Academic support, Capacity building and Outreach

UNNATI (UNispace Nanosatellite Assembly & Training by ISRO)

Young Scientist Programme or YUva VIgyani KAryakram(YUVIKA)

SpaceTech Innovation Network(SpIN)

Space Technology Incubational Centres (STIC): In order to boost space research activities, STIC has been established at some of the key locations of the country since 2018.

Under this initiative, currently, around nine Space Technology Cells (STC), Six STIC and Six Regional Academic Centre for Space (RACS) are operational.

Reforms and enhanced participation of industries

NewSpace India Limited (NSIL) 

Indian National Space Promotion and Authorisation Centre (IN-SPACe) 

Vikram-S (Prarambh mission)

Agnikul Cosmos inaugurated India’s first private space vehicle launchpad at the Satish Dhawan Space Centre(SDSC) in Sriharikota.

GSAT-24 

Disaster Management

Monitoring flood inundation, generation of flood hazard zonation atlases of flood-prone states, developing flood early warning models, multiple daily detections & dissemination of active forest fires, forecasting cyclone track; intensity & landfall, damage assessment due to earthquakes and landslides, etc. were carried out.


India said to aim for $17 bln cut in food, fertiliser subsidies in FY24

Source: The post is based on the article “India said to aim for $17 bln cut in food, fertiliser subsidies in FY24” published in The Hindu on 3rd January 2023

What is the News?

The Government of India has planned to reduce food and fertilizer subsidies in this fiscal year starting April 2023.

About India’s Food and Fertilizer subsidies

Food and fertilizer subsidies alone account for about one-eighth of India’s total budget.

The government is planning to reduce these subsidies. It expects to budget about ₹2.3 trillion for food subsidies in the coming fiscal year compared with ₹2.7 trillion for the current year.

A large part of the food subsidies savings will come from the end of a COVID-19-era free food scheme which will be replaced with a lower-spending programme. That will effectively halve the free rations available to the poor in a year.

Similarly, spending on fertilizer subsidies will also likely be reduced to about ₹1.4 trillion compared with almost ₹2.3 trillion this year.

The reduction in fertilizer subsidies is driven by expectations of lower crude oil prices and the government’s revised gas procurement policy for fertilizer companies.

What will be the impact of this decision?

This will help the government reduce its fiscal deficit which is targeted at 6.4% of GDP for the current fiscal year.

This is far above the average of 4% to 4.5% over the past decade excluding the pandemic years when spending surged and the ratio peaked at 9.3%.


Year-End Review -2022: Department of Atomic Energy

Source: The post is based on the articleYear-End Review -2022: Department of Atomic Energypublished in PIB on 3rd January 2023

What is the News?

The Department of Atomic Energy has launched several initiatives and schemes in 2022.

What are the schemes and initiatives launched by the Department of Atomic Energy in 2022?

Apsara-upgraded or Apsara-U: It is an indigenously developed pool-type research reactor, operationalised at Bhabha Atomic Research Centre (BARC), Mumbai.

– The reactor is named after the first research reactor of Asia, the original Apsara, commissioned at Trombay in 1956. 

– The facility is being used for enhanced production of radioisotopes for applications in the field of Medicine, Industry and Agriculture.

National Cancer Grid

Vishwam Cancer Care Connect

Bhabha Kavach 

BARC’s NISARGRUNA Biogas plant Based on Biodegradable waste resource: This plant can process biodegradable waste such as kitchen waste, paper, grass, gobar and dry leaves. 

– It offers “Zero garbage and Zero effluent“ and provides high-quality manure and methane gas. Weed Free manure obtained from such waste has high nitrogen contents and acts as an excellent soil conditioner. 

– This plant could be set up for eco-friendly disposal of wet waste generated in kitchens /canteens of big Hospitals/Hotels/Factories/residential complexes and can avoid health hazards due to dump sites.

Multi-Effect Distillation (MED): It is a thermal desalination technology developed by BARC. It produces distilled quality water directly from seawater by using low/medium pressure steam and electricity. 


129th birth anniversary of Satyendra Nath Bose: a look at the scientist’s contributions

Source: The post is based on the article “129th birth anniversary of Satyendra Nath Bose: a look at the scientist’s contributions” published in Indian Express on 3rd January 2023

What is the News?

The 129th birth anniversary of Satyendra Nath Bose was celebrated recently.

Who was Satyendra Nath Bose?

Satyendra Nath Bose was born on January 1, 1894. He was a mathematician and physicist specializing in theoretical physics. 

Contributions

Bose Einstein Statistics: At the age of 22, Bose was appointed lecturer at Calcutta University, along with astrophysicist Meghnad Saha. 

In 1921, he joined the then-Dacca University as Reader in Physics. It was here while teaching that he documented his findings in a report called Planck’s Law and the Hypothesis of Light Quanta. 

Even though his research was rejected by a journal, he decided to mail his paper to Albert Einstein.

Einstein recognised the significance of Bose’s theory and generalised it to a wider range of phenomena, and the theory came to be known as Bose-Einstein statistics.

X-ray crystallography laboratory: In 1927, Bose was appointed professor of physics and then Head of Department at Dhaka University in 1927. 

Here, Bose designed equipment for setting up an X-ray crystallography laboratory at the university, and wrote several papers on a range of subjects, such as ‘D2 Statistics’, and ‘Total Reflection of Electromagnetic Waves in the Ionosphere’.

In 1945, he left Dhaka to return to his alma mater, the University of Calcutta as the Khaira Professor of Physics. He retired from the University of Calcutta in 1956 and spent a year as the Vice Chancellor at the Viswa-Bharati University.

Headed many institutions: He served as president of many scientific institutions, which include the Indian Physical Society, the National Institute of Science, the Indian Science Congress and the Indian Statistical Institute.

He also acted as an advisor to the Council of Scientific and Industrial Research(CSIR) and later became a Fellow of the Royal Society.

Recognition of his contributions: Bose was awarded Padma Vibhushan, one of the highest civilian awards in the country, by the Indian government in 1954.


Indian Rhinos: For first time in many years, no rhinos poached in Assam in 2022

Source: The post is based on the article “For first time in many years, no rhinos poached in Assam in 2022” published in Indian Express on 3rd January 2023

What is the News?

Assam Chief Minister has announced that no Indian rhinos were poached in the state in 2022.

What are Indian Rhinos?

The Indian rhinoceros (Rhinoceros unicornis) also called the Indian rhino, greater one-horned rhinoceros or great Indian rhinoceros is a rhinoceros species native to the Indian subcontinent.

Characteristics: It has a single black horn that can grow up to 60 cm, and a tough, grey-brown hide with skin folds, which gives the animal its characteristic armour-plated look.

IUCN Status: Vulnerable

Found in: It is found only in the Brahmaputra valley, parts of North Bengal and parts of southern Nepal. 

Population: According to the World Wide Fund (WWF), there are around 3,700 Indian rhinos in the wild. Assam’s Kaziranga National Park (KNP) alone has 2,613 animals. There are more than 250 other rhinos in the Orang, Pobitora and Manas parks.

Rhino Poaching: Rhinos have been poached for their horn which is prized in some cultures. An Assam Forest Department release in 2021 said ground rhino horn is used in traditional Chinese medicine to cure a range of ailments, from cancer to hangovers and also as an aphrodisiac. In Vietnam, a rhino horn is considered a status symbol.

Initiatives to prevent rhino poaching: In 2019, the Assam government constituted a Special Rhino Protection Force to keep a check on rhino poaching and related activities at Kaziranga National Park (KNP). 

– On September 22, World Rhino Day, in 2021, almost 2,500 rhino horns were burnt publicly in KNP to bust myths about rhino horns and to send a loud and clear message to the poachers and smugglers that such items have no value.


In light of the Russia-Ukraine war, an opportunity to modernise India’s defence industry

Source– The post is based on the article “In light of the Russia-Ukraine war, an opportunity to modernise India’s defence industry” published in The Indian Express on 8th February 2023. Syllabus: GS2- International Relations Relevance– Changing geopolitics and defence ecosystem News– New global defence engagements are emerging with the Ukraine war. It opens the possibility… Continue reading In light of the Russia-Ukraine war, an opportunity to modernise India’s defence industry

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Neglecting the health sector has consequences

Source– The post is based on the article “Neglecting the health sector has consequences” published in The Hindu on 8th February 2023. Syllabus: GS2- Issues relating to development and management of health and education Relevance– Social sector News– The allocations in the Budget for health, education and nutrition has remained stagnant. What is the importance… Continue reading Neglecting the health sector has consequences

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Private sector has not responded to government initiatives so far

Source– The post is based on the article “Private sector has not responded to government initiatives so far” published in The Indian Express on 8th February 2023. Syllabus: GS3- Indian economy Relevance– Changing structure of economy News– Despite record profits of the larger firms and the increase in capital spending by the public sector, a… Continue reading Private sector has not responded to government initiatives so far

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Yuva Sangam registration portal launched

Source: The post is based on the article “Yuva Sangam registration portal launched” published in PIB on 7th February 2023. What is the News? The Union Minister of Education has launched the “Yuva Sangam” portal. What is Yuva Sangam? It is an initiative of the Prime Minister of India. Aim: To build close ties between… Continue reading Yuva Sangam registration portal launched

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No Bar of Res-judicata on Second Petition for Divorce If It Is Founded on New Facts: Madras HC

Source: The post is based on the article “No Bar of Res-judicata on Second Petition for Divorce If It Is Founded on New Facts: Madras HC” published in News18 on 7th February 2023. What is the News? Madras High Court has recently dismissed a civil revision petition filed by a woman against an order of… Continue reading No Bar of Res-judicata on Second Petition for Divorce If It Is Founded on New Facts: Madras HC

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Stone-age carvings found in Aravalis in Gurugram

Source: The post is based on the article “Stone-age carvings found in Aravalis in Gurugram” published in TOI on 7th February 2023. What is the News? Various Paleolithic paintings found in the Aravalli hills and the latest discovery of stone carvings in the Badshahpur area of Gurugram has widened the trove of history in the… Continue reading Stone-age carvings found in Aravalis in Gurugram

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NCAER Report on Farm Machinery Industry in India presented to MoS (Agriculture) Ms. Shobha Karandlaje

Source: The post is based on the article “NCAER Report on Farm Machinery Industry in India presented to MoS (Agriculture) Ms. Shobha Karandlaje” published in PIB on 7th February 2023. What is the News? National Council of Applied Economic Research(NCAER) has released a report titled “Making India a Global Power House on Farm Machinery Industry”.… Continue reading NCAER Report on Farm Machinery Industry in India presented to MoS (Agriculture) Ms. Shobha Karandlaje

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Row over Nagaland DGP: How are state police chiefs appointed?

Source: The post is based on the article “Row over Nagaland DGP: How are state police chiefs appointed?” published in Indian Express on 7th February 2023. What is the News? The Nagaland government has issued an order appointing Rupin Sharma as Director General of the state police. The order was passed after Nagaland challenged the… Continue reading Row over Nagaland DGP: How are state police chiefs appointed?

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Department of Animal Husbandry implements various schemes to promote and develop animal husbandry and dairying sector across the country

Source: The post is based on the article “Department of Animal Husbandry implements various schemes to promote and develop animal husbandry and dairying sector across the country” published in PIB on 7th February 2023. What is the News? The Department of Animal Husbandry and Dairying is implementing various schemes to supplement the efforts of States/UTs… Continue reading Department of Animal Husbandry implements various schemes to promote and develop animal husbandry and dairying sector across the country

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Dhamaal: The incredible story of how East African culture shaped the music of a state in India

Source: The post is based on the article “Dhamaal: The incredible story of how East African culture shaped the music of a state in India” published in Down To Earth on 7th February 2023. What is the News? The story of Dhamaal performance traditions by Siddis reveals the rich and complex mixing of cultures in… Continue reading Dhamaal: The incredible story of how East African culture shaped the music of a state in India

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Why railways around the world are ditching diesel for hydrogen

Source: The post is based on the article “Why railways around the world are ditching diesel for hydrogen” published in TOI on 7th February 2023. What is the News? Indian Railways has planned to operate 35 hydrogen-powered trains on various heritage and hilly routes in India under its ‘Hydrogen for Heritage’ Project. What is Hydrogen… Continue reading Why railways around the world are ditching diesel for hydrogen

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CAR T-cell therapy: the next step towards a holistic treatment of cancer

Source: The post is based on the article “CAR T-cell therapy: the next step towards a holistic treatment of cancer” published in Indian Express on 7th February 2023. What is the News? The three major forms of treatment for any cancer are surgery (removing the cancer), radiotherapy (delivering ionising radiation to the tumour), and systemic… Continue reading CAR T-cell therapy: the next step towards a holistic treatment of cancer

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What has the Union Budget allocated to minorities?

Source: The post is based on the article “What has the Union Budget allocated to minorities?” published in The Hindu on 8th February 2023. What is the News? The Union Budget for 2023-24 came with a reduction of 38% in funds for the Ministry of Minority Affairs. Which schemes might be impacted due to the… Continue reading What has the Union Budget allocated to minorities?

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Signs of a weakening public sector

Source: The post is based on the article “Signs of a weakening public sector” published in the Business Standard on 8th February 2023. Syllabus: GS 3 – Government Budgeting. Relevance: About fiscal relations between the Centre and states and PSUs. News: The Budget reveals the nature of the Centre’s financial engagement with public sector undertakings… Continue reading Signs of a weakening public sector

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Make In IndAIa – As Google comes up with a ChatGPT rival & AI becomes ubiquitous, here’s what GoI must do

Source: The post is based on the article “Make In IndAIa – As Google comes up with a ChatGPT rival & AI becomes ubiquitous, here’s what GoI must do” published in The Times of India on 8th February 2023. Syllabus: GS 3 – Awareness in the fields of IT. Relevance: About AI research. News: Recently,… Continue reading Make In IndAIa – As Google comes up with a ChatGPT rival & AI becomes ubiquitous, here’s what GoI must do

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A quick reset – India and Canada are looking at the big picture as they put behind discord

Source: The post is based on the article “A quick reset – India and Canada are looking at the big picture as they put behind discord” published in The Hindu on 8th February 2023. Syllabus: GS 2 – Bilateral, regional and global groupings and agreements involving India and/or affecting India’s interests. Relevance: About bilateral ties… Continue reading A quick reset – India and Canada are looking at the big picture as they put behind discord

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Hydroelectric Projects in India: Status, Benefits and Concerns – Explained, pointwise

For 7PM Editorial Archives click HERE → Introduction The Joshimath crisis in Uttarakhand has led to large scale displacement of the local population. The Government has halted all construction activity in the region. The reason for the crisis is being attributed to development projects being undertaken in the region. This has brought attention to the large-scale hydroelectric projects… Continue reading Hydroelectric Projects in India: Status, Benefits and Concerns – Explained, pointwise

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[UPSC Interview 2022] – Transcript #39 : Lt. Gen. Raj Shukla Board, PSIR Optional, Tamil Nadu Home State

Board: Lt. Gen. Raj Shukla (Retd.) Optional: PSIR Background: Civil Engg Home State: Tamil Nadu 4th interview No questions from the hobbies/interests To view all IAS Interview Transcripts 2022, visit this page Chairman Which place are you from? Why psir after graduation in engg? Have you gained interest in IR? There’s a diplomat called George Schultz.… Continue reading [UPSC Interview 2022] – Transcript #39 : Lt. Gen. Raj Shukla Board, PSIR Optional, Tamil Nadu Home State

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[UPSC Interview 2022] – Transcript #38 : RN Choubey Board, Geography Optional, watching Japanese anime, Running Hobbies

Date of Interview: 3rd Feb afternoon 5th to go Board: RN Choubey Background: Physics, Optional: Geography Hobbies: watching Japanese anime, Running Sports: chess, and hockey Extremely cordial board (well what can you expect from Choubey sir’s board) JUST RANDOM THINGS, JUST 2-3 QUESTIONS FROM DAF CANT SAY HOW TO JUDGE Wished everyone – Good afternoon… Continue reading [UPSC Interview 2022] – Transcript #38 : RN Choubey Board, Geography Optional, watching Japanese anime, Running Hobbies

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[UPSC Interview 2022] – Transcript #37 : RN Choubey Board, Philosophy Optional, Bihar Home State, Vipassna, Guitar Hobbies

Date of Interview: 2nd Feb Afternoon Board: RN Choubey Background: BSc Physics Optional: Philosophy Home State: Bihar 3rd attempt , 1st Interview Hobbies: Vipassna, Guitar, reading self-improvement books Extremely cordial board … First minute was briefing and then given choice to remove the mask To view all IAS Interview Transcripts 2022, visit this page Chairman… Continue reading [UPSC Interview 2022] – Transcript #37 : RN Choubey Board, Philosophy Optional, Bihar Home State, Vipassna, Guitar Hobbies

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Must Read Current Affairs Articles – February 8th, 2023

About Must Read News Articles: Must Read News Articles is an initiative by Team ForumIAS to provide links to the most important news articles of the day. It covers The Hindu newspaper. This saves the time and effort of students in identifying useful and important articles. With newspaper websites requiring a paid subscription beyond a certain… Continue reading Must Read Current Affairs Articles – February 8th, 2023

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Jammu, village defence and governance

Source– The post is based on the article “Jammu, village defence and governance” published in The Hindu on 7th February 2023. Syllabus: GS3- Security Relevance– Security situation in Jammu and Kashmir News– There is a rise in terror-related strikes in the relatively peaceful Jammu division, especially in the border districts. Recently, the government decided to… Continue reading Jammu, village defence and governance

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The freedom of speech and an ‘adolescent India’

Source– The post is based on the article “The freedom of speech and an ‘adolescent India’” published in The Hindu on 7th February 2023. Syllabus: GS2- Significant provisions of constitution Relevance– Right to freedom in India News– The article explains the notions of freedom of speech in India and the west. It also explains the… Continue reading The freedom of speech and an ‘adolescent India’

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CEO NITI Aayog Param Iyer on Budget 2023-24: An infrastructure push for the people

Source– The post is based on the article “CEO NITI Aayog Param Iyer on Budget 2023-24: An infrastructure push for the people” published in The Indian Express on 7th February 2023. Syllabus: GS2-Budgeting Relevance: Infrastructure creation News- The article explains how Budget 2023 gives a powerful thrust to infrastructure development . What are the announcements… Continue reading CEO NITI Aayog Param Iyer on Budget 2023-24: An infrastructure push for the people

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Budget 2023-24 ignores rural distress, tries to fix demand problem with supply interventions

Source– The post is based on the article “Budget 2023-24 ignores rural distress, tries to fix demand problem with supply interventions” published in The Indian Express on 7th February 2023. Syllabus: GS2- Budgeting Relevance:Rural development News- The article emphasises the need to prioritise allocations towards reviving consumption demand and  spurring private investment . What are… Continue reading Budget 2023-24 ignores rural distress, tries to fix demand problem with supply interventions

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Instead of criminalising child marriage, Assam CM Himanta Biswa Sarma should heed PM Modi’s call of Beti Bachao Beti Padhao

Source: The post is based on the article “Instead of criminalising child marriage, Assam CM Himanta Biswa Sarma should heed PM Modi’s call of Beti Bachao Beti Padhao” published in The Indian Express on 7th February 2023. Syllabus: GS 2 – Social Justice Relevance: evolution of laws on child marriages in India News: The Assam government has… Continue reading Instead of criminalising child marriage, Assam CM Himanta Biswa Sarma should heed PM Modi’s call of Beti Bachao Beti Padhao

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What will drive global growth?

Source: The post is based on the article “What will drive global growth?” published in Business Standard on 7th February 2023. Syllabus: GS 3 – Growth and Development Relevance: factors responsible for growth in A-10 economies News: The demographic shift in 10 major Asian economies (the A-10: China, India, Indonesia, Japan, the Philippines, Vietnam, Thailand, Korea, Malaysia,… Continue reading What will drive global growth?

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How are earthquakes measured and how massive is the Turkey one?

Source: This post is created based on the article “How are earthquakes measured and how massive is the Turkey one?”, published in Indian Express on 7th Feb, 2023. Syllabus Topic: GS Paper 3, Disaster management News: Recently, an earthquake of magnitude 7.8 struck south-central Turkey and Northwest Syria. Reports have put the number of fatalities… Continue reading How are earthquakes measured and how massive is the Turkey one?

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Ballooning Options To Spy

Source: This post is created based on the article “Ballooning Options To Spy”, published in Times of India on 7th Feb, 2023. Syllabus Topic: GS Paper 3, Science and technology, News: The Chinese airship that was shot down over US soil brought to light new spying technologies, some of which India should work on. Advantages… Continue reading Ballooning Options To Spy

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[UPSC Interview 2022] – Transcript #36 : RN Choubey Board, Agriculture Optional, Tamil Nadu Home State, Hydroponics Hobby

Date of Interview: 03rd Feb Board: RN Choubey Home State: Tamil Nadu Work: Indian Forest Sevice Hobby: Hydroponics Optional: Agriculture To view all IAS Interview Transcripts 2022, visit this page Chairman Tell us about your Work experience. You are already in a good service, why you wanted to appear in the⁸ exam again ? Your… Continue reading [UPSC Interview 2022] – Transcript #36 : RN Choubey Board, Agriculture Optional, Tamil Nadu Home State, Hydroponics Hobby

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Jupiter Now Has The Biggest Family Of Planets With 12 Newly Discovered Moons

Source: The post is based on the article “Jupiter Now Has The Biggest Family Of Planets With 12 Newly Discovered Moons” published in Indian Express on 7th February 2023. What is the News? Jupiter isn’t just the largest and most massive planet in the solar system. It now also has the largest number of moons… Continue reading Jupiter Now Has The Biggest Family Of Planets With 12 Newly Discovered Moons

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India, Canada FMs discuss Indo-Pacific cooperation, trade

Source: The post is based on the article “India, Canada FMs discuss Indo-Pacific cooperation, trade” published in The Hindu on 7th February 2023. What is the News? India’s External Affairs Minister met the Canadian Foreign Minister. They discussed ways to deepen their bilateral partnership and exchanged views on the global situation, particularly in the Indo-Pacific… Continue reading India, Canada FMs discuss Indo-Pacific cooperation, trade

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Why the MCD House elections have been stalled for the third time

Source: The post is based on the article “Why the MCD House elections have been stalled for the third time” published in Indian Express on 7th February 2023. What is the News? The Presiding Officer for the mayoral election in the Municipal Corporation of Delhi (MCD) has said that aldermen — who are nominated members… Continue reading Why the MCD House elections have been stalled for the third time

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ST commission functioning with less than 50% of its approved strength

Source: The post is based on the article “ST commission functioning with less than 50% of its approved strength” published in The Hindu on 7th February 2023. What is the News? Data presented by the Ministry of Tribal Affairs(MoTA) has revealed that the National Commission for Scheduled Tribes(NCST) is currently functioning with less than 50%… Continue reading ST commission functioning with less than 50% of its approved strength

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India joins UAE, France for trilateral on clean energy, counter-pandemic steps

Source: The post is based on the article “India joins UAE, France for trilateral on clean energy, counter-pandemic steps” published in The Hindu on 6th February 2023. What is the News? India, France and the United Arab Emirates(UAE) have announced the creation of a formal trilateral cooperation initiative. The idea of this partnership was first… Continue reading India joins UAE, France for trilateral on clean energy, counter-pandemic steps

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India to send disaster relief teams to quake-hit Turkey

Source: The post is based on the article “India to send disaster relief teams to quake-hit Turkey” published in The Hindu on 7th February 2023. What is the News? The Prime Minister has declared that India will provide all possible assistance to Turkey to deal with the devastating earthquake that hit the country  India will send… Continue reading India to send disaster relief teams to quake-hit Turkey

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UNESCO to soon declare Visva-Bharati world’s first living heritage university

Source: The post is based on the article “UNESCO to soon declare Visva-Bharati world’s first living heritage university” published in Indian Express on 7th February 2023. What is the News? Visva-Bharati University will soon get the ‘heritage’ tag from UNESCO to take the distinction of world’s first living heritage university. What is Visva-Bharati University? Visva-Bharati… Continue reading UNESCO to soon declare Visva-Bharati world’s first living heritage university

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Prime Minister launches E20 Fuel & flags off Green Mobility Rally in Bengaluru

Source: The post is based on the article “Prime Minister launches E20 Fuel & flags off Green Mobility Rally in Bengaluru” published in PIB on 6th February 2023. What is the News? Prime Minister inaugurated India Energy Week (IEW) 2023 in Bengaluru. He launched multiple initiatives in the field of green energy including E20 fuel… Continue reading Prime Minister launches E20 Fuel & flags off Green Mobility Rally in Bengaluru

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Voice deepfakes: how they are generated, used, misused and differentiated

Source: The post is based on the article “Voice deepfakes: how they are generated, used, misused and differentiated” published in The Hindu on 7th February 2023. What is the News? Several users of the social media platform 4chan used “speech synthesis” and “voice cloning” service provider, ElevenLabs, to make Voice Deepfakes of celebrities like Emma… Continue reading Voice deepfakes: how they are generated, used, misused and differentiated

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Energy Transition: Challenges and Solutions – Explained, pointwise

For 7PM Editorial Archives click HERE → Introduction The window for climate action is shortening rapidly. IPCC Sixth Assessment Report had pointed out that Earth will warm up by 1.5°C (above pre-Industrial level) over the next couple of decades. According to NASA, the planet’s average temperature was 1.02°C warmer in 2020 than the mean temperature between 1950-80. If… Continue reading Energy Transition: Challenges and Solutions – Explained, pointwise

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End-of-life decisions – SC’s tweaks on directive norms are welcome, but legislation will be better

Source: The post is based on the article “End-of-life decisions – SC’s tweaks on directive norms are welcome, but legislation will be better” published in The Hindu on 7th February 2023. Syllabus: GS 2 – Issues relating to development and management of Social Sector/Services relating to Health. Relevance: About advance medical directives. News: In a… Continue reading End-of-life decisions – SC’s tweaks on directive norms are welcome, but legislation will be better

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The demand for MGNREGS work is unmet

Source: The post is based on the article “The demand for MGNREGS work is unmet” published in The Hindu on 7th February 2023. Syllabus: GS 2 – Welfare schemes for vulnerable sections of the population by the Centre and States and the performance of these schemes. Relevance: About the demand for MGNREGS. News: The allocation… Continue reading The demand for MGNREGS work is unmet

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Municipal Mess – From MCD to BMC, paralysis of urban local bodies undermines local governance and democracy

Source: The post is based on the article “Municipal Mess – From MCD to BMC, paralysis of urban local bodies undermines local governance and democracy” published in The Times of India on 7th February 2023. Syllabus: GS 2 – Devolution of powers and finances up to local levels and challenges therein. Relevance: About MCD mayor… Continue reading Municipal Mess – From MCD to BMC, paralysis of urban local bodies undermines local governance and democracy

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Women-centric development – India Inc must help enhance the role of women in nation building

Source: The post is based on the article “India Inc must help enhance the role of women in nation building” published in Live Mint on 7th February 2023. Syllabus: GS 3 – Inclusive growth and issues arising from it.. Relevance: About women-centric development. News: A paradigm shift is observed in reorienting India’s direction of economic… Continue reading Women-centric development – India Inc must help enhance the role of women in nation building

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[UPSC Interview 2022] – Transcript #35 : Lt. Gen. Raj Shukla Board, History Optional, Hosting quizzes, pencil sketching Hobbies

Date of Interview: 01/02/23 Afternoon Board: Lt. Gen. Raj Shukla (Retd.) Optional: History Background: IIT Madras Hobbies: Hosting quizzes, pencil sketching Your experience in Interview: No pleasantries to make the interviewee comfortable. Expressionless faces. Slight smiles at times. Entire board was attentive to the answers. Overall good experience. Utility of mocks or O2O (if any)-… Continue reading [UPSC Interview 2022] – Transcript #35 : Lt. Gen. Raj Shukla Board, History Optional, Hosting quizzes, pencil sketching Hobbies

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[UPSC Interview 2022] – Transcript #34 : Lt. Gen. Raj Shukla Board, Chemistry Optional, leadership Hobby

Date of Interview: 2nd Feb forenoon (4th to go) Board: Lt. Gen. Raj Shukla (Retd.) Background: dual degree (Btech + Mtech) in civil engineering from an old IIT Optional: Chemistry Hobbies: leadership, etc – no Qs asked DAF keywords: patent granted in treatment of water using solar energy and a medical device presented in the festival… Continue reading [UPSC Interview 2022] – Transcript #34 : Lt. Gen. Raj Shukla Board, Chemistry Optional, leadership Hobby

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[UPSC Interview 2022] – Transcript #33 : RN Choubey Board, IPS Service, Badminton Hobby

Date of Interview: 3/2/23 Second Half Board: RN Choubey Optional: No point in knowing. He didn’t ask anything Background: ek IIT hai. Profession: (if any)- IPS hun. Hobbies: Badminton. Your experience in interview- To view all IAS Interview Transcripts 2022, visit this page Chairman Why IAS? Ips UP vs IAS Mizoram. Replacement rate and it’s… Continue reading [UPSC Interview 2022] – Transcript #33 : RN Choubey Board, IPS Service, Badminton Hobby

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[UPSC Interview 2022] – Transcript #32 : Lt. Gen. Raj Shukla Board, PSIR Optional, Swimming, Sports Hobbies

Board: Lt. Gen. Raj Shukla (Retd.) Optional: PSIR Background: CIVIL ENGINEER Hobbies: KICKBOXING(medal), TAEKWONDO(sports), EVENTHEAD OF CHESS  COMPETITION( leadership), SWIMMING Your experience in interview- It was very cordial, it’s difficult to say what they are thinking about our answers  very neutral emotions of panel. Wished Good afternoon Ma’am, Good afternoon Sir. Chairman Sir told me to… Continue reading [UPSC Interview 2022] – Transcript #32 : Lt. Gen. Raj Shukla Board, PSIR Optional, Swimming, Sports Hobbies

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Must Read Current Affairs Articles – February 7th, 2023

About Must Read News Articles: Must Read News Articles is an initiative by Team ForumIAS to provide links to the most important news articles of the day. It covers The Hindu newspaper. This saves the time and effort of students in identifying useful and important articles. With newspaper websites requiring a paid subscription beyond a certain… Continue reading Must Read Current Affairs Articles – February 7th, 2023

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[UPSC Interview 2022] – Transcript #31 : M Sathiyavathy Board, Maharashtra Home state, solo travel, learning new languages Hobbies

Date of Interview: 3 February, Friday, 5th person to go Board: M Sathiyavathy  Home State: Maharashtra Background:  Mechanical engineering Hobbies: solo travel, learning new languages, visiting historical sites Achievements: leadership experience, volunteering, sports, scholarship. Work exp: HR consulting, SBI, ESIC , currently sebi grade A officer To view all IAS Interview Transcripts 2022, visit this page… Continue reading [UPSC Interview 2022] – Transcript #31 : M Sathiyavathy Board, Maharashtra Home state, solo travel, learning new languages Hobbies

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