9 PM Daily Current Affairs Brief – January 9th, 2023

Dear Friends,

We have initiated some changes in the 9 PM Brief and other postings related to current affairs. What we sought to do:

  1. Ensure that all relevant facts, data, and arguments from today’s newspaper are readily available to you.
  2. We have widened the sources to provide you with content that is more than enough and adds value not just for GS but also for essay writing. Hence, the 9 PM brief now covers the following newspapers:
    1. The Hindu  
    2. Indian Express  
    3. Livemint  
    4. Business Standard  
    5. Times of India 
    6. Down To Earth
    7. PIB
  3. We have also introduced the relevance part to every article. This ensures that you know why a particular article is important.
  4. Since these changes are new, so initially the number of articles might increase, but they’ll go down over time.
  5. It is our endeavor to provide you with the best content and your feedback is essential for the same. We will be anticipating your feedback and ensure the blog serves as an optimal medium of learning for all the aspirants.
    • For previous editions of 9 PM BriefClick Here
    • For individual articles of 9 PM BriefClick Here

Current Affairs Compilations for UPSC IAS Prelims 2022

Mains Oriented Articles

GS Paper 1

GS Paper 2

GS Paper 3

Prelims Oriented Articles (Factly)

Mains Oriented Articles

GS Paper 1


How countries treat their ultra-rich

Source: The post is based on the article “How countries treat their ultra-rich” published in the Business Standard on 9th January 2023.

Syllabus: GS 1 – Effects of globalization on Indian society.

Relevance: About capitalism and its present impact on globalization.

News: In the recent period, some rich and powerful people have faced trouble in countries such as the US, Russia, China, and Saudi Arabia.

About Freedom in the World index and the reality of ultra rich persons

US: The US has a score of 83 and is classified as “Free” in the index. There rich people in the US can oppose the government without fear of death, jail, exile, expropriation or commercial harm.

Saudi Arabia (score of 7, regarded as “Not Free”): About 500 people were locked up in a Hotel by the “anti-corruption agency”. Many victims were forced to buy their freedom by giving up their wealth.

China (score of 9): Ever since the present Chinese President took charge, he deployed state power against the private sector.

Russia (score of 19): Ever since the Ukraine war, the Russian rouble has lost its hard-currency status. Rich people have been dying under mysterious circumstances, at an average rate of three per month.

Read more: Digital India is well positioned to make the most of globalization
How capitalism is slowly damaging the present globalization?

After the Berlin Wall was brought down, the world made inevitable progress towards capitalism and freedom. The world nations are approaching the third  globalization in a way it damages the globalization.

Note: The third globalization is marked by the emergence and eventual dominance, within the most advanced industrial countries, of the information sector.

Such as, 1) The State’s use their power in ways that are unfavourable to globalisation. For instance, the US government blocking Chinese de facto public sector undertakings like Huawei from operating in its country, 2) The financial investors in the first world countries demand higher risk compensations when investing in unsafe places, 3) There is a narrowing of global value chains to emphasise production in safe places, and 4) Several wealthy families in places like China and Russia are systematically moving assets, businesses, homes, and loved ones into rule-of-law havens like London.

Read more: WESTERN MNCs HAVE WEAKENED GLOBALIZATION BY TAKING SIDES

Whether the rich are the target of taxation or the engine of growth, their exit is harmful for globalization.


A timely halt – SC must lay down rehabilitation norms for eviction from public spaces

Source: The post is based on the article “A timely halt – SC must lay down rehabilitation norms for eviction from public spaces” published in The Hindu on 9th January 2023.

Syllabus: GS 1 – Urbanization, their problems and their remedies.

Relevance: About the land conflicts between the public and the state.

News: Earlier, the Uttarakhand High Court demanded the eviction of around 50,000 people within a week as they are accused of squatting on railway property for decades in Haldwani in Uttarakhand. But recently the Supreme Court has halted the forcible eviction.

What are the directions of the Supreme Court?

The court a) Demanded the need for rehabilitation before eviction, b) The court orders had allowed proceedings against individual occupants under the Public Premises (Eviction of Unauthorised Occupants) Act, 1971, to be complete before eviction.

About the land conflicts between public and state

People tend to encroach on public land as there is a shortage of housing and inadequate recognition of the right to shelter. This often leads to attempts to evict the occupants and spawns litigation.

What are the impacts of land conflicts between the public and the state?

-The public claims occupancy rights based on long years of stay at the same location.

-Court judgments stress rehabilitation measures. But mandatory rehabilitation may prove to be an incentive for encroachment. Further, India does not have a good record on the rehabilitation of evicted people from public spaces.

So, the Supreme Court in the Haldwani eviction case should a) lay down the law on meaningful rehabilitation, b) Prescribe effective prevention of encroachments.

GS Paper 2


Madhya Pradesh HC’s resolution to call ‘lower courts’ as district courts is a welcome step towards ending judicial feudalism

Source: The post is based on an article “Madhya Pradesh HC’s resolution to call ‘lower courts’ as district courts is a welcome step towards ending judicial feudalismpublished in The Indian Express on 9th January 2023.

Syllabus: GS 2 – Governance

Relevance: problems associated with lower judiciary

News: The High Court of Madhya Pradesh has passed the resolution that judiciary in all courts other than the High Court shall be referred to as the ‘district judiciary’ and not as ‘subordinate judiciary’. Also, all courts other than the High Court shall be referred to as the ‘trial courts’ and not as ‘subordinate courts.’

The term “district judiciary” is also used by the Constitution (Article 236).

Did the Constitutional Assembly discuss the renaming of the subordinate judiciary?

The issue of naming the hierarchy of courts, especially the “subordinate” courts, was not discussed in the Constituent Assembly Debates (CAD).

However, discussions on the composition, jurisdiction, and functions of the Supreme Court and high courts were made.

Further, the official literature on district courts also does not make any demand or consideration for a name change.

However, the problem of a smaller number of judges in lower judiciary and their independence were discussed by various commissions and reports.

What are the different discussions made related to the lower judiciary?

The inadequate strength of judges in district court was discussed by the 120th Law Commission Report.

It was also discussed by the Standing Committee headed by Pranab Mukherjee in its 85th report (2002) which recommended increasing judge strength to 50 per 10 lakh people.

Further in 1998, the Supreme Court directed that the state should provide for the re-employment of the retiring judicial officer till the age of 62 years in case vacancies in the cadre of the district judge.

However, the Court held the retirement at 60 years as being “logical” and “reasonable”, due to the retirement age of judges of the SC and the High Courts (65 and 62 years respectively).

SC also stated that an independent and efficient judicial system is one of the basic structures of our Constitution.

This is because the principles of the rule of law and democracy give all citizens fundamental right to constitutional remedies and access to the judiciary has been termed as a basic right by the SC.

However, research conducted by the Supreme Court Centre for Research and Planning highlighted that the lower judiciary has an inadequate number of judges given the workload which act as hindrance the access to justice.

What are the limitations of the High Court over the lower judiciary?

The Constitution enacts a hierarchy of jurisdictions but it does not enact hierarchy of justices. Each judge is supreme within the appointed jurisdiction. No judge acting within her jurisdiction is higher or lower.

Further, higher court judges can only direct lower court judges by remaining under the sphere of judicial review. The Constitution prescribes that the equality and dignity of all justices, and judicial process, is horizontal and not vertical.

Further, the supervision of high courts extends to posting, promotion, leave, transfer and discipline of the members of the district judiciary. It has complete authority and control over its officers and employees.

However, this authority does not mean that the principle of independence of the judiciary or the democratic rule of law is curtailed.


The superbugs are here – and they are resistant to antibiotics

Source: The post is based on an article “The superbugs are here – and they are resistant to antibioticspublished in The Indian Express on 9th January 2023.

Syllabus: GS 2 – Health

Relevance: measures needed to tackle AMR

News: Antimicrobial resistance (AMR), also called antibiotic resistance, is a global health challenge and a worrying public health crisis. The WHO has declared it as one of the top 10 health threats facing humanity.

How is AMR caused and what action has been taken by the government?

Read Here: What is AMR and its causes

Many countries including India have come up with AMR national action plans (NAPs) to tackle AMR.

However, the development and implementation of antimicrobial plans are not adequate. Therefore, other measures are required to reduce and reverse AMR.

What are the measures required to reduce AMR?

Prevention: Disease prevention and wellness are key to public health. Sanitation drives, clean water supply and hospital-driven infection-control programmes are needed to prevent AMR.

Prescribing antimicrobials judiciously: There is also a need to prescribe antimicrobials judiciously and only when they are absolutely needed.

Proper Coordination: There is a need for proper coordination amongst the animal industry and environmental sectors to prevent the unnecessary use of antibiotics in farms.

Robust surveillance systems: A robust surveillance system is needed that allow the detection of resistant pathogens of all kinds in the environment.

Investment in Research and Development: There is a need to invest heavily in research and development through both government and private funding. This will bring new antibiotics which could be an essential component in restoring the balance and ensuring fight against AMR.

However, the profits on these investments are negligible which could be a cause of concern.

Financial incentives: There is a need to formulate new types of financial incentives to measure return on investment and measure profitability of the antibiotic.


Imagining the politics of fraternity

Source: This post is created based on the article “Imagining the politics of fraternity”, published in The Hindu on 9th January, 2023.

Syllabus Topic: GS Paper 2, Indian Polity,

Context: The principle of fraternity is one of the most important principles for keeping the nation together. India must strive hard to uphold this principle.

The Bharat Jodo Yatra led by an opposition party is ongoing. The achievements of the yatra are debatable, however it reminds of the principle of fraternity or Bandhutva Fraternity, which is not merely a value to aspire to, but a foundational principle that should be upheld by all the political forces.

What is the principle of fraternity?

Traditionally there were two ideas of fraternity. However, Indian view was developed during freedom struggle.

Judeo-Christian world view: It seeks to achieve the brotherhood among all men, which is based on the belief that all men are children of God.

Secular idea: It was born out of French revolution. It is a sense of solidarity and brotherhood among those who were opposed to the tyrannical monarchical order.

Indian Context of fraternity:

Dr. B. R. Ambedkar was the strongest proponent of the idea of fraternity, which was developed during the process of anti-colonial struggle and nation-building. As per him, the absence of fraternity, owing to caste consciousness within Hindu society, was the primary reason for the colonisation of India and the chief hurdle in nation-building.

For Ambedkar, fraternity was the fundamental enabling condition for the realisation of liberty and equality, which could hold India together, instead of laws alone.

Significance of the principle of fraternity

First, it was included in the Preamble as well as in the fundamental duties of our Constitution.

Second, globally extreme social and economic polarisation is promoting xenophobia and racial tensions.

Third, in India too, politically backed incidents of violence are rising. On the economic front, the top 1% have cornered more than 40% of the wealth in 2021; while the poor and middle classes struggle with inflation.


Making healthy choice the easier choice

Source: This post is created based on the article “Making healthy choice the easier choice”, published in The Hindu on 9th January, 2023.

Syllabus Topic: GS Paper 2, Social issues, Health related issues

News: The 2017-18 National NCD monitoring survey reported that 98% of Indians do not take adequate fruits and vegetables and only 59% of adults do adequate physical activity.

What are the reasons behind unhealthy lifestyle of Indians?

1) People giving less importance to health.

2) Eating unhealthy due to taste and cost consideration.

3) Laziness for physical exercise

What are the factors causing unhealthy lifestyle?

Physical, economic, and socio—cultural environments, in which people make their decisions about taking food or doing physical activity, do not support healthy choices.

First, people including children are heavily influenced by food marketing.

Second, unhealthy products are easily available, priced lower and displayed more prominently in grocery stores.

Third, culturally, our diet is so cereal/pulse-based, that leaves a little space to eat sufficient fruits and vegetables.

Fourth, some of the factors discourage people from doing physical exercise – air pollution, weather (hot-cold-rains), unusable footpaths, lack of parks or, often unsafe and poorly lit parks.

Fifth, industry self-regulation of front—of—pack food labelling has not worked well. Commercial interests like the food industry are powerful interest groups. They would oppose interventions aimed at labelling or reducing salt or sugar.

What should government do?

1) Regulating the marketing of foods to children. Many countries have banned or restricted the advertising of food and beverages on children’s channels or at times when they watch television.

2) Taxing junk food, incentivizing healthier options and subsiding fruits and vegetables should be considered to tackle the issue of affordability.

3) Improving awareness of people about making healthy choices.

4) Preventing multiple reheating of oils, lower oil, salt, and sugar use during preparation at the restaurants.


UGC guidelines on foreign universities: The University Gimmicks Commission

Source: This post is created based on the article “UGC guidelines on foreign universities: The University Gimmicks Commission”, published in Indian Express on 9th January 2023.

Syllabus Topic: GS Paper 2, Social Issues, Issues associate with education

News: University Grants Commission (UGC) has allowed entry of foreign universities in India through new guidelines. However, there are many issues associated with these reforms that require a proper discussion.

What are the challenges to the success of UGC guidelines on foreign universities?

First, top universities like Princeton, Stanford, Yale and Oxford don’t have any branch campuses anywhere in the world, even in the countries with most liberal regulatory environments. Why would they establish their branches in India?

Second, majority of the foreign universities, operating globally, are not top-tier institutions. Some of the top tier universities like NYU Abu Dhabi are operating with massive subsidies from the home government. If one checks the C-BERT list that maintains a comprehensive list of international campuses, most foreign campuses are very small, with an average size of 300-400 students.

Third, as per the guidelines, UGC will ensure that the qualifications of the faculty assigned to India will be the same as those of the faculty in the parent institution. However, if the qualification means that the faculty is to be exceptional like in top universities, they might not take interest as they won’t have the economic or lifestyle incentives, unless either their salaries are matched or exceeded.

Fourth, when India has many investors that can create a university similar to foreign ones, why they are not investing? The answer lies in the regulatory uncertainty. Project like Institutions of Eminence revolution have not picked up due to that.

Fifth, UGC has been looking to standardise the admissions process for all public universities and trying to burb their autonomy as well. How is it going to protect the autonomy and distinct identity of foreign universities.

Sixth, guidelines seem to have ignored the required combination of capital, vision, and human resources it takes to get a high-end research university.

GS Paper 3


Utkarsh 2.0.: RBI’s updated strategy requires another update

Source: The post is based on the article “RBI’s updated strategy requires another update” published in the Livemint on 9th January 2023.

Syllabus: GS 3 – Indian Economy and issues relating to planning, mobilization, of resources, growth, development and employment.

Relevance: About Utkarsh 2.0. and its concerns.

News: Recently, the Reserve Bank of India (RBI) launched Utkarsh 2.0.

What is Utkarsh 2.0.?
Read here: RBI launches Utkarsh 2.0 for the period 2023-2025
What is the need for Utkarsh 2.0.?

A formal medium-term strategy document like Utkarsh 2.0. is essential for highly complicated tasks such as,

-Financial systems in almost all economies have become exceedingly elaborate, entangled and complicated. This requires central banks to detect nascent signs of financial instability which could arise anywhere in the system and turn contagious.

-In a globalized world, central banks require to watch over foreign exchange flows and manage currency-rate volatility. They also balance price stability and growth.

What are the challenges present in Utkarsh 2.0.?

The document a) Missed laying down specific challenges and a detailed plan on how RBI proposes to engage with them, b) The Core Purpose outlined in Utkarsh 2.0 is a reworked version of the Reserve Bank of India Act’s preamble. Which itself was amended and changed in 2016 as a precursor to RBI’s formal adoption of a flexible inflation-targeting regime, c) Many specific strategy points mentioned are also core to what a central bank is expected to discharge anyway. For example, The document mentioned works such as “Create a resilient financial intermediation ecosystem; refining the regulatory and supervisory framework”. These are desirable end-result, than a strategy, and d) Does not mention about climate finance or green central banking.

What should be done to improve Utkarsh 2.0.?

RBI must stay vigil to a wider range of scenarios than its strategy document. Some transparency and a feedback loop with the public will help RBI to arm itself better against future uncertainties.


Driving To Despair – Poor maintenance, poor policing, poor traffic rules enforcement, too much wrong with India’s roads

Source: The post is based on the article “Driving To Despair – Poor maintenance, poor policing, poor traffic rules enforcement, too much wrong with India’s roads” published in The Times of India on 9th January 2023.

Syllabus: GS 3 – Infrastructure: Energy, Ports, Roads, Airports, Railways etc..

Relevance: About preventing accidents on Indian roads.

News: Recent road accidents in Delhi, Uttarakhand and Tamil Nadu highlight the multiple dimensions of risks and accidents on Indian roads.

A third of the 4. 1 lakh documented road accidents in 2021 resulted in 1. 5 lakh deaths. Another third of the accidents resulted in grievous injuries.

What should be done to reduce accidents on Indian roads?

Ensure proper lighting: Women motorists and pedestrians will feel much safer on better-lit roads. Further, these roads enable improved road visibility.

Added responsibility: Agencies like NHAI and state public works departments, should not only construct and maintain major roads but also has to be entrusted with maintaining poor road conditions like potholes, inadequate signages and unscientific road construction.

Encourage Samaritan initiatives: The government should incentivise public participation in taking victims to hospitals promptly and reimbursing hospitals for emergency trauma care.

Implementing Electronic monitoring: The Motor Vehicles Act as amended in 2019 empowered state governments to conduct electronic monitoring of roads through speed cameras, CCTV cameras, speed guns, body wearable cameras etc. Investments in such tech upgrades should happen faster.

From policing to courts to transport departments to public works to healthcare, a ‘whole of government’ approach can make citizens safer.  Road safety enforcement should be the next generation of governance reforms that India must target.

Read more: Road Safety in India – Explained, pointwise

Prelims Oriented Articles (Factly)

Cellular communication network factor 2a (Ccn2a): Protein found in Zebrafish can regenerate aged discs in human vertebrae

Source: The post is based on the article “Protein found in Zebrafish can regenerate aged discs in human vertebrae” published in the PIB on 7th January 2023.

What is the News?

A protein found in the backbone of zebrafish can play a positive role in disc maintenance and promotes regeneration in aged discs between vertebrae.

About discs degeneration in humans

In humans, discs degenerate naturally, leading to many related health concerns. This includes low back, neck, and appendage pain.

Treatments: Currently, only symptomatic treatments for disc degeneration are available, including pain relievers or anti-inflammatories. In severe cases, disc replacement or disc fusion surgery is performed.

Drawbacks at present: a) There is only limited information available about the cellular and molecular processes playing a role in the maintenance of the discs, b) No medical procedures or treatments have been known to suppress disc degeneration or induce disc regeneration.

Hence, there is a need to develop a treatment either to suppress disc degeneration or to promote disc regeneration in humans.

About the new protein Cellular communication network factor 2a (Ccn2a)

Scientists have discovered a new protein called Cellular communication network factor 2a (Ccn2a). The study was conducted Zebrafish as a model organism is the first. This protein induces disc regeneration in aged degenerated discs.

It will do that by promoting cell proliferation and cell survival by modulating the pathway called the FGFR1-SHH (Fibroblast growth factor receptor-Sonic Hedgehog) pathway.

The scientists also found that the Ccn2a-FGFR1-SHH signaling cascade which takes a positive role in disc maintenance and augmenting disc regeneration.

Must read: Synapses: NCBS: Zebrafish study reveals how the brain makes its connections

West Bengal gets its first M sand facility through CIL’s green mining initiative

Source: The post is based on the article “West Bengal gets its first M sand facility through CIL’s green mining initiative” published in The Hindu on 9th January 2023.

What is the News?

Coal India Limited (CIL) has started a facility in West Bengal to produce manufactured sand. With the West Bengal facility, the CIL’s total M Sand producing capacity stands at 9.86 lakh cubic metres per year.

What is Manufactured Sand(M-Sand) and what are its applications

Sand is one of the major geological resources of the country and M sand is a form of artificial sand manufactured by crushing large hard stones into fine particles.

Benefits of M-sand: a) Conversion of overburdened material into sand is a step to ensure environmental sustainability, b) It will ensure the sustainability of sand, particularly when illegal mining from riverbeds and riverbanks has adverse effects on river morphology, c) It does not contain organic and soluble compounds that affect the setting time and properties of cement, thus the required strength of concrete can be maintained, and d) It can be dust-free and the sizes of m-sand can be controlled easily so that it meets the required grading for the given construction.

Read here: “M-Sand Policy” a policy to promote manufactured sand

40% of wetlands in India lost in last 30 yrs: Experts

Source: The post is based on the article40% of wetlands in India lost in last 30 yrs: Experts published in TOI on 8th January 2023

What is the News?

According to estimates by Wetlands International(WI), nearly two of every five wetlands in India have lost their natural existence in the last 30 years.

Note: Wetlands International is a not-for-profit global organization based in the Netherlands. It works to sustain and restore wetlands and their resources for people and biodiversity. 

Wetlands in India

India presently has around 2.25 lakh big wetlands and 5.5 lakh smaller ones. Of these, nearly 60,000 big wetlands are inside protected forest areas.

However, the increasingly rapid pace at which wetlands in the country are disappearing has set alarm bells ringing in conservation circles. 

Nearly 2 out of 5 wetlands in India have lost their natural existence in the last 30 years while 40% of water bodies have lost quality for the survival of the aquatic animals.

Najafgarh lake near Delhi and Pallikaranai in Chennai are prominent examples of rapidly drying water sources as these have so far shrunk by over 50%.

Reasons for loss of wetlands: Rapid urbanization, wetlands being abused as sites of waste disposal, lack of knowledge on wetlands and ecosystems are some of the reasons for the loss of wetlands.

Impact of Wetlands loss: When a wetland is destroyed, the whole system begins to collapse. A case in point is the 2015 Chennai floods. Degeneration of the city’s wetlands due to unplanned development compromised its resilience to floods. Consequently, the auto industry had to be shut down for 10 days leading to a colossal loss of Rs 10k crore. 

What should be the way forward to protect wetlands?

A multi-pronged approach that brings together various stakeholders is the need of the hour. 

The Bashettihalli wetland in the outskirts of Bangalore stands out as an example of how the district administration, local communities, industries and organizations like WWF-India worked together to conserve it.


Half of glaciers will disappear by 2100 even if world sticks to 1.5°C goal: Study

Source: The post is based on the article “Half of glaciers will disappear by 2100 even if world sticks to 1.5°C goal: Study” published in Down To Earth on 7th January 2023

What is the News?

According to a study titled “Global glacier change in the 21st century: Every increase in temperature matters”, half of the Earth’s glaciers are destined to vanish by 2100.

Note: Glaciers, which hold 70 % of the Earth’s freshwater, currently encompass around 10% of the planet’s land area.

About the study on Glacier melting

Glaciers are receding at unprecedented rates due to climate change and rising temperatures. The amount of ice lost by glaciers between 1994 and 2017 was around 30 trillion tonnes and they are now melting at a pace of 1.2 trillion tonnes each year.

The glaciers in the Alps, Iceland and Alaska are some of those that are melting at the quickest rates.

Half the Earth’s glaciers are destined to vanish by 2100, even if we adhere to the Paris Climate Agreement goal of limiting global temperature rise to 1.5 degrees Celsius above pre-industrial levels.

A minimum of 50% of the loss will occur within the next 30 years. 68% of glaciers will vanish if global warming continues at the current rate of 2.7 °C.

If this happens, by the end of the following century, there would be practically no glaciers left in central Europe, western Canada and the United States.

Impact of Glacier melting

Glacier melting will significantly contribute to sea level rise, threaten the supply of water of up to 2 billion people, and increase the risk of natural hazards such as flooding. 


The potential of generative AI: creating media with simple text prompts

Source: The post is based on the article “The potential of generative AI: creating media with simple text prompts” published in The Hindu on 9th January 2023

What is the News?

Top technology companies like Microsoft, Google, Facebook, and others, have commercial AI labs researching and publishing academic papers to accelerate Generative AI innovations. 

What is Generative AI?

Generative AI is a type of artificial intelligence that involves creating new, original content or data using machine learning algorithms. It can be used to generate text, images, music, or other types of media. 

Generative AI works by training a model on a large dataset and then using that model to generate new, previously unseen content that is similar to the training data. This can be done through techniques such as neural machine translation, image generation, and music generation. 

What are the different ways Generative AI can be used?

Generative AI can craft sales, marketing and brand messaging: Agencies can generate personalized social media posts, blogs and marketing text and video copies by providing a text prompt to a Generative AI service like ChatGPT.

Reduce the burden of human research: It can help sift through numerous legal research materials and produce a pertinent, specific and actionable summary. As a result, it can reduce the countless hours of human research and enable them to focus on more complex and exciting problems. 

Help in designing: It can also help create and simulate complex engineering, design, and architecture. It can help speed up the iterative development and testing of novel designs. 

Personalized Health treatments: It can also help health professionals with their medical diagnosis. AI can generate potential and alternative treatments personalized to patients’ symptoms and medical history. For instance, DeepMind AlphaFold can predict the shape of the protein.

What are the concerns related to Generative AI?

Deepfakes: Generative AI, particularly machine learning approaches such as deepfakes, can be used to generate synthetic media, such as images, videos, and audio. Such AI-generated content can be difficult or impossible to distinguish from real media, posing serious ethical implications. Such media may spread misinformation, manipulate public opinion, or even harass or defame individuals.

Inaccuracy problem: Generative AI uses machine learning to infer information, which brings the potential inaccuracy problem to acknowledge. Also, pre-trained large language models like ChatGPT are not dynamic in terms of keeping up with new information. 

Increase in Biases: Large language models enable human-like speech and text. However, recent evidence suggests that larger and more sophisticated systems are often more likely to absorb underlying social biases from their training data. These AI biases can include sexist, racist, or ableist approaches within online communities.

Misuse: Nefarious actors may use AI-generated media to manipulate people and influence public opinion. These systems can potentially access sensitive information, raising concerns about data privacy and security. It may also produce low-quality and less accurate information specifically in the context of complex engineering and medical diagnosis. 

Risk of Unemployment: Although it is too early to make certain judgements, there is a risk that generative AI could contribute to unemployment in certain situations. This could happen if generative AI automates tasks or processes previously performed by humans, leading to the displacement of human workers.


Avoid further delay in conducting the Census

Source: The post is based on the article “Avoid further delay in conducting the Census” published in The Hindu on 8th January 2023

What is the News?

The decennial Census exercise has been postponed till September 2023.

What is the Census?

Click Here to read

What does the Constitution say about the Census?

The Constitution talks about the use of Census data for the delimitation of constituencies and for determining the quantum of reservation for Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes. However, it does not say what should be the periodicity of the census. 

The Census Act,1948 which predates the Constitution provides the legal background for several activities relating to the Census without mentioning anything about its periodicity. 

It says: “The Central Government may declare its intention of taking a census whenever it may consider it necessary or desirable to do so”.

This provision puts the onus of deciding when to conduct a Census on the executive. This is unlike the position in several countries such as the U.S. and Japan where the Constitution or the Census law mandates a Census with defined periodicity.

What are the implications of delaying the census?

Firstly, the Census alone can provide population data for every village and town in the country. Sample surveys can also provide reliable data on social and demographic indicators but only at higher geographic levels.

Secondly, the Census data are used to determine the number of seats to be reserved for SCs and STs in Parliament, State legislatures, local bodies, and government services. In the case of panchayats and municipal bodies, the reservation of seats for SCs and STs is based on their proportion in the population. 

– Delay in the Census means that the data from the 2011 Census would continue to be used. In many towns and even panchayats that have seen rapid changes in the composition of their population over the last decade, this would mean that either too many or too few seats are being reserved. Delimitation of parliamentary and Assembly constituencies would also continue to be based on the 2001 Census till data from a Census after 2026 are published.

What is the controversy around the census?

The decision to collect data for the National Population Register by piggybacking on the Census operations was the most debated issue before the Census was postponed. Such controversies negatively impact the Census.

Hence, it would be advisable to separate these two and disassociate the Census from a politically sensitive issue. This would help complete the Census as early as possible and maintain the reliability of data.


Despite SC order, single women denied abortion

Source: The post is based on the article “Despite SC order, single women denied abortion” published in The Hindu on 9th January 2023

What is the News?

Despite a judgment of the Supreme Court that unmarried women too can terminate their pregnancy until 24 weeks, the situation on the ground remains dismal. Unmarried women are having to run from pillar to post to seek an abortion. 

What is the issue with the termination of pregnancy by single women?
MTP Act
Source: The Hindu

Medical Termination of Pregnancy (MTP) Rules,2021 does not permit single women to abort after 20 weeks.

This rule was discriminatory as it only allowed “special categories” including survivors of sexual assault, minors, widows or divorcees, women with disabilities, a malformed foetus or women stuck in humanitarian emergencies to access abortion post-20 weeks.

Recently, the Supreme Court passed a judgement allowing unmarried and single women whose pregnancies are between 20 and 24 weeks to access safe and legal abortion care on par with their married counterparts.

However, there is no clear indication in the SC judgment telling the government to amend the MTP Act to include unmarried women within the extended 24-week ambit.

According to experts, it would have been better if the court had directed the government to change rules in accordance with the judgment. This is because many doctors are apprehensively citing the fact that the Act has not been amended.

Hence, unless the rules in the Act are changed, women will find it difficult to seek abortion in health facilities.


Land subsidence: PMO reviews situation in ‘sinking’ Joshimath town

Source: The post is based on the article “PMO reviews situation in ‘sinking’ Joshimath town” published in The Hindu on 8th January 2023

What is the News?

Joshimath has been declared a Landslide-subsidence zone and over 60 families living in uninhabitable houses in the sinking town have been evacuated to temporary relief centers.

What is land subsidence?
land subsidence
Source: NOAA

The United States Geological Survey describes Land Subsidence as a gradual settling or sudden sinking of the Earth’s surface due to the removal or displacement of subsurface earth materials.

Subsidence is most often caused by the removal of water, oil, natural gas, or mineral resources out of the ground by pumping, fracking, or mining activities. This feature can also be caused by natural events such as earthquakes, soil compaction, erosion and sinkhole formation.

What is the risk of Land Subsidence?

Experts estimate that by 2040, land subsidence will affect 8% of the world’s surface and an approximate 1.2 billion people living in 21% of the major cities across the globe.

It is also said that land subsidence will impact Asia more than other parts of the world. With 86% of the Asian population exposed to the effects of land subsidence, about $8.17 trillion is potentially at stake.

What are the effects of Land subsidence?

Land subsidence can cause the settlement of clay on the upper levels — leading to damage of infrastructure (roads, bridges) and flooding due to ineffective drainage systems of the city. 

Experts cite that it could impact houses and other infrastructure, making them weaker, and also lead to the weakening of foundations or development cracks in the buildings (such as the Joshimath incident).


World’s longest river cruise ‘Ganga Vilas’ to unlock River Cruise tourism in India: Union Minister for Ports

Source: The post is based on the article World’s longest river cruise ‘Ganga Vilas’ to unlock River Cruise tourism in India: Union Minister for Ports published in PIB on 7th January 2023

What is the News?

The MV Ganga Vilas will be flagged off by Prime Minister Narendra Modi in Varanasi.

What is MV Ganga Vilas?
MV Ganga Vilas
Source: Indian Express

MV Ganga Vilas is the world’s longest river cruise.

Features: The cruise ship has three decks and 18 suites, which can house 36 tourists.

– The ship will cover a journey of 3200 km in 50 days and pass through 27 river systems in India and Bangladesh.

– It will give tourists a chance to visit over 50 architecturally important places, including world heritage sites.

– The ship is equipped with pollution-free systems and noise control technology.

Significance: The MV Ganga Vilas cruise is a step towards unlocking the huge potential river tourism in the country has to offer. 

About River Cruise Market in India

The global River cruise market has grown at ~5% over the last few years and is expected to constitute ~37% of the cruise market by 2027. 

Europe has been driving growth with approximately 60% share of river cruise vessels in the world. 

In India, 8 river cruise vessels are operational between Kolkata and Varanasi while cruise movement is also operational on National Waterways 2 (Brahmaputra). 

As the capital expenditure is pumped to build capacity in the inland waterways, the river cruise is set to grow further with systematic forward and backward linkage for the economy, especially across the banks of the rivers.


Settlement on debris is primary reason for ‘sinking’, states report

Source: The post is based on the articleSettlement on debris is primary reason for ‘sinking’, states reportpublished in TOI on 9th January 2023

What is the News?

The Uttarakhand town of Joshimath which is located at the foothills of the Himalayas, has been reportedly “sinking”, with cracks visible on the walls of the houses and structures.

Why is Joshimath sinking?
Joshimath
Source: TOI

Joshimath is a small town in Uttarakhand which is located at the foothills of the Himalayas, and on the site of an ancient landslide. 

The reasons why Joshimath sank a few inches under the ground are: 

Firstly, the prime reason is the geography of the place. Since the city has been established on landslide debris, the land has a low bearing capacity, and it cannot sustain a large amount of construction and population.

Secondly, unplanned construction, population pressure, tourist infrastructure, hydel power projects and development activities have also made the slopes highly unstable in the last couple of decades.

Thirdly, the lack of systematic drainage has compounded the problem. Unregulated construction has often come in the way of the natural flow of water because of which water has had to chart alternative routes. Due to this, a lot of water has been percolating down into the porous crystalline rocks beneath the surface softening them further. 


PM launches Aspirational Block Programme aimed at spurring development parameters

Source: The post is based on the article PM launches Aspirational Block Programme aimed at spurring development parameterspublished in Indian Express on 8th January 2023

What is the News?

The Prime Minister has launched the Aspirational Block Programme (ABP).

What is the Aspirational Block Programme(ABP)?

The Aspirational Blocks Programme is on the lines of the Aspirational District Programme that was launched in 2018.

Aim: To improve the performance of blocks lagging on various development parameters. This will enable holistic development in those areas that require added assistance.

Coverage: The programme will cover 500 blocks across 31 states and Union Territories initially. Over half of these blocks are in 6 states—Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, Madhya Pradesh, Jharkhand, Odisha and West Bengal.

Ranking: NITI Aayog in partnership with the states will release a quarterly ranking of these blocks based on their performance on development indicators covering sectors such as health, education and nutrition among others.

What is the Aspirational District Programme?

Click Here to read


[UPSC Interview 2022] – Transcript #21 : Lt. Gen. Raj Shukla Board, watching war and biopic movies Hobbies

Date of Interview: 02/02/2023 Board: Lt. Gen. Raj Shukla (Retd.) Hobbies: watching war and biopic movies Interested in reading social issues like child labour and homelessness Job: IRS CUSTOMS To view all IAS Interview Transcripts 2022, visit this page Chairman What is biopic movie Dangal do you consider it as biopic what was the challenges Mahavir… Continue reading [UPSC Interview 2022] – Transcript #21 : Lt. Gen. Raj Shukla Board, watching war and biopic movies Hobbies

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‘India’s much-hyped tiger recovery needs a total reboot and official monopoly over tiger research should end’

Source: The post is based on the article “‘India’s much-hyped tiger recovery needs a total reboot and official monopoly over tiger research should end’” published in The Times of India on 4th February 2023. Syllabus: GS 3 – Environment and Bio-diversity Conservation. Relevance: About issues of tiger conservation. News: According to a world-renowned conservation scientist, India… Continue reading ‘India’s much-hyped tiger recovery needs a total reboot and official monopoly over tiger research should end’

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AI chatbot, my future colleague

Source– The post is based on the article “AI chatbot, my future colleague” published in The Indian Express on 4th February 2023. Syllabus: GS3- Awareness in the field of IT and Robotics Relevance– AI enabled technologies News– Over the past few months, a chatty bot has become a sensation. What is chatbot? It is a… Continue reading AI chatbot, my future colleague

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Co-ops Get Their Moment In The Sun

Source: The post is based on the article “Co-ops Get Their Moment In The Sun” published in The Times of India on 4th February 2023. Syllabus: GS 3 – Government Budgeting Relevance: Budget 2023-24 for the cooperative sector News: The article discusses measures announced by this year’s budget to boost the cooperative sector. What are some of… Continue reading Co-ops Get Their Moment In The Sun

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Going green – The Budget can help India transition out of its dependence on fossil fuels

Source: The post is based on the article “Going green – The Budget can help India transition out of its dependence on fossil fuels” published in The Hindu on 4th February 2023. Syllabus: GS 2 – Energy. Relevance: About green initiatives in budget 2023-24. News: In the recent budget highlighted the government’s commitment to move towards… Continue reading Going green – The Budget can help India transition out of its dependence on fossil fuels

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Pakistan Conundrum – Islamabad’s economic collapse won’t be good for India

Source: The post is based on the article “Pakistan Conundrum – Islamabad’s economic collapse won’t be good for India” published in The Times of India on 4th February 2023. Syllabus: GS 2 – India and its neighbourhood- relations. Relevance: About Pakistan’s economic crisis. News: Recently, the IMF review mission rejected Pakistan’s debt management plan and demanded… Continue reading Pakistan Conundrum – Islamabad’s economic collapse won’t be good for India

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Charge sheet scrutiny is not a case of prying eyes

Source– The post is based on the article “Charge sheet scrutiny is not a case of prying eyes” published in The Hindu on 4th February 2023. Syllabus: GS2- Functioning of judiciary Relevance– Issues related to Criminal justice system News–  The Supreme Court has ruled that a charge sheet filed against an accused in a criminal… Continue reading Charge sheet scrutiny is not a case of prying eyes

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On Budget 2023: Health in Amrit Kaal

Source– The post is based on the article “On Budget 2023: Health in Amrit Kaal” published in The Indian Express on 4th February 2023. Syllabus: GS2- Issues related to development and management of health Relevance– Health spending News– Recently, the central government presented the budget for this year. The total central government budget for health… Continue reading On Budget 2023: Health in Amrit Kaal

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Two years after Myanmar coup, how the country is a mess — and India’s headache has worsened

Source: The post is based on the article “Two years after Myanmar coup, how the country is a mess — and India’s headache has worsened” published in The Indian Express on 4th February 2023. Syllabus: GS 2 – International Relations Relevance: India-Myanmar Relations News: The article discusses the changing political scenario of Myanmar and its effect on… Continue reading Two years after Myanmar coup, how the country is a mess — and India’s headache has worsened

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There’s a lot in a name: Use of the term ‘northeast’ doesn’t do justice to the complex history of the region’s states

Source– The post is based on the article “There’s a lot in a name: Use of the term ‘northeast’ doesn’t do justice to the complex history of the region’s states” published in The Indian Express on 4th February 2023. Syllabus: GS1- Regionalism Relevance– News– The article explains the issues related to use of term northeast… Continue reading There’s a lot in a name: Use of the term ‘northeast’ doesn’t do justice to the complex history of the region’s states

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[UPSC Interview 2022] – Transcript #20 : M Sathiyavathy Board, PSIR Optional, Karnataka Home State, Football, silk farming Hobbies

Date of Interview: Feb 02 Board: M Sathiyavathy Optional: PSIR Home State: Karnataka Background: Mechanical Engg Work: Sports Authority Hobbies: Football, silk farming, documentaries Chair asked to remove mask. Read the DAF. To view all IAS Interview Transcripts 2022, visit this page Chairman What doing since graduation? What is your salary? Ok gross salary? What… Continue reading [UPSC Interview 2022] – Transcript #20 : M Sathiyavathy Board, PSIR Optional, Karnataka Home State, Football, silk farming Hobbies

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Yaya Tso to become Ladakh’s first biodiversity heritage site

Source: The post is based on the article “Yaya Tso to become Ladakh’s first biodiversity heritage site” published in Livemint on 2nd February 2023. What is the News? Yaya Tso has been proposed as Ladakh’s first biodiversity heritage site(BHS). What is Yaya Tso? Yaya Tso is located in Ladakh. It is known as a birds’… Continue reading Yaya Tso to become Ladakh’s first biodiversity heritage site

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Newly-discovered ancient ‘marine crocodile’ fossil could be the oldest of its kind ever found

Source: The post is based on the article “Newly-discovered ancient ‘marine crocodile’ fossil could be the oldest of its kind ever found” published in Indian Express on 4th February 2023. What is the News? A new study has uncovered a new thalattosuchian — an ancient ancestor of the modern-day crocodile. What is Thalattosuchian? Thalattosuchia is… Continue reading Newly-discovered ancient ‘marine crocodile’ fossil could be the oldest of its kind ever found

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Who is a ‘puisne’ judge, and what does the term mean?

Source: The post is based on the article “Who is a ‘puisne’ judge, and what does the term mean?” published in Indian Express on 4th February 2023 What is the News? Chief Justice of India (CJI) has recently reiterated that the collegium takes into consideration the seniority of Chief Justices and senior puisne judges while… Continue reading Who is a ‘puisne’ judge, and what does the term mean?

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Government initiates various steps under National Bioenergy Programme to promote and encourage establishment of new waste to energy plants

Source: The post is based on the article “Government initiates various steps under National Bioenergy Programme to promote and encourage establishment of new waste to energy plants” published in PIB on 3rd February 2023. WGovernment initiates various steps under National Bioenergy Programme to promote and encourage establishment of new waste to energy plantshat is the… Continue reading Government initiates various steps under National Bioenergy Programme to promote and encourage establishment of new waste to energy plants

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Operation Sadbhavana in Ladakh

Source: The post is based on the article “ Operation Sadbhavana in Ladakh” published in PIB on 4th February 2023 What is the News? The Indian Army is running Operation Sadbhavana in Ladakh. What is Operation Sadbhavana? Operation Sadbhavana (Goodwill) is a unique humane initiative undertaken by the Indian Army in Ladakh. Purpose: The focus… Continue reading Operation Sadbhavana in Ladakh

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Tihar jail to get AI-powered surveillance system

Source: The post is based on the article “Tihar jail to get AI-powered surveillance system” published in The Hindu on 4th February 2023. What is the News? Tihar jail is installing artificial intelligence(AI)-powered CCTV cameras to monitor inmates and fight crime.The premises will also have a real-time grievance redressal system. What is Tihar Jail? Tihar… Continue reading Tihar jail to get AI-powered surveillance system

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Supreme Court eases procedures for terminally ill patients to withdraw medical treatment

Source: The post is based on the article “Supreme Court eases procedures for terminally ill patients to withdraw medical treatment” published in The Hindu on 4th February 2023. What is the News? The Supreme Court has modified its 2018 judgment on passive euthanasia and living wills. What is a Living Will/advance medical directive(AMD)?  Click Here… Continue reading Supreme Court eases procedures for terminally ill patients to withdraw medical treatment

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Govt. extends deadline for laggard solar scheme

Source: The post is based on the article “Govt. extends deadline for laggard solar scheme” published in The Hindu on 4th February 2023. What is the News? The deadline for the PM KUSUM scheme to install 30,000 MW solar power capacity in rural India by 2022 has now been pushed to March 2026. What is… Continue reading Govt. extends deadline for laggard solar scheme

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Govt eases rules to help disabled register vehicle

Source: The post is based on the article “Govt eases rules to help disabled register vehicle” published in The Hindu on 4th February 2023. What is the News? The Ministry of Road Transport and Highways has asked states to register vehicles owned by people with disabilities under the ownership category of ‘Divyangjan’ and extend necessary… Continue reading Govt eases rules to help disabled register vehicle

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Pradhan Mantri National Dialysis Programme

Source: The post is based on the article “Pradhan Mantri National Dialysis Programme” published in PIB on 3rd February 2023 What is the News? The Union Minister of State for Health and Family Welfare has informed Lok Sabha about Pradhan Mantri National Dialysis Programme(PMNDP). What is Dialysis? Dialysis is a procedure that removes waste and… Continue reading Pradhan Mantri National Dialysis Programme

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Working of the MGNREGS: Challenges and Solutions – Explained, pointwise

For 7PM Editorial Archives click HERE → Introduction The Economic Survey 2022-23 showed that 6.49 crore households demanded work under the Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Scheme (MGNREGS). Of these, 6.48 crore households were offered employment by the government and 5.7 crore actually availed it. The Scheme was hailed for its role in mitigating the impact of… Continue reading Working of the MGNREGS: Challenges and Solutions – Explained, pointwise

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[UPSC Interview 2022] – Transcript #19 : RN Choubey Board, Geography Optional, Haryana Home State, Cricket Hobby

Date of Interview: 2nd February 2023, Afternoon Session Board: RN Choubey Sir Home State: Haryana Background: Physics Optional: Geography Hobbies: Stargazing, Flute, Cricket Other Keywords: Police, CAPFs To view all IAS Interview Transcripts 2022, visit this page Chairman You had lunch today? What? ( I said Poha). That is a breakfast item. We will arrange… Continue reading [UPSC Interview 2022] – Transcript #19 : RN Choubey Board, Geography Optional, Haryana Home State, Cricket Hobby

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[UPSC Interview 2022] – Transcript #18 : Lt. Gen. Raj Shukla Board, Anthropology Optional, Telangana Home state, farming Hobby

Board: Lt. Gen. Raj Shukla (Retd.) Optional: Anthropology Home State: Telangana Hobbies: Helping parents in farming activities Worked as software engineer and Panchayat secretary Interview went well and it’s more than 35 minutes To view all IAS Interview Transcripts 2022, visit this page Chairman Are you happy with new state Telangana? Why you are happy? Any… Continue reading [UPSC Interview 2022] – Transcript #18 : Lt. Gen. Raj Shukla Board, Anthropology Optional, Telangana Home state, farming Hobby

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[UPSC Interview 2022] – Transcript #17 : RN Choubey Board, Geography Optional, Travel Hobby

Date of Interview: 2nd February Board: RN Choubey Optional: Geography Background: MSc Chemistry In service: State Civil Service Hobby: Travel documentary To view all IAS Interview Transcripts 2022, visit this page Chairman Introduce with educational and work experience. What’s your opinion on farmer protest ? What are the 3 laws ? Why they opposed ?… Continue reading [UPSC Interview 2022] – Transcript #17 : RN Choubey Board, Geography Optional, Travel Hobby

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[UPSC Interview 2022] – Transcript #16 : RN Choubey Board, Andhra Pradesh Home State

Board: RN Choubey In service: ICLS, Home State: Andhra Pradesh Background: Mechanical Engineering To view all IAS Interview Transcripts 2022, visit this page Chairman What are u doing at present What is the role of mca in ease of doing bussiness Different cities selected for the rank and the last rank of india Is the… Continue reading [UPSC Interview 2022] – Transcript #16 : RN Choubey Board, Andhra Pradesh Home State

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[UPSC Interview 2022] – Transcript #15 : RN Choubey Board, Anthropology Optional, Maharashtra Home State, playing harmonium Hobby

Date of Interview: 31 Jan 2023, Afternoon session. Board: RN Choubey Sir Background: Physics and statistics. Optional: anthropology Home State: Maharashtra Hobby: playing harmonium, To view all IAS Interview Transcripts 2022, visit this page Chairman Introduce yourself with work experience Tell me Types of leaders What type of leader was Gandhi ji? What are the… Continue reading [UPSC Interview 2022] – Transcript #15 : RN Choubey Board, Anthropology Optional, Maharashtra Home State, playing harmonium Hobby

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Must Read Current Affairs Articles – February 4th, 2023

About Must Read News Articles: Must Read News Articles is an initiative by Team ForumIAS to provide links to the most important news articles of the day. It covers The Hindu newspaper. This saves the time and effort of students in identifying useful and important articles. With newspaper websites requiring a paid subscription beyond a certain… Continue reading Must Read Current Affairs Articles – February 4th, 2023

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[UPSC Interview 2022] – Transcript #14 : M Sathiyavathy Board, Haryana Home State, Reading, Meditation Hobbies

Date of Interview: 30/01/2023 Board: M Sathiyavathy Background: Electrical Engg, IIT Delhi Home State: Haryana Employee: Intel, Currently in IDAS Hobbies: Reading Biographies, Meditation, Playing piano To view all IAS Interview Transcripts 2022, visit this page Chairman Satyavathi Mam read out the DAF loudly and asked the following questions : Tell us about the recent reforms in… Continue reading [UPSC Interview 2022] – Transcript #14 : M Sathiyavathy Board, Haryana Home State, Reading, Meditation Hobbies

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Trading more within Asia makes economic sense

Source– The post is based on the article “Trading more within Asia makes economic sense” published in The Hindu on 3rd February 2023. Syllabus: GS2- Bilateral, Regional and Global Groupings and Agreements Relevance– Trade and Economic relations across Asia News– IMF has warned that global trade would slow down from 5.4% in 2022 to 2.4%… Continue reading Trading more within Asia makes economic sense

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System Bails Out – Kappan finally free on bail but many aren’t, in contravention of juridical principles

Source: The post is based on an article “System Bails Out – Kappan finally free on bail but many aren’t, in contravention of juridical principles” published in The Times of India on 3rd February 2023. Syllabus: GS 2 – Governance News: The Kerala journalist Siddique Kappan has been freed from jail after 846 days. He was charged… Continue reading System Bails Out – Kappan finally free on bail but many aren’t, in contravention of juridical principles

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India’s G20 Presidency: LiFE lessons for global markets

Source– The post is based on the article “India’s G20 Presidency: LiFE lessons for global markets” published in The Indian Express on 3rd February 2023. Syllabus: GS3- Environment Relevance– Sustainable development News– The world is facing its first truly global energy crisis, with turbulent markets and sharp price spikes. It is creating difficulties for citizens,… Continue reading India’s G20 Presidency: LiFE lessons for global markets

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Decluttering the defence budget

Source: The post is based on an article “Decluttering the defence budget” published in Business Standard on 3rd February 2023. Syllabus: GS 3 – Government Budgeting Relevance: Budget 2023-24 for the defence News: The article discusses the shortcomings of the Budget 2023-24 in the defence sector. What are the shortcomings with the budget in the defence sector?… Continue reading Decluttering the defence budget

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Fire and ice – Problem facing Ladakh

Source– The post is based on the article “Fire and ice” published in The Hindu on 3rd February 2023. Syllabus: GS2- Polity. GS1- Regionalism Relevance– Regional political issues News– The people of Ladakh are on agitation for their demands. What are the demands of agitating people in Ladakh? They are demanding the inclusion of the… Continue reading Fire and ice – Problem facing Ladakh

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SFG 2023 Level-2 by ForumIAS | Entrance Test 11th February 2023

Dear Friends, Please be informed that we will be conducting the Level-2 of Select Focus Group (SFG) starting from 28th February 2023. The entrance test for the program will take place on 11th February 2023 at 9:30 AM. ForumIAS SFG is a test-based self-study program that emphasizes on three parameters: a) discipline, b) rigor, and c) revision. It balances static and dynamic content and… Continue reading SFG 2023 Level-2 by ForumIAS | Entrance Test 11th February 2023

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[UPSC Interview 2022] – Transcript #13 : RN Choubey Board, public administration Optional, Maharashtra Home State, Reading, web series Hobbies

Date of Interview: 1st FEB Afternoon 2nd to go Board: RN Choubey sir Optional: public administration Background: Computer Engg. Home State: Maharashtra Hobbies: Reading non fiction, web series To view all IAS Interview Transcripts 2022, visit this page Chairman Briefly tell abt educational b/g nd work experience Why pubad? Major internal security challenges India is… Continue reading [UPSC Interview 2022] – Transcript #13 : RN Choubey Board, public administration Optional, Maharashtra Home State, Reading, web series Hobbies

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A ‘waterfall’ for insolvency resolution

Source– The post is based on the article “A ‘waterfall’ for insolvency resolution” published in the Business Standard on 3rd February 2023. Syllabus: GS3- Changes in Industrial Policy and their Effects on Industrial Growth Relevance– Exit process of the business News– The Ministry of Corporate Affairs has recently issued a discussion paper inviting comments on… Continue reading A ‘waterfall’ for insolvency resolution

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The Union budget ticks all the right boxes for India Inc

Source: The post is based on the following articles “The Union budget ticks all the right boxes for India Inc” published in the Livemint on 3rd February 2023. “Express View on Budget 2023: Adding it up” published in the Indian Express on 3rd February 2023. Syllabus: GS 3 – Government Budgeting. Relevance: Budget 2023-24 is… Continue reading The Union budget ticks all the right boxes for India Inc

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Get to know about macrosomia, the condition that creates gigantic babies

Source: The post is based on the article “Get to know about macrosomia, the condition that creates gigantic babies” published in Economic Times on 2nd February 2023 What is the News? A mother in Brazil recently gave birth to a two-foot-tall baby weighing 7.3kg. This is called as Macrosomia. Note: A newborn boy typically weighs… Continue reading Get to know about macrosomia, the condition that creates gigantic babies

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New income tax regime: A nudge on income tax mustn’t become a shove

Source: The post is based on the article “A nudge on income tax mustn’t become a shove” published in the Livemint on 3rd February 2023. Syllabus: GS 3 – Government Budgeting. Relevance: About the new income tax regime. News: In the Budget 2023-24, the government introduced a new income tax regime. About the new tax regime… Continue reading New income tax regime: A nudge on income tax mustn’t become a shove

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Current insight on the mechanisms of Cobra venom cytotoxins can help anti-venom therapy

Source: The post is based on the article “Current insight on the mechanisms of Cobra venom cytotoxins can help anti-venom therapy” published in PIB on 3rd February 2023 What is the News? Scientists have traced the mechanisms of the toxic action of cobra venom paving a path towards developing strategies for application of antivenom which… Continue reading Current insight on the mechanisms of Cobra venom cytotoxins can help anti-venom therapy

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Tamil Nadu’s proposed Pen Monument to Karunanidhi’s memory — the plan and the criticism

Source: The post is based on the article “Tamil Nadu’s proposed Pen Monument to Karunanidhi’s memory — the plan and the criticism” published in Indian Express on 3rd February 2023. What is the News? A public hearing for the proposed ‘Pen Monument’ in memory of late Tamil Nadu chief minister and DMK patriarch M Karunanidhi… Continue reading Tamil Nadu’s proposed Pen Monument to Karunanidhi’s memory — the plan and the criticism

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Budget 2023: 80,000 start-ups exempt from angel tax, says gov

Source: The post is based on the article “Budget 2023: 80,000 start-ups exempt from angel tax, says gov” published in Business Standard on 3rd February 2023 What is the News? The Finance Minister has made several announcements related to the startup sector in the Union Budget 2023-24. What are the announcements made in the Budget… Continue reading Budget 2023: 80,000 start-ups exempt from angel tax, says gov

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Union Budget 2023-24: Push for ELS cotton yield to reduce imports

Source: The post is based on the article “Union Budget 2023-24: Push for ELS cotton yield to reduce imports” published in The Hindu on 3rd February 2023 What is the News? The Budget has proposed to enhance the productivity of extra-long staple (ELS) cotton through public-private partnerships. This is meant to lower the import dependence… Continue reading Union Budget 2023-24: Push for ELS cotton yield to reduce imports

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No bar on contesting two seats in one poll

Source: The post is based on the article “No bar on contesting two seats in one poll” published in The Hindu on 3rd February 2023 What is the News? The Supreme Court has refused to set aside a provision in the election law which allows candidates to contest polls from two constituencies simultaneously. What was… Continue reading No bar on contesting two seats in one poll

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CITES database reveals red sanders smuggling

Source: The post is based on the article “CITES database reveals red sanders smuggling” published in The Hindu on 3rd February 2023 What is the News? The CITES trade database has recorded 28 incidents of red sanders confiscation, seizure and specimens from the wild being exported from India. What is Red Sanders? Red Sanders(Pterocarpus santalinus)… Continue reading CITES database reveals red sanders smuggling

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Health ministry’s fight against sickle cell anaemia to follow Gujarat playbook

Source: The post is based on the article “Health ministry’s fight against sickle cell anaemia to follow Gujarat playbook” published in Economic Times on 2nd February 2023 What is the News? The Finance Minister has announced that the government will work towards the mission to eliminate sickle-cell anaemia while presenting the Union Budget 2023-24 in… Continue reading Health ministry’s fight against sickle cell anaemia to follow Gujarat playbook

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Cut in MGNREGS outlay is not a concern: Somanathan

Source: The post is based on the article “Cut in MGNREGS outlay is not a concern: Somanathan” published in The Hindu on 3rd February 2023. What is the News? In the Union Budget 2023-24, the Union Government has reduced the allocation for the Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Scheme(MGNREGS). What is the MGNREGA allocation… Continue reading Cut in MGNREGS outlay is not a concern: Somanathan

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Union Budget 2023-24: Key Highlights – Explained, pointwise

For 7PM Editorial Archives click HERE → Introduction The Union Finance Minister has presented the Union Budget 2023-24 in the Parliament. This is the last full budget before the next year’s General Elections. There were apprehensions that the Budget may resort to populist measures ahead of the election year. However, most economic experts have observed that the Government… Continue reading Union Budget 2023-24: Key Highlights – Explained, pointwise

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[UPSC Interview 2022] – Transcript #12 : M Sathiyavathy Board, Law Optional,

Date of Interview: 1/02/2023 afternoon session. Board: M Sathiyavathy Background: Biomedical science Optional: law. Profession: Deputy jailor. Hobbies: feeding stray animals, mimicking Bollywood artists. As usual start by ma’am reading daf to all members. To view all IAS Interview Transcripts 2022, visit this page Chairman Explain ur gap year ….. feeding stray is menace don’t you… Continue reading [UPSC Interview 2022] – Transcript #12 : M Sathiyavathy Board, Law Optional,

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