9 PM Daily Current Affairs Brief – June 10th, 2022

Dear Friends,

We have initiated some changes in the 9 PM Brief and other postings related to current affairs. What we sought to do:

  1. Ensure that all relevant facts, data, and arguments from today’s newspaper are readily available to you.
  2. We have widened the sources to provide you with content that is more than enough and adds value not just for GS but also for essay writing. Hence, the 9 PM brief now covers the following newspapers:
    1. The Hindu  
    2. Indian Express  
    3. Livemint  
    4. Business Standard  
    5. Times of India 
    6. Down To Earth
    7. PIB
  3. We have also introduced the relevance part to every article. This ensures that you know why a particular article is important.
  4. Since these changes are new, so initially the number of articles might increase, but they’ll go down over time.
  5. It is our endeavor to provide you with the best content and your feedback is essential for the same. We will be anticipating your feedback and ensure the blog serves as an optimal medium of learning for all the aspirants.
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Current Affairs Compilations for UPSC IAS Prelims 2022

Mains Oriented Articles

GS Paper 2

GS Paper 3

Prelims Oriented Articles (Factly)

Mains Oriented Articles

GS Paper 2

Gagan Deep Sharma writes: Celebrating Indian universities’ rise in global rankings

Source: This post is based on the article “Gagan Deep Sharma writes: Celebrating Indian universities’ rise in global rankings” published in The Indian Express on 10th June 22.

Syllabus: GS2 – Issues related to development and management of education

Relevance: Higher education in India and related issues

News: In the recently announced QS World Universities Rankings 2023, Indian higher educational institutions have done their best to date.

Seven universities have made a grand entry this year, while 17 universities ascended and 17 others stood unwavering on their previous year’s position as the world’s top higher educational institutions.

The 20% increase in new entrants has pushed India up the ladder.

What are the QS World rankings?

It is the world’s largest and most remarkable annual survey of academic opinion, the QS rankings evaluate a university’s performance by measuring the sentiments of academic stakeholders over six performance indicators —

a) academic reputation, b) employer reputation, c) faculty/student ratio, d) citations per faculty (CpF), e) international faculty ratio, and f) international student ratio.

The globalisation of education has transformed the way institutional excellence is measured. Hence, the elite status of world-class universities now also relies on international recognition from university rankings.

How have the Indian educational institutions fared in the latest rankings?

The 19th edition of the rankings draws a stronger picture of India.

Nine institutions of eminence are ranked in the top 1,000, five in the top 500, and three in the top 200.

In the prestigious band of the top 200 are the Indian Institute of Science (155), IIT-Bombay at 172nd, and IIT-Delhi at 174th globally, moving up 31, five, and 11 places respectively from the previous year’s score. IIT-Indore debuts at an impressive 396th rank globally among the new entrants.

The University of Madras lands in the 541-550 band, while Chandigarh University (800-1000) is the youngest university to secure a spot on the list.

It is historic that after a gap of 10 years, all Indian institutions in the top 500 have improved their ranking.

What are the parameters on which Indian univ have improved?

Indian universities have established a significant global standing in the QS World Rankings 2023, with the highlight being

the improved faculty/student ratio

citation per faculty

international student admissions

male/female student enrollment ratio.

All this has happened due to the conscious efforts of the government towards improving the standards of higher education.

Way forward

Despite the improvement, there are also a number of areas that call for immediate attention of the government.

State expenditure on education as a percentage of GDP

India’s spending on research has been low for decades

Issues of mobility of international faculty and students.

Lastly, India doesn’t have education penetration to the last mile. This is something which the government aims to rectify through its target of achieving a 50 per cent Gross Enrolment Ratio by the year 2035 against 26.3 per cent in 2018, as envisaged in the NEP.

The government should address these issues to make India’s education system strong, inclusive, and equitable.

Ties reset: On India-Iran relations

Source: This post is based on the article “Ties reset: On India-Iran relations” published in The Hindu on 10th June 22.

Syllabus: GS2 – International Relations

Relevance: India – Iran bilateral ties

News: Iranian Foreign Minister’s first visit to India recently has many implications for bilateral relations, but it is the multilateral context and timing that stand out.

Why the visit holds significance?

This is the first visit by a member of the 57-member Organisation for Islamic Cooperation, which took offence to comments made in India on the Prophet.

The controversy has overshadowed India’s other diplomatic engagements. As a result, this visit was an opportunity for India to project that it has successfully calmed the Islamic world with the actions of the ruling BJP against its spokespersons.

The Iranian visit comes a week after that of Israeli Defence Minister. New Delhi has always sought to run a balance in ties between the two rivals.

It also coincides with the meeting of the Board of Governors of the IAEA in Vienna, which has passed strictures against Iran for its nuclear programme.

For Mr. Abollahaian, the visit would be portrayed as a show of support from a powerful country.

Afghanistan issue: In addition, Iran and India discussed the situation in Afghanistan under the Taliban, just days after an Indian envoy made the first outreach to Kabul.

To this end, India and Iran have discussed further operationalising the Chabahar port, where goods to Afghanistan were sent before the government in Kabul fell last year.

Finally, against the backdrop of the Russian war in Ukraine, and western sanctions, Iran has also been keen to convince New Delhi to restore its crude oil purchases, which it cancelled in 2019, after threats of U.S. sanctions.

External Affairs Minister of India made a statement wherein he called for the U.S. and Europe to allow Iranian and Venezuelan oil back into the international market if they want India to lower Russian oil imports. He accused the West of “squeezing” all alternative sources for India.

What are the bilateral issues b/w two countries?

Many promises of the last summit in Delhi left unrealised.

India has drastically cut its Iranian engagement due to sanctions, while Iran has looked to China for more infrastructure investment.

Bilateral trade dropped to just over $2 billion (2020-21) from $17 billion (2017-18).

Ties also appeared to have been hit by New Delhi’s surprise decision to join the Israel-India-UAE-U.S. group, portrayed as an “anti-Iran” coalition.

Way forward

Mr. Abdullohaian’s visit, and a possible visit by Iranian President Ebrahim Raisi, may be the start of a reset of traditionally strong ties even if it is one that is affected by developments in other parts of the world.

An enduring agreement bridging India-Pakistan ties

Source: The post is based on an article “An enduring agreement bridging India-Pakistan ties” published in the “The Hindu” on 10th June 2022.

Syllabus: GS2 International Relations; Bilateral

Relevance: Indo-Pakistan Relations

News: Recently, the 118th meeting of the Permanent Indus Commission (PIC) comprising the Indus Commissioners of India and Pakistan was held on May 30-31, 2022 in New Delhi,

About the Indus Waters Treaty (IWT)

It is a water-distribution treaty between India and Pakistan that was established in 1960. It makes arrangements to use water in the Indus and its tributaries.

About Treaty

It was signed in Karachi on September 19, 1960. It was negotiated by the World Bank.

The treaty establishes a cooperative mechanism for exchanging information between the two countries. It is regarding the use of the western rivers (Indus, Jhelum, Chenab) allocated to Pakistan and the eastern rivers (Ravi, Beas, Sutlej) allocated to India.

It allows each country to use the rivers allocated to the other for certain purposes such as irrigation and hydroelectricity.

The Permanent Indus Commission oversees the cooperative mechanism. It ensures that the two countries meet annually to discuss myriad issues emerging from the treaty.

What are the challenges in implementation of the treaty?

India-Pakistan relations are mired by the high politics resulting in a political stalemate between the two countries.

Both countries have objected to the technical design features of one or the other hydroelectric projects.

– For example, although India is permitted to construct hydroelectric power facilities on the western rivers, but Pakistan has objected to the Kishanganga and Ratle plants located on the tributaries of the Jhelum and the Chenab, respectively

Similarly, Pakistan raised objections on the construction and technical designs of the Pakal Dul and Lower Kalnai hydropower plants located on Marusudar river, a tributary of the Chenab.

Similarly, India has raised concerns on Pakistan’s blockade of the Fazilka drain, which resulted in water contamination in the border areas.

To resolve differences over Kishanganga and Ratle HEP plants, Pakistan approached the World Bank to facilitate the setting up of a court of arbitration, and India requested the appointment of a Neutral Expert on the settlement of differences and dispute of the treaty. Therefore, the World Bank appointed both a neutral expert and a chairman for the court of arbitration. However, an acceptable solution has not been found.

Achievements of the TWT

Notwithstanding the differences, both countries have so far endeavoured to amicably address all such issues. Both sides have assured to implement the treaty in letter and spirit.

The treaty is an illustration of a long-standing engagement between the conflicting nations that has stood the vagaries of time.

It has withstood tensions, including conflict, providing a framework for cooperation.

The treaty is considered one of the oldest and the most effective examples of water management cooperation in the region and the world. For example, 118th bilateral meeting corroborates its effectiveness.

Way Forward

Potential for cooperation

The treaty can help to tackle the challenges of climate change. India & Pakistan can undertake joint research on the rivers to study the impact of climate change for ‘future cooperation’.

The treaty offers great potential for cooperation, development, ensuring peace and stability in the subcontinent

The Treaty can be a reference point to resolve other water-related issues in the region through regular dialogue and interaction.

The Jal Jeevan and Swachh Bharat Missions are combining to improve people’s well-being

Source: The post is based on an article “The Jal Jeevan and Swachh Bharat Missions are combining to improve people’s well-being” published in the Indian Express on 10th June 2022.

Syllabus: GS 2 Government Policies and Interventions for Development in various sectors and Issues arising out of their Design and Implementation.

Relevance: Jal Jeevan Mission and Swachh Bharat Mission

News: The government has launched Swachh Bharat Mission Phase-2. It will focus on plastic waste management, biodegradable solid waste management, grey water management and faecal sludge management.

About Schemes

The Swachh Bharat Mission: It was launched to stop the scourge of open defecation. More than 10 crore toilets were built with a twin-pit design that has in-situ treatment of faecal sludge.

The Jal Jeevan Mission: It was launched in 2010. It is aimed at providing tap water connections to over 9.6 crore rural households.

The Concept of Convergence

Ex-FM Arun Jaitley introduced convergence as one of the primary operating principles of the government in his first budget speech.

There is a power of unity. One stick may break but when many sticks are bundled together, it’s impossible to break the stack. The unity lies in convergence between ideas, projects and schemes.

About Swachh Bharat Mission Phase-2: – Convergence of the Jal Jeevan Mission and Swachh Bharat Mission-

Both, the Jal Jeevan Mission and the Swachh Bharat Mission faced the challenge of managing grey water discharge. About 70% of all household water turns into grey water, which can lead to undesirable consequences, if discharged untreated.

Therefore, the Jal Jeevan Mission has been converged with the Swachh Bharat Mission under SBA to achieve holistic sanitation in which the treatment of grey water became a vital component.

Under SBA Phase-2, arrangements for solid and liquid waste management have been made in the focussed areas.

Under the second phase, the government will have the continuous pursuit of perfection like covering loose ends, plugging gaps in delivery and taking the benefits to the last man in line.

Agenda of Swachh Bharat Mission’s Phase 2

Two-thirds of all toilets which were not connected to the main sewer lines during SBA-1 will be connected. This will lead to a solution to the problem of untreated faecal sludge which at present does not find entry into sewer lines.

It will also address India’s plastic waste pollution problem which is staggering at present

Both Jal Jeevan Mission (JJM) and Swachh Bharat Abhiyan (SBA) are centred around the dignity of women.

(1) JJM aims to relieve women of the drudgery of travelling long distances to fetch water, and

(2) The Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation and UNICEF survey revealed that 80% of the respondents stated that safety and security were the main drivers of their decision to construct toilets. Around 93% of women reported feeling safe and said that they had found dignity in using household toilets.

(3) The Jal Jeevan Mission reserves 50% seats for women in village and water sanitation committees. In every village, at least five women have been entrusted with water quality surveillance etc.

Achievements of SBA-2 So Far

3.5 lakh villages have become plastic dump free and nearly 4.23 lakh villages have minimal litter.

Nearly 178 faecal sludge treatment plants and nearly 90,000 km of drains have been constructed.

Importance of these schemes

A 2006 study revealed that inadequate sanitation cost India 6% of India’s GDP or Rs 2.4 trillion at that time. Thus, SBM apart from preventing GDP loss, provides annual benefits worth Rs 53,000 per household.

Way Forward

These schemes should be regarded as stepping stones to taking on tougher challenges. It strikes at the root of social problems.

Himalayan challenge: To build better along LAC is necessary, but against China, so are strategic friends

Source: The post is based on the article “Himalayan challenge: To build better along LAC is necessary, but against China, so are strategic friends” published in “The Times of India” on 10th June 2022.

Syllabus: GS2 – India and its neighbourhood- relations

Relevance: Understanding the challenges associated with Chinese infrastructure along LAC.

News: US Army’s Pacific Commanding General visiting India has drawn attention to China’s rapid build-up of military infrastructure along the LAC.

What is the new infrastructure being built by China along LAC?

China is rapidly building a dual-use border infrastructure. China is building troop shelters, gun positions, helipads and other infrastructure in disputed areas in eastern Ladakh to border villages along with Arunachal Pradesh. Add to this, two new Chinese bridges across the Pangong Tso.

Must read: Explained: Strategic significance of bridge China is building on Pangong Tso
What are the implications of Chinese infrastructure along LAC?

These infrastructures might solidify China’s position all across the 3,488 km LAC. Further, the construction denotes China’s aggressive foreign policy posture and border standoff with India might continue in future.

How India is responding to the Chinese infrastructure along LAC?

Ramped up border infrastructure development: In the last year’s budget, the government has increased the capital outlay for the Border Roads Organisation (BRO) by 40%. This included a six-fold hike in allocation for Arunachal Pradesh’s Border Area Development Programme.

India has quickened the pace of its border infrastructure development since the Galwan clashes, inaugurating multiple bridges and border roads along the LAC.

Further, India is also planning to enhance rail connectivity in the Northeast.

Focusing on faster implementation: In May 2020, the Government has increased the BRO’s procurement powers from Rs 7.5 crore to Rs 100 crore. Thus allowing BRO to acquire critical equipment for speedier laying of border roads and other construction.

What should be done?

However, in terms of resources, China still outpaces India. Hence, India needs to simultaneously engage in tactical collaboration with the US and other countries concerned about Chinese belligerence.

The upcoming Yudh Abhyas joint exercise with Americans in the Himalayas and the finalising of a logistics support pact with Vietnam are steps in the right direction.

GS Paper 3

CDS: Unsettled questions

Source: This post is based on the article “CDS: Unsettled questions” published in the Business Standard on 9th Jun 22.

Syllabus: GS3 – Various Security Forces & Agencies & Their Mandate

Relevance: The office of Chief of Defence Staff (CDS)

News: The government has recently announced eligibility conditions for the post of Chief of Defence Staff (CDS).

There is a noticeable difference between the CDS the government wanted in 2019 and what it seems to want today.

It is disconcerting that the government has modified the eligibility criteria for appointment as CDS so early in the life of the institution. This raises the question: Was the structure of the CDS, as conceived by the government’s top decision makers, flawed?

What changes have been introduced in the eligibility conditions?

Post opened for retired officers: The most obvious difference between the 2019 eligibility conditions and the ones the government has promulgated now is that a lieutenant general, vice admiral or air marshal (referred to collectively as lieutenant generals hereafter) who has retired up to two years ago can now be recalled to serve as CDS for up to three years until he reaches the age of 65.

It is unclear why the defence ministry is opening the post for retired officers.

Do the three serving chiefs and 17-odd serving army commanders, all of them senior lieutenant generals, not provide the government with adequate options?

Issues with the conditions

A service a lieutenant general who has retired as far back as two years ago will be rusty in his knowledge of current developments

– Appointing a retired lieutenant general as CDS would only give rise to suspicion that the eligibility criteria were framed in order to elevate that particular individual.

Experience has shown that allowing retired officers to return to service in elevated positions usually does not turn out well.

Nor would recalling to service a retired lieutenant general, to tenant the post of CDS, provide an answer to the contentious questions relating to the CDS’s precedence and seniority.

Currently, the three service chiefs, all the equivalent of full generals, are senior to the defence secretary. Army commanders (who hold the rank of lieutenant general) are the equivalent of secretaries.

The 2019 order creating the CDS appointed him “secretary” and the head of the Department of Military Affairs (DMA). That created a conundrum: If the service chiefs are senior to the defence secretary, how can the CDS— by virtue of being secretary heading the DMA — be the equivalent of the defence secretary and, therefore, junior to the three army chiefs?

There would be rough edges to the policy even within the three services since, technically, an army commander, who is junior to the service chiefs, could supersede them to become CDS.

The new CDS policy must address these issues.

Way forward

There is an inescapable need to appoint the CDS to take forward the military’s agenda of equipment modernisation, manpower rationalisation and, perhaps most urgently, the creation of integrated, tri-service theatre commands.

Other CDS responsibilities that warrant no delay are his role as advisor to the Nuclear Command Authority and implementation of the Five-Year Defence Capital Acquisition Plan and the Two-Year Roll-On Annual Acquisition Plans.

Fintech challenge is a fantasy

Source: This post is based on the article “Fintech challenge is a fantasy” published in The Business Standard on 9th June 22.

Syllabus: GS3 – Economy – Money and banking

Relevance: Fintech sector and related issues

News: The government is poised to launch 75 digital banks soon.

What will be launched are Digital Banking Units (DBUs). These are a new way of making available digital products of existing banks and non-banking financial companies (NBFCs).

If one thinks that a sleek set of new banks is going to challenge traditional banks, one is mistaken.

What are Digital Banking Units (DBUs)?

These are the outlets where people can avail of banking products, mostly on their own.

There will be personnel to assist them, but these will be kept to the minimum.

In other words, a DBU can be seen as a branch that operates mostly in a digital (or paperless) mode.

DBUs are one way in which digital products can be offered. In this model, the digital products stay within the bank.

What are the advantages offered by DBUs?

By eliminating paper, DBUs can reduce processing time and help enhance employee productivity.

What are the challenges?

Even highly literate customers prefer the convenience of walking into a normal branch to meet many of their banking needs. To suppose that in under-served areas, people will be able to help themselves to any but the most basic banking products (say, deposits) is a stretch.

DBUs may be able to grow deposits quickly, but they are unlikely to be able to do much on the asset or fee income side.

What are Neo-banks?

Digital products can also be offered through digital banking subsidiaries or by standalone digital banks (neo-banks)

In the late 1990s and early 2000s when online banking came into fashion abroad, banks did experiment with digital banking subsidiaries. These did not work and were subsumed into the parent. Standalone banks based on internet banking did not survive either.

Standalone digital banks have made a comeback, thanks to the mobile phone. They are part of the broader category of players labelled fintech.

What are the various ways in which fintech can happen?

Fintech, which is the provision of financial products through electronic platforms, can happen in three ways.

One, through entities that compete with banks (such as digital banks).

Two, through entities that collaborate with banks by providing a range of services, such as customer acquisition, KYC checks, loan processing and screening, loan collection, risk management, customer management and so on.

Three, through entities that eliminate the need for financial intermediation, for example, peer-to-peer lending platforms.

Are digital banks a threat to traditional banks?

Unlikely. These banks do not target traditional banks head on due to the following factors:

Digital banks take higher risks and are often suffer from poor margins and profitability.

Target different customer base: Digital banks typically target high risk customers that banks tend to avoid. These include: a) Individuals with lower incomes or lower credit scores, b) commercial real estate and c) unsecured lending.

Digital banks’ potential for fee income is lower because they deal with lower income clients.

High marketing expenses: What they save on non-establishment of brick and mortar branches is more than offset by huge marketing expenses. Not surprisingly, most are loss-making.

Centrality of bank branches: The experience of the past two decades suggests that the centrality of the branch to banking remains. Digital banking cannot wholly substitute the branch when it comes to customer acquisition. It is a tool for customer retention, an added service that banks provide by way of holding on to customers.

Banks have always adapted to the challenges thrown at them by competitors, like NBFCs and fintechs. They have evolved their business model by providing high-yielding products that the competition is offering, or acquiring the competition altogether.

Hence, the notion that fintech will displace banks is a fantasy. Banks will imitate fintechs or swallow them, they aren’t going to disappear.

Way forward

Digital banks are lightly regulated at the moment. They are a threat, not so much to banks, as to banking stability on account of the systemic risk they pose. Hence, they need to be regulated tightly.

Avoiding the coal scarcity trap

Source: The post is based on an article “Avoiding the coal scarcity trap” published in the Indian Express on 10th June 2022.

Syllabus: GS 3 Infrastructure: Energy

Relevance: Power Crisis

News: In 2021, the Indian government gave instructions to generators to import coal while India was in the midst of a power crisis. It directed the power stations itself to import coal to the extent of 4% of their requirement and blend it with domestic coal.

What are the causes of the power crisis?

India has been facing high power demand due to the sudden early onset of summer in 2022, and the post-Covid economic recovery.

The Russia-Ukraine conflict has led to a sharp increase in the price of imported coal. Therefore, the average price of imported coal is about $140 per tonne against about $60 per tonne a year ago.

Power stations designed on imported coal stopped importing because it was no longer economical for them to generate, given their contract price with the distribution companies. The stations started hunting for domestic coal as a substitute, thus putting pressure on domestic coal.

The domestic coal supply has seen disruption due to the issue of availability of railway rakes for transportation.

Measures taken by the government to deal with the power crisis situation

First, all generators have been asked to import coal to the extent of 10% (as against 4% earlier). Instead of a generator, Coal India will import the coal and function as the aggregator on behalf of the generators. CIL can import at a cheaper cost by accumulating demand as well as standardising the coal grade to be procured.

Second, the government has directed imported coal-based plants to run at full capacity. They have been given assurance that their enhanced cost of operation would be compensated. Further, if power plants fail to import coal and curtails domestic coal entitlements, they will be penalized.

Third, in order to ease the burden on the availability of railway rakes, the concept of tolling has been implemented. The states can transfer their allotted coal to private generators located near the mines instead of transporting it to far away state generators.

Fourth, the Central Electricity Regulatory Commission (CERC) has to seek the consent of beneficiaries if the tariff went up by more than 30%, if some alternate fuel is used.

Fifth, a committee of officials has been set up to rework the energy charge for imported coal-based generators.

Sixth, the government has advised REC/PFC to arrange for the additional working capital.

Whether the government can really give a direction to private generators to import coal at a higher cost?

As per Section 11, the government may direct a generating company to operate and maintain any generating station in extraordinary circumstances.

Further, the Appropriate Commission may offset the adverse financial impact of the issued directions on any generating company in such manner as it considers appropriate.”

What are the issues the government’s directions?

First, there are elements of trust deficit b/w the government and the regulator. For example, in accordance to Section 11(2), the regulator has to work out the energy charge rather than setting up a committee of officials to do so. Further, the adverse financial impact would be offset by the regulator.

Second, the revision of the energy costs by the committee have been done without transparency with respect to the coal cost, its calorific value, transportation cost, etc. Therefore, a major generator has objected to the energy charge, calling it an underestimation by about 33%.

Third, the coal problem has been because of the non-availability of rakes in India.

Way Forward

There is a need for 1,000 additional rakes to ferry 38 MT of coal over five months. In addition, there should be no dip in the production of domestic coal during the monsoon season.

Global hunger calls for a collective action

Source: The post is based on an article “Global hunger calls for a collective action” published in the Live Mint on 10th June 2022.

Syllabus: GS 3 Issues of Buffer Stocks and Food Security

Relevance: Food Security

News: In a statement, the United Nations’ Secretary General, said that: Global hunger levels are at a new high. In just two years, the number of severely food insecure people has doubled from 135 million to 276 million.

The present situation is pointing towards a global food shortage. It may push millions of people into food insecurity, followed by malnutrition, mass hunger and famine, in a crisis that could last for years.

What are the causes of stress?

Proximate Causes

The coronavirus pandemic created food insecurity by disrupting agricultural production, supply-chains and livelihoods.

The cost of energy and fertilizers rose sharply due to high crude oil prices between late 2020 and early 2022.

The Russia-Ukraine war has disrupted world wheat exports and world maize exports, as both countries are major exporters. This has been due to blockades and economic sanctions.

Climate change has impacted wheat yield in 2022. For example, the world’s largest producer of wheat (China) is facing rain, the world’s second-largest producer of wheat (India) is facing an unprecedented heat wave, the US wheat belts have insufficient rain etc.

Another cause of concern is that world prices of wheat have risen by 60% in less than six months. In addition, energy, fertilizers and pesticides are surging which will adversely impact agricultural output.

The availability of food grains for human consumption is constrained not only by output levels, but also by alternative uses. For example,

(a) 33% of maize produced in the US and 40% of wheat produced by the EU is fed to cows.

(b) proportion of grains and vegetable oils are used to make biofuels—ethanol and biodiesel.

Ultimate Causes

There is a deeper structural problem in the world food system.

(1) production and exports are concentrated in 10-12 countries. like Eleven countries account for 70% of global wheat production. Just ten countries account for 86% of world wheat exports.

(2) A relatively small proportion of world output —25% for wheat and 15% for maize—is exported. The rich countries are the major exporters.

(3) Similarly, just ten countries account for 83% of world imports. All ten are developing countries. Around 2/3rd of the world’s population lives in these countries in the developing world.

(4) The regions that are dependent on wheat imports for food are North Africa, Sub-Saharan Africa and the Middle East. Russia and Ukraine provide 25%-75% of their wheat imports.

(5) Poor is the most vulnerable section in these countries which are hardest hit. They spend at least 40%, of their income on food. As per Amartya Sen’s analysis in Poverty and Famines, famine deaths are caused due to income shortage rather than food shortages.


The poor countries cannot afford to buy scarce food at high prices. Therefore, poor will suffer hunger and starvation

The situation will further unleash economic, social and political tensions within these countries in the developing world, which could spill over across national boundaries.

Way Forward

Global hunger is a global problem. It requires international collective action instead of national actions in isolation. Therefore, the measures should be implemented with solidarity through cooperation.

Is the ban on wheat exports good policy?

Source: The post is based on an article “Is the ban on wheat exports good policy” published in the “The Hindu” on 10th June 2022.

Syllabus: GS3 Marketing of Agricultural Produce and Issues and Related Constraints

Relevance: Wheat export ban

News: Over the last month, the government has banned the export of wheat and imposed quantitative restrictions on outbound sugar shipments.

The wheat export ban came within days of a push to enhance India’s wheat supplies to the rest of the world after Russia’s invasion of Ukraine.

The government has argued that farmers have not lost out due to the ban, as most had already sold their produce this season.

The article is a discussion with experts who consider the efficacy of these curbs.

Export opportunities

Even before the Ukraine-Russia war, global food prices were increasing because of excess liquidity across the world.

The war gave India an opportunity to export more wheat. Ukraine and Russia export contributed 55 million tonnes to the global export market out of 200 million tonnes. Farmers were getting higher Open market prices (Rs. 2,400 a quintal) compared to the MSP (Rs. 2,100).

Last year, India exported 8 million tonnes out of global exports of around 64 million tonnes. Now, there is no shortage of sugar production this year. We are expecting 35 million tonnes.

Argument in favour of the government decision

The government has argued that farmers have not lost out due to the ban as most had already sold their produce this season.

Almost 30 countries have implemented the policy of export curbs per se. They have a sovereign right to do so.

The Minister of Food and Consumer Affairs has said local wheat prices have fallen by about Rs. 5 a kg.

What are the issues with the export ban?

The export ban might not help to curtail inflation and to address the upcoming issue of food security. The wheat procurement season is more or less over. This will not keep the prices down or help the government to procure and prepare better for food security.

Present trade policy for agriculture is full of ad-hocism or muddled policy-making. It has been without planning. For example, earlier, the government was exploring wheat export opportunities. Soon, it imposed an export ban.

This gives a wrong signal to domestic farmers as well as traders.

It would have impacts on farmers’ incomes as well as the long-term credibility of the export policy.

The impact on inflation may not be very high because global food prices are still high.

In the last few years, Indian farmers were receiving low prices, due to the slowdown in the economy and the pandemic. However, the export opportunities provided avenues for better incomes.

Way Forward

Instead of an outright export ban, the government could have opted for some incentive and disincentive like a minimum export price and there could have been a bonus of Rs. 250 to Rs. 300 in order to spur more procurement for food security goals.

There should be a more cohesive, consistent, stable and predictable agricultural policy not just for exports, but also for incentives and market interventions.

The policies should take care of farmers. For consumers, social protection programmes can act as a support rather than a reduction in farm prices.

There is a need for diversification. It is important for food security, and nutrition security because many of the poor are not able to buy pulses or eggs and meat in India.

In addition, farmer incomes can be increased by putting emphasis on input costs in addition to output prices. Where input prices grow faster than output prices, farmers actually make losses rather than higher incomes.

There should be focus on giving farmers the freedom to sell where and when they want. For example, to the private players.

A large country like India cannot have one system for the entire country because there are so many variations in soil, climate. etc. So, the centre should leave to the States do agricultural reform

Moderation’s broken but this isn’t the way to fix it

Source: The post is based on the article “Moderation’s broken but this isn’t the way to fix it” published in the “Livemint” on 10th June 2022.

Syllabus: GS3 – Role of media and social networking sites in internal security challenges

Relevance: Understanding the challenges associated with the draft amendment to the Information Technology(IT) Rules 2021.

News: The Ministry of Electronics and Information Technology(MEITY) has released a fresh draft of the amendment to the Information Technology(IT) Rules 2021.

What are the draft new amendments to the IT Rules,2021?
Read here: Union Govt seeks fresh comments on Draft IT Rules
What are the issues associated with the draft amendments?

1) State oversight of moderation could open the doors for overreach and censorship, 2) There will be debates on free speech in social media as the state-appointed entity judging the contents, 3) Challenges with last year IT rules: Many of last year’s IT Rules were legally challenged and both the Bombay and Madras high courts have stayed provisions that asked digital news companies to comply with a three-tier grievance redressal mechanism headed by the government.

Note: India’s last year IT rules asked for messages to be traceable, for instance, which would technically require all chats decrypted.

What could be done?

The idea of self-regulation by platforms: Authorities worldwide have been trying to hold Google, Facebook, Twitter, YouTube, etc, accountable for the spread of fake information. Globally, Facebook has an oversight board that has not achieved much. Their self-regulation addresses only a fraction of disputes between users and moderators.

India could have a pan-industry panel containing eminent Indian jurists and other such citizens known for their independence to oversee an arbitration team. Further, they should be equipped with resources and expertise to resolve a rising number of complaints.

Web3 is the business model of a decentralized new virtual world

Source: The post is based on the article “Web3 is the business model of a decentralized new virtual world” published in the “Livemint” on 10th June 2022.

Syllabus: GS3 – Awareness in the fields of IT

Relevance: Understanding the concept of Web 3.0, its characteristics and examples.

News: Practical examples of Web 3.0 proved that it is like going back to early human settlements, with all transactions happening peer-to-peer with easy mutual trust and locally minted currency.

Blockchains provide the decentralized foundation of trust for this new old world, and Web 3.0 is the business model driving it.

What is Web 3.0?

Web 3.0 is decentralized, owned by the user community, uses blockchain technology, and is powered by cryptocurrency.

What makes Web 3.0 unique?

Some other unique characteristics include,

Permissionless: Since one does not need the consent of a controlling entity like Facebook or Google to engage.

Ubiquitous: With the internet is available everywhere to everyone, even to machines.

Leader-free: As users participate as equals in a project’s governance and ownership through crypto-tokens as proof-of-stake.

It is also Trustless: As transactions and interactions can happen without the need of a central authority.

What are the real-world examples of Web 3.0?

Helium is a decentralized wi-fi network, owned by everyone and powered by cryptocurrency.

Arcade City is a decentralised taxi service, owned by a cooperative of drivers.

Israeli startup La Zooz’ is a self-managed ride-sharing platform, that connects drivers with empty seats and riders.

Axie Infinity is a video game popular in Asia, especially in the Philippines.

How does web 3.0 evolve?

Web 1.0 was about reading static content pages on MSN, Yahoo or AOL in 1990s.

Web 2.0 burst forth in 2005 with Facebook, Twitter, YouTube, etc. This facilitated people with creating and posting their own content. This is a highly centralized model.

Web 3.0 goes beyond active participation by letting persons own and build pieces of it through ownership tokens and blockchain enablers.

Overall, If the pre-internet/web1 era favoured publishers, and the web2 era favoured the platforms, Web 3.0 favours the next generation of innovations. Further, it is all about tilting the scales of power and ownership back toward creators assessed users.

Must read: Web 3.0: The future of internet? – Explained, pointwise

Prelims Oriented Articles (Factly)

World Investment Report: India 7th in FDI inflows: UNCTAD

Source: The post is based on the article “India 7th in FDI inflows: UNCTAD” published in TOI on 10th June 2022.

What is the News?

The United Nations Conference on Trade and Development(UNCTAD) has released the World Investment Report.

What are the key findings of the report?
Global findings
World Investment Report
Source: TOI

The United States ($367 billion) remained the top recipient of FDI in 2021. It was followed by China ($181 billion) and Hong Kong ($141 billion).

FDI Inflows recovered to pre-pandemic levels in 2021 hitting nearly USD 1.6 trillion.

However, the prospects for 2022 are grimmer as it will be impacted by the security and humanitarian crises caused by the Ukraine war, macroeconomic shocks set off by the conflict, energy and food price hikes and by increased investor uncertainty.

Findings related to India

India jumped one position to 7th among the top recipients of foreign direct investment (FDI) in 2021 despite FDI inflows into the country declining. 

Note: The FDI inflows into India declined to $45 billion in 2021 from $64 billion in the preceding year as large mergers and acquisitions, especially in the digital space were not repeated in 2021.

India’s FDI inflows in 2021 were the lowest since 2018, outflows were up by 43% at around $16 billion.

1st in Asia: Thailand legalizes marijuana but smoking pot still illegal

Source: The post is based on the article “1st in Asia: Thailand legalizes marijuana but smoking pot still illegal” published in TOI on 10th June 2022.

What is the News?

Thailand has ​​become the first country in Asia to decriminalize Marijuana which is also known as Cannabis.

Why has Thailand decriminalized Marijuana?

Thailand has decriminalized Marijuana with the aim of boosting its agriculture and tourism sectors.

Under decriminalization, it is no longer a crime in Thailand to grow and trade marijuana and hemp products, or use parts of the plant to treat illnesses. 

Cafes and restaurants can also serve cannabis-infused food and drinks — but only if the products contain less than 0.2% tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), the plant’s main psychoactive compound.

However, tough penalties remain in place under the Public Health Act including up to three months in jail and an $800 fine for smoking cannabis in public.

Which other countries permit the use of marijuana?

In 2018, Canada became the first G20 country to legalize the recreational use of cannabis. 

Uruguay legalized the recreational use of marijuana for all adults above the age of 18 in 2013.

Several European countries — including the Netherlands, Spain and the Czech Republic — permit smoking marijuana in public places.

In the US, the consumption of marijuana is legal in at least 20 states including Washington DC, New York and California.

Read more: Decriminalising Marijuana in India

Rhino reintroduction a hit in Assam Reserve

Source: The post is based on the article “Rhino reintroduction a hit in Assam Reserve” published in The Hindu on 10th June 2022.

What is the News?

The results of the 14th Assam Rhino Census conducted at Manas National park have been released.

What are the key findings of the 14th Assam Rhino Census?

Rhino Population

Manas National Park had about 100 One Horned Rhinos prior to 1990.But a prolonged ethno-political conflict thereafter took a heavy toll with extremist groups known to have traded the horns of the herbivores for weapons.

A rhino reintroduction programme under the Indian Rhino Vision 2020 was started in 2006.This entailed the translocation of rhinos from Kaziranga National Park and Pobitora Wildlife Sanctuary to Manas National Park.

Currently, the rhino population in the park has been estimated at 40.

What are the concerns?

The park does not have a wider representation of calves and sub-adults Rhinos to sustain the population structure.

Hence, a suitable strategy is to bring in more rhinos from other rhino-bearing areas so as to have a wider representation of calves and sub-adults over time.

Explained: Why bond yields are rising, and what it means for markets and investors

Source: The post is based on the article “Explained: Why bond yields are rising, and what it means for markets and investors” published in Indian Express on 10th June 2022.

What is the News?

In India, Bond yields have risen to their highest levels in the last three years.

What are Bond and Bond Yield?

A bond is a fixed income instrument that represents a loan made by an investor to a borrower (typically corporate or governmental). Bonds are used by companies, municipalities, states, and sovereign governments to finance projects and operations. 

Bond Yields are the returns on bonds. The movements of bond yields and prices are opposite to each other. When bond prices rise, yields fall and vice-versa.

Why are Bond Yields rising?

The reasons are a surge in global oil prices, high inflation and a large government borrowing programme. 

What is the impact of the rise in Bond Yields?

Impact on Government: The rise in Bond Yields means that the government will have to pay more as a yield (or return to investors), leading to a rise in the cost of borrowing. This will put upward pressure on general interest rates in the banking system.

Impact on Debt investors: Debt investors are set to get impacted. When yields rise and bond prices fall, net asset values of debt funds which hold a sizable chunk of government securities in their portfolios will also decline.

Impact on Equity Investors: Rising bond yields are generally not good news for equity investors as they raise the cost of funds for companies and start hurting their earnings. It thus leads to an outflow of funds from equities towards a less risky debt instrument. 

Union Minister launches Animal Vaccine and Kits developed by the ICAR-NRC on Equines

Sources: The post is based on the article Union Minister launches Animal Vaccine and Kits developed by the ICAR-NRC on Equines” published in PIB on 9th June 2022.

What is the News?

Union Minister of Agriculture & Farmers Welfare has launched Animal Vaccine and other Diagnostic Kits developed by the ICAR-National Research Center on Equines, Hisar, Haryana.

What are the Vaccines and kits developed by ICAR?

Ancovax Vaccine on Equines: It is an inactivated SARS-CoV-2 Delta (COVID-19) vaccine for animals. The immunity induced by Ancovax neutralizes both Delta and Omicron Variants of SARS-CoV-2. The vaccine is safe for dogs, lions, leopards, mice and rabbits.

CAN-CoV-2 ELISA Kit: It is a sensitive and specific nucleocapsid protein-based indirect ELISA Kit for antibody detection against SARS-CoV-2 in Canines. 

Surra ELISA Kit: It is a suitable Diagnostic Assay for Trypanosoma evansi infection in multiple animal species. 

– Note: The Surra is one of the most important haemoprotozoan diseases of the different livestock species caused by Trypanosoma evansi. The disease is prevalent in all the agro-climatic parts of India. In India, losses to livestock productivity are estimated to be Rs. 44.740 Billion annually due to Surra.

Equine DNA Parentage Testing Kit: It is a powerful genomic technology for parentage analysis. The Parentage among the Horses can be definitely established using Multiplex PCR Technology to compare allele sizes.

Diversify crops, shift rice to places that can support it: Central panel

Source: The post is based on the article “Diversify crops, shift rice to places that can support it: Central panel” published in Down To Earth on 10th June 2022.

What is the News?

The Commission for Agricultural Cost and Prices(CACP) has recommended the promotion of crop diversification, favouring oilseed crops amid the global inflation in oilseeds and vegetable oils prices.

What are the recommendations given by CACP?

Need for Crop Diversification

Dependence on rice-wheat cropping systems especially in States like Punjab, Haryana and western Uttar Pradesh has resulted in depletion of groundwater and deterioration of soil quality posing a serious challenge to its sustainability.

To overcome this challenge, farmers in these states can adopt crop diversification.

​​On the other hand, states like Chhattisgarh, Jharkhand, and Odisha can be encouraged for rice production owing to their sustainability in terms of land as well as water productivity.

Challenges associated with crop diversification

There have been several initiatives, especially in Punjab and Haryana to encourage crop diversification through incentives but not much progress has been made so far.

This is due to reasons such as— low returns and high risks from alternative crops, lack of assured marketing and remunerative prices, and non-availability of appropriate proven technology for alternative crops among others. 

Favour Oilseed Crops

Government should favour oilseed crops amid the global inflation in oilseeds and vegetable oil prices.

​​For instance, it should explore the possibilities of launching a modified version of the price deficiency payment scheme(PDPS), which allows only oilseeds farmers to receive upto 25% of the minimum support price (MSP) in case the mandi rates fall below the benchmark rate.

QS World University Rankings 2023: IISc Bengaluru tops Indian Varsity

Source: The post is based on the article “IISc Bengaluru tops Indian Varsitypublished in TOI on 10th June 2022.

What is the News?

Quacquarelli Symonds has released its QS World University Rankings 2023.

What is QS World University Rankings 2023?

QS World University Rankings is an annual publication of university rankings by Quacquarelli Symonds(QS).

Parameters: The rankings are based on six parameters — academic reputation (AR), employer reputation (ER), faculty-student ratio (FSR), citations per faculty (CpF), international faculty ratio and international students ratio.

What are the key takeaways from the rankings?
Global findings

Massachusetts Institute of Technology was declared the best university for the 11th straight year. 

The second place went to the University of Cambridge followed by Stanford University. 

Findings related to India
QS World University rankings
Source: Indian Express

Indian Institute of Science (IISc) in Bengaluru has emerged as the highest-ranked Indian institute in 2023. It has gained 31 places to 155 in the 2023 ranking.

Apart from IISc, IIT-Bombay (IIT-B) and IIT-Delhi (IIT-D) are the only other Indian institutes in the global league of top 200.

Delhi University failed to make it to the top 500 list and has been ranked in the 521-530 group. The university was earlier in the 501-510 bracket.

Explained | The Indian patent regime and its clash with the U.S. norms

Source: The post is based on the article “Explained | The Indian patent regime and its clash with the U.S. norms” published in The Hindu on 10th June 2022.

What is the News?

The U.S Trade Representative(USTR) has released Special 301 Report 2022. The report has said that India was one of the most challenging major economies as far as IP protection and enforcement is concerned. 

The report retains India on its Priority Watch List along with six other countries- Argentina, Chile, China, Indonesia, Russia and Venezuela.

About India’s Patent Regime

A Patent is an exclusive set of rights granted for an invention which may be a product or process that provides a new way of doing something or offers a new technical solution to a problem.

Indian patents are governed by the Indian Patent Act of 1970. Under the act, patents are granted if the invention fulfils the following criteria: 1) It should be novel, 2) It should have inventive step/s or it must be non-obvious, 3) It should be capable of Industrial application and 4) It should not attract the provisions of sections 3 and 4 of the Patents Act 1970.

India and TRIPS

India became a party to the Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS) Agreement following its membership to the World Trade Organization on January 1, 1995.

Following this, it amended its internal patent laws to comply with TRIPS, most notably in 2005, when it introduced pharmaceutical product patents into the legislation.

India is also a signatory to several IPR-related conventions, including the Berne convention which governs copyright, the Paris Convention for the Protection of Industrial Property and others.

Note: The original Indian Patents Act did not grant patent protection to pharmaceutical products to ensure that medicines were available to the masses at a low price. This was based on the recommendations of a Rajagopala Ayyangar Commission in 1959.

But patent protection of pharmaceuticals were re-introduced after the 2005 amendment to comply with TRIPS.

What are the issues USTR has with the Indian Patent Regime?

One of the main points of contention between India and the U.S. has been Article 3(d) of the Indian Patent Act. This point is also brought up as an area of concern in both USTR reports mentioned here.  

Section 3 deals with what does not qualify as an invention under the Act. Similarly, Section 3(d) does not allow patents to be granted to inventions involving new forms of a known substance unless it differs significantly in properties with regard to efficacy. Hence, Section 3(d) basically prevents what is known as the “evergreening” of patents.

Validity of Section 3(d) of the Indian Patent Act

The Supreme Court in the case Novartis vs. The Union of India upheld the validity of section 3(d). 

The judgment also says that the section complies with the TRIPS agreement and the Doha Declaration.

What is the Doha Declaration?

The Doha Declaration on the TRIPS Agreement and Public Health was adopted on November 14, 2021 by the WTO member states. 

This declaration recognises the gravity of public health problems affecting developing and least developed nations. It says that the TRIPS agreement does not and should not prevent members from taking measures to protect public health.

These measures include the right to grant compulsory licenses and the grounds for such licenses, the right to determine what constitutes a national emergency or other circumstances of extreme urgency. This includes public health crises and the right to establish its own regime for the exhaustion of intellectual property rights.

NASA, USGS release detailed geological map of the moon

Source: The post is based on the article “NASA, USGS release detailed geological map of the moon” published in Down To Earth on 9th June 2022.

What is the News?

The United States Geological Survey(USGS) in partnership with NASA and the Lunar Planetary Institute has released ‘The unified Geologic Map of the Moon’. 

How was the Unified Geologic Map of the Moon created?

The map has been created with the help of the information gathered from six Apollo-era regional maps. It also uses data from recently held satellite missions to the Moon.

What information does the map provide?

The map showcases the Moon in a 1:50,00,000-scale size.

The near side of the Moon which is the most explored side can be seen full of pink colours that show the Imbrian era formation. This formation took place around 3.5 billion years ago when the Moon’s surface was hit by many asteroids, causing irregular formations.

What is the significance of this map?

Blueprint for Future Human Mission: This new map will serve as the blueprint of the Moon’s surface geology for future human missions.

Helps in understanding the Moon Surface: It will come in handy to understand the surface of the Moon. It will also help researchers learn the history behind the formations located on the Moon’s surface.

Explained: The RBI plan to link credit cards with UPI

Source: The post is based on the article “Explained: The RBI plan to link credit cards with UPI” published in Indian Express on 9th June 2022.

What is the News?

The Reserve Bank of India has proposed to allow the linking of credit cards with the Unified Payments Interface(UPI).

Linking of Credit Cards with UPI

The linking of Credit Cards with UPI will first begin with the indigenous RuPay credit cards.

Both the RuPay network and UPI are managed by the same organization – the National Payments Corporation of India(NPCI).

Note: So far, UPI could only be linked to debit cards and bank accounts.

Significance of this move: The linkage of UPI and credit cards could possibly result in credit card usage zooming up in India given UPI’s widespread adoption.

What could be the hurdle to this proposal?

There are some regulatory areas that would have to be addressed before the linkage happens. For instance, it is not clear how the Merchant Discount Rate (MDR) will be applied to UPI transactions done through credit cards.

MDR is a fee that a merchant is charged by their issuing bank for accepting payments from their customers via credit and debit cards. 

According to a norm that has been in effect since January 2020, UPI and RuPay attract zero-MDR meaning that no charges are applied to these transactions, which is a key reason behind the prolific adoption of UPI both by users and merchants. 

However, the norm has faced pushback from the payments industry also. Payment industries have argued that it limits the aggregators’ ability to invest in and maintain the financial infrastructure of the payment ecosystem that they have built.

Mains Answer Writing

[Download] – Shivani Jerngal AIR 300 (UPSC CSE 2021) – MGP Test Copies + Testimonial

Dear Friends, We are happy to release the Mains answer copies of Shivani Jerngal. She has secured AIR 300 in the UPSC Civil Services Examination 2021. Aspirants can learn from these copies and strategize their preparation accordingly. She has also written a letter to us: Download link: Shivani Jerngal MGP Copy 1 – GS Test Copy… Continue reading [Download] – Shivani Jerngal AIR 300 (UPSC CSE 2021) – MGP Test Copies + Testimonial

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Five Years of GST: Achievements, Challenges and Way Ahead – Explained, pointwise

For 7PM Editorial Archives click HERE → Introduction The Goods and Services Tax (GST) has completed its 5th year today since its inception on 1 July 2017. The move towards ‘one nation one tax’ was one of the most historic indirect tax reforms in  India . After concerted efforts of consensus building for over a decade, GST replaced… Continue reading Five Years of GST: Achievements, Challenges and Way Ahead – Explained, pointwise

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[Answered] India-UAE ties are not only comprehensive but strategic. Elaborate

Introduction: Contextual introduction. Body: Explain India-UAE ties in various fields. Conclusion: Write a way forward. India and the United Arab Emirates (UAE) enjoy strong bonds of friendship based on age-old cultural, religious and economic ties between the two nations. India-UAE together have built a considerable degree of mutual trust that has enabled them to take… Continue reading [Answered] India-UAE ties are not only comprehensive but strategic. Elaborate

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[Answered] State-owned banks mustn’t be completely privatized, these lenders still have a valid role to play. Discuss

Introduction: Contextual introduction. Body: Write some reasons why State-owned banks mustn’t be completely privatized. Also write some reasons for complete privatization. Conclusion: Write a way forward. Privatization refers to the process by which the private sector assumes operational or financial control of public institutions. In other words, privatization entails the abolition of all government controls… Continue reading [Answered] State-owned banks mustn’t be completely privatized, these lenders still have a valid role to play. Discuss

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[Answered] The present legal structure of India to keep the criminals from the electoral process needs restructuring. Discuss.

Introduction: Contextual introduction. Body: Explain some issues with present legal structure of electoral process. Also write some solutions. Conclusion: Write a way forward. Recently, two MLAs were prevented from casting their votes according to Section 62(5) of the Representation of the People Act, 1951. In the past, the Supreme Court has observed that the intent of this… Continue reading [Answered] The present legal structure of India to keep the criminals from the electoral process needs restructuring. Discuss.

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[Answered] Highlight the salient provisions of the Partnership for Global Infrastructure and Investment (PGII) initiative by G7. How is it going to counter China’s expansion plans?

Introduction: Contextual introduction. Body: Write some salient provisions of the Partnership for Global Infrastructure and Investment (PGII) initiative by G7. Also write how it is going to counter China’s expansion plans. Conclusion: Write a way forward. It is a $600-billion global infrastructure investment partnership aimed at helping developing countries. The initiative was first unveiled at the 2021 G7 summit in… Continue reading [Answered] Highlight the salient provisions of the Partnership for Global Infrastructure and Investment (PGII) initiative by G7. How is it going to counter China’s expansion plans?

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[Download] – Preksha Agrawal AIR 303 (UPSC CSE 2021) – MGP Test Copies

Dear Friends, We are happy to release the Mains answer copies of Preksha Agrawal. She has secured AIR 303 in the UPSC Civil Services Examination 2021. Aspirants can learn from these copies and strategize their preparation accordingly. Download link: Preksha Agrawal MGP Copy 1 – GS Test Copy Preksha Agrawal MGP Copy 2 – GS… Continue reading [Download] – Preksha Agrawal AIR 303 (UPSC CSE 2021) – MGP Test Copies

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[Download] – Prassannakumar V AIR 264 (UPSC CSE 2021) – MGP Test Copies

Dear Friends, We are happy to release the Mains answer copies of Prassannakumar V. He has secured AIR 264 in the UPSC Civil Services Examination 2021. Aspirants can learn from these copies and strategize their preparation accordingly. Download link: Prassannakumar V MGP Copy 1 – GS Test Copy Prassannakumar V MGP Copy 2 – GS Test… Continue reading [Download] – Prassannakumar V AIR 264 (UPSC CSE 2021) – MGP Test Copies

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[Download] – Donthula Zenith Chandra AIR 241 (UPSC CSE 2021) – MGP Test Copies

Dear Friends, We are happy to release the Mains answer copies of Donthula Zenith Chandra. He has secured AIR 241 in the UPSC Civil Services Examination 2021. Aspirants can learn from these copies and strategize their preparation accordingly. Download link: Donthula Zenith Chandra MGP Copy 1 – GS Test Copy Donthula Zenith Chandra MGP Copy… Continue reading [Download] – Donthula Zenith Chandra AIR 241 (UPSC CSE 2021) – MGP Test Copies

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[Answered] Enumerate NITI Aayog’s recommendations for the betterment of gig and platform workers.

Introduction: Contextual introduction. Body: Write some points related to NITI Aayog’s recommendations for the betterment of gig and platform workers. Conclusion: Write a way forward. A gig worker is a person who engages in income-earning activities outside of a traditional employer-employee relationship, as well as in the informal sector. When gig workers use platforms i.e.,… Continue reading [Answered] Enumerate NITI Aayog’s recommendations for the betterment of gig and platform workers.

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