9 PM Daily Current Affairs Brief – June 26, 2021

Dear Friends,

We have initiated some changes in the 9 PM Brief and other postings related to current affairs.  What we sought to do: 

  1. Ensure all relevant facts, data, and arguments from today’s newspaper is available to you readily.  
  2. We have widened the sources so to provide you with content that is more than enough and adds value not just for GS but also for essay writing. Hence, the 9PM brief now covers the following newspapers:  
    1. The Hindu  
    2. Indian Express  
    3. Livemint  
    4. Business Standard  
    5. Times of India 
  3. Since the changes are new the number of articles will be initially heavy but can be expected to go down once we have done a good number of articles.  
  4. It is our endeavor to provide you with the best content and your feedback is essential for the same. We will be anticipating your feedback and ensure the blog serves as an optimal medium of learning for all the aspirants.  
  5. Lastly, we will be shortly introducing the relevance part to every article.  

Mains Oriented Articles 

GS Paper 1 

GS Paper 2 

GS Paper 3 

Prelims Oriented Articles (Factly)  

Mains Oriented Articles

GS Paper 1 

New Globalization would yield mixed results for India

Source: Business standard  

Syllabus: GS 3 – Economy  

Relevance:  India is one of the countries that succeeded significantly after the initiation and implementation of globalisation. 


The old globalization was essentially good for India. The new globalization could be a mix of good and bad news.  


Some of the traditional forms of globalization (the free movement of goods, money, people, etc) are in partial retreat.  Globalization is transforming as new agendas come into focus. These agendas include action on controlling climate change, taxing global companies, tackling terrorism, sharing vaccines, and the like.   

Trends in Traditional elements of Globalization 

  1. Global Trade is growing slower than global GDP. This significantly reversed a long-term trend.  
    1. In 2019, global trade shrank in absolute terms for the first time in a decade, and did so again in 2020 because of the pandemic.   
    2. Protectionist walls have been going up in several countries, including India.  
  2. Free Movement of People: Europe and North America account for over half the total of world migrants. Now their numbers are shrinking, though by a small margin.   
    1. Brexit and Donald Trump’s policies have signaled the reversal of a 70-year trend of immigration regimes getting progressively more liberal.  Some West Asian countries too have begun tightening visa policies.  
  3. Movement of Capital and Technology: These elements of globalization continue unabated. They are helping in development of Thomas Friedman’s “Flat World” thesis.  
    1. It is world having level playing field in terms of commerce, wherein all competitors have an equal opportunity.   

Impact of changing traditional trends on India 

India would be adversely impacted if global trade and movement of people gets reduced. The country is currently the world’s No. 1 source of migrants and the No. 1 recipient of remittances.  

The sustenance of capital and technology movement is beneficial for growth of India’s IT sector. It enables an accountant in Bengaluru to work out tax calculations for someone in Boston.  

New Globalization 

  • It exists as government agendas on Global issues like terrorism, climate change, global taxation etc.  
  • Agenda-setting by governments is not great news for India because it is still essentially a rule-taker and not a rule-setter.  Any benefit or cost to it therefore tends to be coincidental.  
    • For instance, the proposed new international corporate taxation regime will benefit India but its primary beneficiaries of the new regime would be the wealthy countries.  
    • Similarly, in terms of climate change, India will get no assistance (financial or technical) to switch to new technologies and give up old ones like coal-based energy.   
  • At the same time, the countries responsible for much of the historical emission of carbon gases get a free pass under the Paris agreement.  
    • Even on the international supply of vaccines, the numbers agreed on at the recent meeting of the rich club of G7 countries are unremarkable. Further India’s push for a patent waiver on Covid vaccines awaits attention.   
    • In the domain of social media, the giant tech companies that dominate the field have increasingly come up against sovereign state power, including in India.  

 Way Ahead 

  • Many countries want to reduce their dependence on China, which is the world’s largest manufacturing and trading power. India could ride the tide, but other countries have already grabbed the first mover advantage.  
  • The other traditional elements of globalization should continue for augmenting India’s interest.   
  • Further, the new elements of Globalization warrants setting up of global norms in consonance with the purpose and principles of UN charter. 

GS Paper 2 

New Political engagements preparing the ground for a ‘Naya J&K’  

Source: The Hindu: Article 1Article 2 and The Indian Express  

Syllabus – GS Paper 2 –   

Syllabus: Functions and responsibilities of the Union and the States, issues and challenges pertaining to the federal structure  

Tags: J&K, GS Paper 2   

Relevance: Development of Jammu and Kashmir is essential for Internal security and ensuring smooth functioning of the Federalism.   

Context: For the first time since the state after abrogation of article 370, the Central government initiated political engagement with the leaders of Jammu and Kashmir.  

Key outcomes of the meeting 

  1. Both the center and state agreed to strengthen grassroot democracy.   
  2. Legislative polls will occur after the delimitation of constituencies.   
  3. Restoration of Statehood in Jammu and Kashmir after the delimitation and elections. (But the timeline is still not clear).  

What are the challenges in development of Jammu and Kashmir?  

  • Decades of turmoil has created unique problems of governance and mistrust.  
  • The state of delivery of public service has not improved significantly. Also, the promised investment from corporate groups has not translated into reality.  
  • Challenges in arriving a comprehensive blue print: The challenge before Center and state is to formulate a blueprint for good governance, which is acceptable to both. For instance, some political parties are still against the revocation of Article 370.   

What are the present advantages?  

Global and domestic factors encouraged the Indian government and the political parties in Jammu and Kashmir to accommodate viewpoints of each other for mutual development.  

  • Ceasefire with Pakistan: Backchannel diplomacy between India and Pakistan led to a successful ceasefire on the Line of Control 
  • Lowest internal security threats: stray incidents of violence, terrorism and militancy are at their lowest levels in recent years.   
  • The change in Center’s approach: Federal relations are dynamic even in countries with almost inviolable rights of the States. India’s policy towards J&K also moved between tight central control to a gentler federal grip that provided space for autonomous self-governance.  


  • Frame a comprehensive blueprint: The Center and State have to frame a blueprint for good governance with framework of healthy federal relations.  
  • The center must commit to a structured process of continuous engagement to bridge the trust deficit vis a vis the intentions of the Centre.  

Twenty-first century governance and empowerment in Jammu and Kashmir require a federal solution that is contemporary and built on best practices globally. 

Vaccination for Pregnant Women

Source: The Hindu  

GS2: Issues Relating to Development and Management of Social Sector/Services relating to Health, Education, Human Resources.  

Tags: Vaccination, mRNA vaccines 

Relevance:  Vaccination is one of the most important aspect to defeat the Covid-19 Pandemic.  

Synopsis: There is need for urgent vaccination for pregnant Women to minimise the impact of the coronavirus infection among them.  

Why there is need to vaccinate mother-to-be?  

  • Firstly, India’s demographic dividend is largely dependent on its high birth rate. 
  • Secondly, According to a recent publication in the Journal of the American Medical Association, maternal mortality is several-fold higher in COVID-19 positive pregnant mothers than in non-COVID-19 infected pregnant women.  
  • Thirdly, maternal and neonatal complications increase with maternal obesity and diabetes in pregnancy which is common in India. However, pandemic has worsened the situation by increasing complications such as increased C Section, neonatal infection and respiratory distress.

Measures need to be taken to protect mother-to-be:  

  • Firstly, vaccination should be taken up on a war footing. Women in the reproductive age group and the medical profession should be informed properly. Wherever possible, advise all women to postpone pregnancy till both partners are vaccinated and offer vaccination to all un-vaccinated pregnant women.  
  • Secondly, dedicated and safe ultrasound scan centers for pregnant women and unvaccinated health-care workers should be quickly vaccinated. Pregnant women with fever should be considered to have COVID-19 unless proven otherwise.  
  • Third, pregnant women should be vaccinated with inactivated vaccines. Pregnancy and the immediate postpartum period are pro-thrombotic states. It promotes the formation of blood clots in veins.   
  • Lastly, segregation is required to protect non-COVID-19 infected mothers. COVID-19 and non-COVID-19 pregnant women coming for delivery should be strictly segregated.  

Way forward:  

  • Vaccination should be offered to pregnant women after providing adequate information and counseling.  
  • Provide resources to healthcare professionals involved in their care.  
  • Awareness regarding the availability and advantages of the vaccine for pregnant women should be publicised.  
  • Enhance vaccination coverage of couples planning pregnancy and pregnant women on a priority basis.  

Best practice:  

  • The United Kingdom and the United States have approved vaccination of all pregnant women with mRNA vaccines due to the benefits involved. Benefits of vaccines are:  
    • Produce a good immune response.  
    • Maternal antibodies cross the placenta and enter the fetus.  
    • Antibodies give protection against maternal to the fetal transmission of the virus. 

India needs a multidimensional approach including information, education, effective communication to enhance vaccination coverage and address vaccine hesitancy in mothers-to-be. 

Thaw on the western front 

Source:  Business Standard

Syllabus: GS2 – International Relations 

Tags: Indo-Pak relations, Kashmir valley, Taliban, ceasefire 

Relevance: India’s engagement with Taliban and Pakistan, and political parties in Kashmir valley will stabilize its western front.  

Synopsis: Hijack of IC-814 flight by Taliban made India look West. Now, in the light of US withdrawal of troops from Afghanistan, India is again trying to reshape its strategic outlook towards Western region. 

Why is India engaging with Taliban? 

India is talking to the Taliban because the Taliban are winning the war against USA and Afghan government.  USA would want India to engage with Taliban because it doesn’t want Afghanistan to become battleground for Indo-Pak rivalry again. 

India too understands that it has to work together with USA in the West, if the Quad partnership in the East is to succeed.  

Ceasefire along LoC 

India and Pakistan understand that if they are actively at odds with each other along the LoC, their differences will spill over into Afghanistan too.

And then, with the Taliban in power, the ISI might be tempted to use them against India. Hence, the recent ceasefire should be seen in that light. 

Political Engagement in Kashmir 

  • New engagement in Kashmir is the logical next step: Both, the central government and Kashmiri leaders have rightfully shed their extreme positions.  
  • Breaking the status Quo in Kashmir: With a strong centre it was expected that terrorism will die-off but the opposite has happened, as the resentment has grown. Engaging with the local leadership positively is the optimum strategy at this moment. Status-Quo is not helping India’s cause anyway. 
  • Regime change in Iran: Ebrahim Rahisi has been elected as new President of Iran. If Iran-nuclear deal is restored by him then it will lead to opening up of Iranian market and oil supplies. This will be a good sign for India too. 

Issues with Mandatory Vaccination

SourceIndian Express    

Syllabus: GS 2 – Issues relating to development and management of Social Sector/Services relating to Health  


Relevance:  Vaccination is one of the most important aspect to defeat the Covid-19 Pandemic. 


Vaccination is a prerequisite for tackling the Pandemic. However, mandatory vaccination interferes with a person’s right to integrity and his/her personal choice. Therefore, focus should be placed on using persuasive techniques rather than coercing the masses for vaccination.  


The easing of second wave has induced the states to relax the nearly-two-month long lockdown.   Nonetheless, the safety imperative has led some authorities to make vaccination a prerequisite for the resuming business operations.  

Mandatory Orders issued by State Governments 

  • On 24th June, the Gujarat government issued an ultimatum to “managers, owners and staff of business establishments” to either get vaccinated or close shops.  
  • Mandatory vaccination policies are also in place in some parts of UP and the Northeast. The orders are based on the belief that no one is safe till everyone is safe.  

Verdicts over Mandatory Vaccination:  

  • In April, the European Court of Human Rights (ECHR) held that “mandatory vaccination interferes with a person’s right to integrity”. However, such interference may be justified if considered necessary to control the spread of infectious diseases.   
  • On 24th June, the Meghalaya High Court deduced that ‘Vaccination by force destroys the fundamental purpose of the welfare attached to it.   
  • Both verdicts speak the language of persuasion and reiterate the importance of accessible information and informed consent. 
  • The ECHR talks of incentives to marginalized groups. While the Meghalaya court has asked all shops, business houses, and commercial vehicles to put on display the Covid-19 vaccination status of their employees at a noticeable place.  

Way Forward 

  • Vaccine hesitancy is a manifestation of the people’s lack of trust in the health system. It can be reduced to some extent by ensuring ease of access to the vaccination shots.  
  • The industry and business associations should be allowed to inoculate workers at the level of the shop floor as problem of vaccine shortage has been overcome.   
  • Governments may still need to resort to disincentives. But the state’s main concern should be inclusiveness, not using its strong arm as a blunt instrument. 

GS Paper 3 

Periodic shutting of national parks is beneficial for animals

SourceIndian Express    

Syllabus: GS 3 – Conservation, environmental pollution and degradation  

Context: The decision of Uttarakhand government to allow all year opening of two tiger reserves for tourist has been criticized by many experts. They believe that the move will disturb the ecological balance of the forest.  


  • Uttarakhand forest minister announced that the state’s two Tiger Reserves — Corbett and Rajaji — would now remain open for tourism.   
  • The statement has sparked a debate with many warning that tourism activities in the rainy season will disturb tigers in their mating season.  

Impact of all year opening on breeding 

  • The breeding season will not be impacted as tigers breed throughout the year.   
  • In India, if there is any seasonal bias for mating, observational evidence suggests it is towards the autumn-spring window. The rainy season is not the best time for tiger breeding.  
  • Similar is the case for the elephants. A high number of births among elephants have been observed in the winter months of November-January in India.    

General reasons for periodic shutting parks:  

Generally, the reserves remain closed to tourists during the monsoon for 4-5 months every year. It is due to the following reasons: – 

First, A tropical forest is least accessible during the monsoons, with lush undergrowth blocking movements and gullies washing away tracks. This is why even the trophy hunters term the rainy months as the off-season that allows the animal population to recover.  

For instance, high monsoon in Assam forces Kaziranga National Park to stay practically shut for six months between May and October.  

Second, the policy of shutting down a wildlife park is driven by weather across the world.   

For instance, Yellowstone, the first national park in the US, and also the world, shuts every winter in the snow season.   

Nagarhole and Bandipur Tiger Reserves of Karnataka shut to tourists in the dry summer season to protect animals from stress and the forests from fire.  

Third, shutting is essential for the protection of tourists as well. In 2019, heavy monsoon rain in the seasonal Dhangarhi nallah swept away a tourist car.  

Fourth, a peaceful breeding season maintains the ecological balance between species. It is required to maintain a food chain. 

Fifthpoachers consider the monsoon an opportunity to hunt tiger as the forest guards struggle to patrol much of the reserve. Due to this, the Project Tiger has always emphasized enhanced vigilance during the monsoon. 

Prelims Oriented Articles

Pakistan to remain on FATF greylist

Source: The HinduTOI  

Syllabus – GS Paper 2 –  

What is the News?  

The Financial Action Task Force (FATF) has decided to keep Pakistan in its “grey list”.  


  • The FATF had issued the 27-point action plan after placing Pakistan on the ‘Grey List’ in 2018.The action plan pertains to stop money laundering and terror financing.  

What is the status of the 27-point action plan?  

  • Pakistan has completed around 26 of the 27 items given to it in the 2018 action plan to combat terror-financing.   
  • However,  Pakistan couldn’t exit the grey list due to one remaining item. It has failed to demonstrate that terror-financing investigations and prosecutions target senior leaders and commanders of UN designated terrorist groups.  

About Financial Action Task Force (FATF)  

  • The FATF is an inter-governmental body established in 1989 during the G7 Summit in Paris.   
  • Its Secretariat is located at the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) headquarters in Paris.   
  • Members: There are currently 39 members of the FATF; 37 jurisdictions and 2 regional organisations (the Gulf Cooperation Council and the European Commission).  

Listing by FATF:  

  • Grey List: Countries that are considered a safe haven for supporting terror funding and money laundering are put in the grey list.   
    • This inclusion serves as a warning to the country that it may enter the blacklist.  
    • The greylisting carries no legal sanctions. But it attracts economic sanctions and restricts a country’s access to international loans  
  • Black List: Countries known as Non-Cooperative are put in the blacklist. These countries support terror funding and money laundering activities. 

Defence Minister reviews development works at Karwar Naval Base under ‘Project Seabird

Source: TOI  

What is the News?  

The Union Defence Minister has reviewed the status of the Indian Navy’s Project Seabird at the Karwar Naval Base.  

About Project Seabird:  

  • Project Seabird is the largest naval infrastructure project at Karwar, Karnataka.  
  • The project involves creation of a naval base at Karwar on the west coast of India.   
  • Upon completion, the project will provide the Indian Navy with its largest naval base on the west coast and also the largest naval base east of the Suez Canal.   

Phases of the Project Seabird:  

  • Phase I comprises construction of a deep-sea harbour, breakwaters, dredging, a township, a naval hospital, dockyard uplift centre and a ship lift.   
  • Phase II was cleared by the Cabinet Committee on Security in 2012. It envisages expanding facilities to house additional warships and set up a new Naval Air Station among other plans.  
  • Furthermore, the Navy’s lone aircraft carrier INS Vikramaditya is also based at Karwar. The base also has the country’s first sealift facility, a unique shiplift and transfer system for docking and undocking ships and submarines. 

Government releases India Smart Cities Awards Contest(ISAC) 2020

Source: The Hindu  

What is the News?  

Government of India has released the ranking of the India Smart Cities Awards Contest(ISAC) 2020.  

About India Smart Cities Awards Contest(ISAC) 2020:  

    • For the year of the pandemic, additional parameters of sustainable business model of Integrated Command and Control Centres and innovation in Covid-19 management were also counted.  

Key Takeaways:  

  • Cities: Indore and Surat were declared joint winners of the Smart Cities Award 2020.  
  • States: Uttar Pradesh secured the first position in the state awards category. It was followed by Madhya Pradesh and Tamil Nadu.  
    • This is the first time that states have also been awarded for the overall performance of smart cities.  
  • Union Territories: Chandigarh has bagged the first award among Union territories.  
  • Region wise: The Western Region is the best performing. Its regional average score of 45 is much higher than the national average of 32. There are 26 cities in the western region, of which 10 cities have been certified.  
  • Surat has emerged at the top among Indian cities to have successfully implemented governance through institutionalized use of data, especially through big data. 

DRDO successfully test-fires Pinaka, 122 mm Caliber rockets

Source: Business Standard  

What is the News?  

Defence Research and Development Organisation(DRDO) has successfully test fired an enhanced range version of Pinaka rocket and 122 mm Caliber rocket at Integrated Test Range (ITR), Chandipur off the coast of Odisha.  

 About Pinaka Rocket:  

  • Pinaka is a multi-barrel rocket-launcher (MBRL) system named after Shiva’s bow.  
  • Purpose: It is a long range artillery system used for attacking the enemy before the close battles.   
  • Origin: The development of the Pinaka was started by the DRDO in the late 1980s. It is an alternative to the multi-barrel rocket launching systems of Russian make called ‘Grad’.  

 Enhanced Version of Pinaka Rocket:  

  • Developed by: It has been developed jointly by Pune-based DRDO labs Armament Research and Development Establishment (ARDE) ,and High Energy Materials Research Laboratory (HEMRL) with manufacturing support from Economic Explosives Limited, Nagpur.   
  • Range: The enhanced range version can destroy targets at distances up to 45 km.  
  • Moreover, these enhanced version of Pinaka will replace the Pinaka Mk-1 missiles which are currently used by regiments of the Indian Army along India’s frontiers with China and Pakistan.  

 Enhanced Version of 122mm Calibre Rockets:  

  • Developed by: It has been developed jointly by Pune-based DRDO labs Armament Research and Development Establishment (ARDE) ,and High Energy Materials Research Laboratory (HEMRL) with manufacturing support from Economic Explosives Limited, Nagpur.   
  • Range: These rockets have been developed for Army applications. It can destroy targets up to 40 km.  
  • These rockets would replace the existing 122 mm Grad rockets. 

Tibet gets first bullet train, links Lhasa to India border

 SourceThe Hindu  

Tags: border issues, India-China, bullet train, Tibet, rail line, Arunachal Pradesh  

What is the news?  

China has started operating the first bullet train line in Tibet, connecting the provincial capital Lhasa with Nyingchi – a strategically located Tibetan border town close to Arunachal Pradesh.  

 Lhasa-Nyingchi rail line  

  • Train link would connect the capital city of the Tibet Autonomous Region to the border city of Nyingchi with a travel time of three and a half hours.  
  • Over 90% of the track is 3000m above sea-level and the line is the first electrified high-speed rail (HSR) line, as China refers to bullet trains, in Tibet. China has the world’s longest HSR network 
  • The Lhasa-Nyingchi rail is one section of the Sichuan-Tibet railway line.  
    • The Sichuan-Tibet Railway line will be the second railway line into Tibet after the Qinghai-Tibet Railway.   

Why this latest development is significant for India?  

India is following the development of the new railway closely because of it’s proximity to Arunachal Pradesh. As per a report,  

  • Enhanced mobility for PLA: The railway route will enable China to quickly mobilize personnel of the People’s Liberation Army (PLA) and other defense resources in the event of a border escalation with India, like the border standoff in eastern Ladakh in May 2020.   
  • Developing border villages: China has sought to empower ‘border villages‘ in the areas bordering India’s Arunachal Pradesh and Sikkim states, especially after the Doklam standoff in 2017.  

Govt launches LiDAR survey reports to augment water in forest areas

Source: Indian Express  

What is the News?  

The Union Environment Minister has released detailed project reports of the light detection and ranging(LiDAR) based survey of forest areas in 10 states.  

Note: LiDAR is a remote sensing method that uses light in the form of a pulsed laser to measure ranges & variable distances.  

 About the Survey:  

  • Coverage: The survey was carried out in forest areas of 10 states. These states include Assam, Bihar, Chhattisgarh, Goa, Jharkhand, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Manipur, Nagaland and Tripura.  
  • Conducted by: The survey was conducted by WAPCOS, a Public Sector Undertaking(PSU) under the Ministry of Jal Shakti, Government of India.  
  • Method: The survey has used the LiDAR (light detection and ranging) technology to create 3-D images of the forest areas to recommend soil and water conservation structures.  
    • These structures will help in catching the rain water and prevent stream run off which will help in recharging of Groundwater.  

 Significance of this survey:  

  • The survey is the first of its kind and a unique experiment using LiDAR technology.  
  • The reports from the survey will help in identifying areas require soil and water conservation structures. It will in turn help local communities.  
  • Moreover, it will also help animals as they don’t need to venture out in search of water thereby reducing human-animal conflict.  

 Implementation of Projects by States:  

Home emissions cause 25% pollution deaths

Source: TOI  

What is the News?  

A study in Nature Communications analysed the number of deaths due to exposure to air pollution from specific sources, between the period of 2017 and 2019.  

Key Findings of the Study Related to India:  

  • The total attributable deaths in India due to PM2.5 are estimated at around 8.6 lakhs in 2017 and 9.5 lakhs in 2019.   
  • Among them, 1/4th of air pollution-linked deaths in India are due to residential emissions from biofuels burning (indoor air pollution due to emission from cooking, heating).  

Other key Findings:  

  • The study claimed that globally around 1 million deaths were avoidable in 2017 by eliminating fossil-fuel combustion with coal contributing to over half.  
  • China and India with 58% of total global ambient PM2.5 mortality burden together accounted for the largest numbers of attributable deaths.  
  • Moreover, the study also said that residential emissions are the largest source of average PM2.5 exposure and attributable mortality in China and India.  
  • However, areas surrounding Beijing and Singrauli (Madhya Pradesh) have relatively larger contributions from the energy and industry sectors.  

 Initiatives by India to combat Indoor Air Pollution:  

  • In 2016, Indian Government launched Pradhan Mantri Ujjwala Yojana(PMUY).  
  • The scheme aims to provide deposit free LPG (cooking gas) to replace the unclean cooking fuels mostly used in rural India with the clean and more efficient LPG(Liquefied Petroleum Gas).  
  • The scheme has been recognised by the World Health Organisation (WHO) as one of the decisive interventions by the government to address the issue of residential emission. 

Discovery of ‘Dragon Man’ skull may add new species to human family tree

Source: TOI  

What is the News?  

Chinese researchers have unveiled an ancient skull that could belong to a completely new species of human.  

About the New Species of Human:  

  • The researchers have named the new species Homo longi. It has been nicknamed “Dragon Man” for the Dragon River region of northeast China where the skull was found.  
  • When was it discovered? The skull was discovered in 1933 but only came to the attention recently after a labourer came across it at a construction site in China.  

 Key Features:  

  • The Dragon man is at least 140,000 years old but no older than 309,000 years.   
  • It belonged to a mature male who had a huge brain, massive brow ridges, deep set eyes and a bulbous nose.  
  • The skull is huge compared with the average skulls belonging to other human species including our own. Its brain was comparable in size to those from our species.  

 Significance of this discovery:  

  • The discovery of Dragon Man has the potential to rewrite the history of Human Evolution.  
  • It is said that Homo longi could replace Neanderthals as the closest relative to our own species, Homo sapiens. 
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