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List of Contents
Why Safeguards for Child adoptions Needs to be Followed Strictly?
Source: The Hindu
Gs2: Mechanisms, Laws, Institutions and Bodies constituted for the Protection and Betterment of these Vulnerable Sections.
Synopsis: In India Pandemic has increased the number of orphans in the country. Negligence for legal procedures of Child adoption creates a ground for Child trafficking of these orphans.
- According to UNICEF, India has over 30 million orphan and abandoned children.
- The Pandemic has left many more children orphaned due to the death of their parents by Covid-19 infection.
- Today, some people are offering such infants for instant adoption without following proper legal safeguards.
- Moreover, some child trafficking rackets are exploiting negligence for legal procedures of adoption and hasty sentimental considerations by people.
Child Adoption laws in India
- The Juvenile Justice (Care and Protection of Children) law was enacted in 2015.
- It is a secular law and all persons are free to adopt children under this law. It also allows the adoption of Children of relatives.
- Only, those children can be adopted who are declared legally eligible for adoption under the Juvenile Justice Act.
- Adoption Regulations of 2017:
- Rehabilitation of all orphaned, abandoned, and surrendered children is regulated by the strict mandatory procedures of the Adoption Regulations.
- Violation of the Juvenile Justice Act and the Adoption Regulations invites punishment up to three years and a fine of ₹1 lakh, or both.
- CARA (The Central Adoption Resource Authority):
- The Juvenile Justice Rules of 2016 and the Adoption Regulations of 2017 provided for the creation of CARA.
- It is a statutory body, and it looks after the regulation, monitoring, and control of all intra-country and inter-country adoptions.
- India became the signatory to the Hague Convention on Protection of Children and Co-operation in Respect of Inter-country Adoptions. Thus, CARA was designated as the nodal agency to grant a no-objection certificate for all inter-country adoptions.
- India is also a signatory to the UN Convention on the Rights of the Child: It provides a legal mandate of all authorities and courts to offer protection to children.
Procedure for legal Adoption in India
- First, parents willing to adopt children should register on the Child Adoption Resource Information and Guidance System (CARINGS)
- Then, specialized adoption agencies will be adjudging the eligibility of prospective adoptive parents living in India based on home study reports.
- If approved, prospective children are offered as per seniority in the adoption list and pre-adoption foster care follows.
- The specialized adoption agency then secures court orders approving the adoption.
- They need to approach authorised adoption agencies in their foreign country of residence for registration under CARINGS.
- Their eligibility is adjudged by authorised foreign adoption agencies through home study reports.
- As per seniority, they are offered profiles of children, and child study reports are finalized.
- CARA then issues a pre-adoption ‘no objection’ certificate for foster care, followed by a court adoption order. No objection certificate from CARA is mandatory for a passport and visa to leave India.
What needs to be done to prevent the child trafficking rackets from misusing child adoption system?
- One, CARA needs to conduct an outreach program to inform citizens about misuse of illegal adoption.
- Two, the legal process of adoption must be adequately publicized.
- Three, The National and State Commissions for Protection of Child Rights are empowered by law to take effective action against those engaging in illegal activities. They need to ensure safety of Children through increased Vigilance.
- Four, Social activists, NGOs and enlightened individuals must report all the incidents that come to their notice.
- Five, Media shaming of those involved in Child trafficking can deter the crime to some extent.
Lessons learnt from the Ladakh crisis
Source: The Hindu
Gs2: India and its Neighborhood- Relations.
Synopsis: A critical evaluation of the Ladakh crisis, may help India to achieve advantageous position against China at LAC in long term.
- Even after a year of Ladakh crisis, the stand-off between Indian and Chinese troops in eastern Ladakh shows no signs of resolution. Disengagement has been stalled and China continues to reinforce its troops.
- Even in the future, the relationship between the two countries is set to remain vulnerable to destabilizing disruptions.
- In this context, it’s important for our military and political leaders to learn the right lessons from Ladakh. It will ensure that India is rightly prepared to meet the challenge of Chinese coercion in the future.
What are the lessons learnt from the Ladakh crisis?
According to a recent study published by the Lowy Institute, the Ladakh crisis offers India three key lessons in managing the strategic competition with China.
- First, India’s military strategy doctrine based on denial has been more successful than the retaliation strategy. For example, India’s occupation of the Kailash Range provided it a strategic advantage in case of further advance of Chinese.
- Focus on denial strategy will enhance the Indian military capacity to thwart future land grabs across the LAC.
- Further, improved denial capabilities will allow India to reduce the resource drain of the increased militarization of the LAC.
- Second, the threat of political costs will work more in India’s favor rather than the material threat of material costs.
- Because, China’s military spending is three to four times larger than India’s. Any material cost incurred, will not disrupt its existing priorities.
- However, China will not be interested in destabilizing its political relationship with India owing to its pre-occupation in many territorial disputes.
- Third, India should persist with its strategies to secure the Indian Ocean even if threats at LAC increases.
- Because the future of the Indian Ocean Region is more consequential and more uncertain than the Himalayan frontier.
- The Ladakh crisis has highlighted the need for increased militarisation at the LAC. However, pursuing the strategy of increased militarisation at the LAC will delay India’s plan for military modernization and maritime expansion in the Indian Ocean.
- India needs to make tough-minded strategic trade-offs. India needs to prioritize military modernization over increasing militarisation at the LAC.
- However, rebalancing India’s strategic priorities is politically challenging. Here, the chief of Defence staff should step in to issue firm strategic guidance to the military services.
Importance of Parliamentary Proceedings
Source: click here
Syllabus: GS 2
Synopsis: Parliamentary proceedings should operate virtually to ensure the voices of all sections of the country are heard. Many other countries are doing the same.
The legislature which is the third arm of the state seems to be missing when there are as many as 306 districts now with a positivity of 20 percent or higher. The executive and the judiciary can be seen and heard in the public health emergency.
- Recently, Congress MP and its leader in Lok Sabha Adhir Ranjan Chowdhury have written a letter to President and the LS Speaker. They asked for a special session to discuss the response to Covid. This marked Parliament’s absence in the crisis.
- Earlier, Mallikarjun Kharge had sent a letter to Prime Minister and RS chairman. He asked for virtual parliamentary standing committee meetings.
How has the world responded to the functioning of parliament and opposition suggestions amid a pandemic?
For instance, many other democracies across the world have found ways for their parliaments to carry on gathering amid the pandemic.
- Firstly, some democracies used conventional ways and continued to meet physically, but with restrictions. Some switched to virtual meetings with the help of technologies that allow remote working.
- Secondly, the UK has adopted hybrid models. In this, a mix of members is present in the chamber and others participate by video conference. Many states have had to change laws and relax procedures, reset minimum number rules, and rearrange venues.
- Thirdly, in India, the government shows little or no urgency for parliamentary proceedings. It has shown high resistance to suggestions and interferences by Opposition leaders.
- For example, former Prime Minister Manmohan Singh’s suggestions were quickly disregarded by Health Minister Harsh Vardhan earlier.
- It is very important for governments to listen, learn and correct errors to find the best way forward. The response to a national health crisis needs the participation of all the people’s representatives, across states and party.
- The virus has brought death and distress to every constituency. To battle this, MPs must group ideas and resources, ask questions and apply the check and balance.
- The House should reopen its doors virtually to ensure that the executive does not remain limited to echo chambers of its own making.
- In a shared crisis, one-sided responses are terribly insufficient and even counter-productive. Parliament must return as a space for a wider discussion. The government must take the lead and make this happen.
Links between Crisis and Economic Reforms
Source: The Hindu
Syllabus: GS: 2: Government policies and interventions for development in various sectors
The 1991 economic crisis indicates that the crisis is a good opportunity for economic reforms. But that is not true, specifically in the case of 2021 crisis. Thus, not all crisis results in economic reforms.
2021 marks 30 years of 1991 economic reforms. The 1991 reforms permanently altered the production and distribution structures of the Indian economy. But during the pandemic, the government introduced few reforms as well.
Both 1991 and 2021 have one thing in common. Both reforms came after the economy faces a severe growth crisis. This raises a few important questions.
- Is the crisis a prerequisite for reforms?
- Are reforms capable of stimulating the economy?
The link between Crisis and economic reforms:
Big economic policy reforms often face hurdles in terms of rules and routines. This is because these reforms generally depart from existing economic policies. So the fundamental shifts will always face criticisms.
But the Crisis situation provides an opportunity for the government to introduce radical economic reforms due to the following reasons,
- The crisis situation challenges the legitimacy of existing policy. So, many experts suggest new proposals and possibilities to overcome the crisis.
- Delivery of services will also face challenges during the crisis. So to meet the societal expectations institutional reforms are necessary.
- For the policymaker, crises can generate increased demand for changing the policy.
However, not all crises end in reforms. But all crisis will provide an opportunity for reforms.
Converting a crisis into an opportunity:
Reforms can be feasible during a crisis on three factors.
- During a crisis, the economic modes of interactions will change and set a suitable background for economic reforms
- In a crisis situation authority replaces rules. (Authorities will change the rules frequently to tackle the crisis situation). This makes it easier for authorities to push the economic policies in a short time span.
- During the crisis period, the legitimacy of prevailing rules and routines diminish. This will make it easier for the government to depart from them.
Difference between two crisis:
Even though the existent of crisis in 1991 and 2021, both the crisis have differences in terms of character and consequence.
1991 Economic crisis:
- Cause: The 1991 crisis was a product of India’s economic policies(Internal).
- Effect: The economy was forced to adjust to the internal shock.
- India specific policies are implemented. The world never went through any drastic policy shift.
- There was also a semi-fixed template for reforms available. These generic measures were the result of various economies experienced external sector imbalances. So, a tried, and tested policy was available to India.
2021 Pandemic crisis:
- Cause: The 2021 crisis is a product of a pandemic. This is outside the economic system.
- Effect: The economy is forced to adjust to this external shock.
- Policies: The economic effect of the crisis is global in nature.
- This makes policy responses very challenging.
- India specific policies have tempered with the dynamics of the rest of the world.
- Availability of a semi-fixed template for reforms was not available to the global community.
The challenges of 2021 crisis:
Two uncertainties pose serious problems in creating economic reforms.
- Firstly, the uncertainty with regard to the government’s own revenues. A prolonged pandemic limits the government revenue. This will limit the policy interventions of the government. Further, the government cannot practice Expenditure reduction. As the government has to enhance the demand of people and also invest massively to create necessary health infrastructure.
- Secondly, Unpredictability of global factors. India’s dependence on the global economy has increased manifold after the 1991 reforms.
Both these uncertainties have the potential to jeopardise the implementation of any strategic changes.
The intensity of 2021 crisis:
The magnitude and intensity of the crisis of 2021 are manifold compared to the 1991 economic crisis. According to Pew Research Center,
- A large section of India’s population would be pushed into poverty
- The number of Poor people in India increased by 7.5 crores. This accounts for nearly 60% of the global increase in poverty.
- India introduced a rural employment programme to combat poverty in agricultural areas. These schemes saw spikes in people participation in rural employment schemes.
The difference, intensity and challenges show the non-suitability of this crisis for radical reforms. In conclusion, all crises do not inevitably lead to reforms, despite creating opportunities.
- So to turn crisis into opportunities requires an in-depth understanding of the factors that led to the crisis.
- Apart from that, all crucial agents in the policy process need to have a shared vision. This includes political leaders, policymakers, implementers and stakeholders.
UGC Advises Universities to Include NCC as an Elective Subject
Source- The Indian Express
Syllabus- GS 2 – Issues relating to development and management of Social Sector/Services relating to education.
Synopsis – The UGC has forwarded the proposal to universities to introduce NCC as an elective subject in the curriculum.
- Recently, the University Grants Commission (UGC) has issued an advisory to the vice-chancellors of all universities to include NCC as an elective subject.
- If implemented, NCC will be a part of the Choice-Based Credit System (CBCS) envisioned in the National Education Policy (NEP) 2020.
National Cadet Corps (NCC)
The NCC was formed in 1948 on the recommendation of the H. N. Kunzru Committee .
- Significance of NCC-
- NCC is the world’s largest uniformed youth volunteer service organization.
- The NCC cadets undergo basic military training at various levels and as well as academic curriculum basics related to the Armed forces and their functioning.
- Its gender ratio is higher than any other uniformed organization in the world. With female cadets responsible for one-third of the number.
Why universities should consider UGS’s proposal to include NCC as an elective subject?
UGS’s proposal would aid in the expansion of the NCC and will provide students with the following benefits
- Academic benefit- Students who enrolled as NCC cadets will receive academic credits for NCC training on successful completion of the course. Also, they will receive the NCC “B” and “C” certificates.
- Employment incentives – Cadets can also avail of employment incentives and benefits offered in various central and state government schemes.
Issues related to NCC structure-
- Lack of funding- States do not provide adequate infrastructure for training and administrative functions of NCC. It is despite the huge support provided by the Centre.
- Attitude of the armed forces toward NCC- In armed force, An NCC posting is regarded as being sidelined. It is because forces do not deploy the best and brightest with the NCC. There is a trend toward deploying those who are medically unfit.
- The majority of NCC cadets join the armed forces as jawans, with just a few joining the officer stream. 99 percent of NCC cadets join only as jawans in the armed forces.
What needs to be done to expand the NCC?
NCC structure must evolve in such a way that youth, regardless of socio-economic background, are attracted to it as a means of advancing both character and career-
- Needs to change the perception – The general attitude in the armed forces that the NCC is a dumping ground needs to change.
- NCC tenures should result in additional credit in promotions for deployed military officers or personnel.
- Proper utilization of funds- The Central government must ensure that the states provide proper infrastructure for training, administrative functions, and logistical support to the NCC.
- The quality of the local training staff such as the Associate National Cadet Corps Officers (ANOs), and their career advancement must also be assured.
The above reforms in NCC structure may result in better intake into the officer stream of the armed forces and higher management in other public and private sectors.