9 PM Daily Current Affairs Brief – November 19th, 2022

Dear Friends,

We have initiated some changes in the 9 PM Brief and other postings related to current affairs. What we sought to do:

  1. Ensure that all relevant facts, data, and arguments from today’s newspaper are readily available to you.
  2. We have widened the sources to provide you with content that is more than enough and adds value not just for GS but also for essay writing. Hence, the 9 PM brief now covers the following newspapers:
    1. The Hindu  
    2. Indian Express  
    3. Livemint  
    4. Business Standard  
    5. Times of India 
    6. Down To Earth
    7. PIB
  3. We have also introduced the relevance part to every article. This ensures that you know why a particular article is important.
  4. Since these changes are new, so initially the number of articles might increase, but they’ll go down over time.
  5. It is our endeavor to provide you with the best content and your feedback is essential for the same. We will be anticipating your feedback and ensure the blog serves as an optimal medium of learning for all the aspirants.
    • For previous editions of 9 PM BriefClick Here
    • For individual articles of 9 PM BriefClick Here

Current Affairs Compilations for UPSC IAS Prelims 2022

Mains Oriented Articles

GS Paper 2

GS Paper 3

Prelims Oriented Articles (Factly)

Mains Oriented Articles

GS Paper 2


India must resume its vanguard role in ridding the world of nuclear weapons

Source– The post is based on the article “India must resume its vanguard role in ridding the world of nuclear weapons” published in The Indian Express on 19th November 2022.

Syllabus: GS2- International relations

Relevance: Nuclear threat to world security

News- The article explains the ICJ ruling on nuclear weapons and international law on this subject. It also explains India’s position on this matter.

What are the main points of ICJ ruling on nuclear weapons in 1996?

It permitted a state to use nuclear weapons in self-defence when its survival was at stake.

In the absence of a definitive law on the prohibition of nuclear weapons, the ICJ cannot conclude definitively whether the threat or use of nuclear weapons would be lawful or unlawful.

What is the current opinion of the world community about nuclear weapons?

Now, we do have an international law on this subject.

The UN Treaty on the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons (TPNW) was passed in January 2021

It was passed by 122 members of the UN General Assembly,  a clear majority.

It entered into force after its ratification by 50 member-States of the UN. The number of signatories has since risen to 91.

Any threat or use of nuclear weapons is now a clear violation of international law.

What has been India’s position on nuclear weapons?

Mahatma Gandhi, Jawaharlal Nehru and Indira Gandhi were opposed to possession, threat and use of nuclear weapons.

Rajiv Gandhi presented to the UN in 1988 a detailed action plan on how to arrive in stages to a nuclear-weapons-free and nonviolent world order within a timeline of 22 years.

Pranab Mukherjee, as foreign minister, proposed in the UN in 2006 a summary of the main objectives of the action plan as a working paper

India appears to have disavowed both the action plan and the working paper after the NDA government came to power.

What is the way forward for India?

India should assume its vanguard role for elimination of nuclear weapons.

It is the only state with the capacity and stockpile of nuclear weapons to join the current tide of world opinion for prohibition of these weapons.


The Governor is under the Constitution, not above it

Source: The post is based on an article “The Governor is under the Constitution, not above it” published in The Hindu on 19th November 2022.

Syllabus: GS 2- Governance

Relevance: concerns associated with misuse of powers by the Governor

News: The misuse of power by the governor in some states has created a tussle with the state governments.

What does the Constitution of India say regarding the Governor?

Article 153 provides a Governor for each State.

Article 154 says that the executive power of the State shall be vested in the Governor and the powers shall be exercised by him directly or through officers’ subordinate to him in accordance with Constitution.

Article 163 provides that there shall be a Council of Ministers with the Chief Minister at the head to aid and advise the Governor except on the matter of his discretion.

What has the Supreme Court said regarding the discretionary powers of the Governor?

The issue of discretionary powers of the governor was taken by SC in Shamsher Singh vs State of Punjab and Anr. The following observations were made by SC –

The court ruled that wherever the Constitution requires satisfaction of the President or the Governor for the exercise of any power or function, the satisfaction is in the Constitutional sense under the Cabinet system of the Government.

It held that the discretionary power given to the Governor by the Constitution on which he/she can act on his own is only Article 356.

Whereas in exercising all other discretionary powers, the Governor will act in harmony with his Council of Ministers. Moreover, the Governor should have a proper justification in using Article 356.

The court further said that the Constitution does not aim at providing a parallel administration.

It said that the basic philosophy in a democracy is that the elected Ministers must accept responsibility for every executive act and that the Council of Ministers alone represents a responsible form of government in the States.

Moreover, the role of Governor was also debated in the Constituent Assembly.

What were the debates in the Constituent Assembly?

The appointment methods of the Governor were debated whether the Governor should be appointed by the President of India or should be elected.

However, the Constituent Assembly adopted the appointment of the Governor by the President fearing that election would create a parallel State leadership.

Prof. K.T. Shah, a member of the Constituent Assembly, while debating Article 154 demanded that the Constitution must include the provisions that guides the Governor to use its power in accordance with the Constitution and the Law, i.e., on the advice of his Ministers.

Further, while debating Article 163 he said that it will be the responsibility of the Chief Minister who will advise the Governor about the appointment of his Minister or their removal if necessary.

He said that Article 163 is a very limited clause. It is not a general clause that gives the Governor power to disregard the advice of his ministers in any matter in which he finds not suitable.

K.M. Munshi said that it would be better to have a Governor nominated by the Centre, who is free from the passions and jealousies of local party politics.

B.R. Ambedkar said that the Governor will not have any such power that he will use on his own discretion or judgment but he is required to follow the advice of his ministry in all matters.

Therefore, it is clear from these debates that the Governor has no powers to interfere with the administration in day-to-day affairs including to refuse assent to Bills passed by the Assembly. He should act according to the powers given by the Constitution.

GS Paper 3


Why regulators must take a coordinated approach to protect financial consumers

Source– The post is based on the article “Why regulators must take a coordinated approach to protect financial consumers” published in The Indian Express on 19th November 2022.

Syllabus: GS3- Mobilisation of resources

Relevance: Financial services

News- The article explains the G20/OECD draft of the proposed revisions to their 2011 High-level Principles on Financial Consumer Protection.

What has been proposed by G20/OECD released a draft of the proposed revisions to their 2011 High-level Principles on Financial Consumer Protection (FCP)?

The 2011 principles covered 10 thematic areas reflecting the market and consumer issues, including equitable and fair consumer treatment, disclosures and transparency, and financial education.

In 2022, two additional principles were included, that are access and inclusion and quality financial products.

The updated principles also recommend intervention by regulators in certain high risk products, cultivating appropriate firm culture and using behavioural insights to better consumer outcomes.

These principles deal with three cross-cutting themes — financial well-being, digitalisation and sustainable finance.

What should be the consideration of FCP policies?

Financial well-being– FCP policies must contribute to overall financial well-being and resilience of consumers.

An effective FCP regime should provide information to consumers that is adequate and understandable. However, merely providing information for compliance is not enough, especially in India where financial literacy is low.

Digitalisation– FCP must factor in the increasing number of digital channels used by consumers to interact with financial products and services. The impact of greater use of artificial intelligence and other emerging technologies also needed to be considered.

Additionally, concerns regarding redress of grievances against payment service providers in the UPI ecosystem should be taken care of.

Sustainable finance– There is growing consumer demand for sustainable financial investments. Financial services providers are incorporating environmental, social and governance factors into their operations, products and services.

FCP recommends improved transparency to help consumers make informed choices.

Avoid greenwashing– The 2022 draft also warns against “greenwashing”. Financial regulators must monitor that corporations are not misleading consumers with false claims regarding progress towards climate targets.

What steps are taken by India regulators in this regard?

SEBI prescribes certain financial service providers to assess customer suitability and undertake risk profiling before providing services.

The RBI has  released guidelines on digital lending. It has mandated entities providing digital lending services to have a grievance redress officer, assess a borrower’s creditworthiness before extending credit and allow a borrower to exit without penalty.

SEBI has transitioned from “business responsibility reporting” to “business responsibility and sustainability reporting”. The purpose is to  promote responsible corporate governance for climate change. Eligible companies under BRSR must provide environmental sustainability related disclosures, including a sustainability performance report.


Why and how the focus of our industrial policy needs to shift

Source– The post is based on the article “Why and how the focus of our industrial policy needs to shift” published in The Indian Express on 19th November 2022.

Syllabus: GS3- Changes in industrial policy and their effects on industrial growth

Relevance: Reforms in industrial sector

News- The article explains the important aspects that should be considered while designing the industrial policy.

Which aspects should be considered while designing industrial policy?

Job creation– The industries need to be very carefully selected. Many of the industries currently chosen to be under PLI are highly capital and skill intensive. Goal of job creation for our massive numbers of unskilled workers should be considered.

Job creation or even economic growth may not always be the main goal of industrial policy. In a world of geo-political conflicts and supply chain disruptions, national security is often considered a major goal. But unnecessary subsidies should be avoided.

Discipling the firms– In policy implementation, there is a need for monitoring the performance of the target firms. We have to be strict with non-performing firms. If necessary, we can withdraw support from them. It requires extra efforts that go beyond the traditional culture of bureaucracy in India.

We have to be careful while disciplining the firms. They should not become white elephants or they acquire too much market power. South Korea and Taiwan used the discipline of success in export markets to nudge the firms supported by their industrial policy to have international standards of quality and cost-consciousness. They followed a stick-and-carrot policy: The stick of export market discipline and the carrot of generous credit subsidies.

Soft industrial policies- These are policies like encouraging research and development, extension services, vocational training, improving regulations and infrastructure are needed. The goal should be to develop domestic policies of coordination that improve productivity more than interventions that distort prices.

soft industrial policies need to be customised to local decentralised contexts, particularly when you want to help small and medium sized firms.

Focus on green products– The 2017 United Nations publication on Green Industrial Policy suggests many examples of new green products and service opportunities that have a great deal of job-creating potential. These are from renewable energy generation and storage, bioplastics, decentralised miniature electric grids, technologies of drip irrigation and rainfall harvesting, the reinforcement of sea walls, green energy-powered three-wheeler public transportation, and so on.

The support for industrial policy has to be nuanced, multi-faceted and vigilant in its disciplining functions.


Vikram-S launch

Source– The post is based on the articles “The Vikram-S launch opens exciting possibilities for space exploration in India” published in The Indian Express and “The Skyroot Of Our Final Frontier” published in The Times of India on 19th November 2022.

Syllabus: GS3- Awareness in the field of space

Relevance: Participation of private sector in space exploration

News- The article explains the importance of the private sector in manufacturing quick launch capabilities for small satellites.

What is the potential of the Indian private sector in the space sector?

India has more than 350 private firms in the space sector making it the fifth-largest in the world in this respect after the US, UK, Canada and Germany. But the country’s share in the global space economy is barely 3%.

According to this year’s Economic Survey, the country’s space regulator has received close to 40 proposals from the private sector and the academia for activities ranging from manufacturing launch vehicles to earth observation applications.

Other private firms are close to emulating Skyroot. Agnikula Cosmos, a Chennai-based start-up, is planning the commercial launch of its rocket Agnibaan in the first quarter of next year.

What are the steps taken by the government to increase private sector participation?

The government intends to increase the country’s share in the global space economy to 10 per cent by 2030.

In June 2020, it approved the participation of private players in all sectors of space activity.

It also instituted the Indian National Space Promotion and Authorisation Centre, a unit of ISRO, to enable private companies to become independent players.

What is the utility of small satellites?

Small satellites can be assembled today in less than a week at a fraction of the cost of conventional satellites.

Currently, ISRO launches less than ten rockets each year. India must hit double-digit launches each year to stay competitive with its peers.

Small rockets allow light payloads weighing 500 kg or less to be placed precisely in preferred orbits.

What are the advantages of rapid launch capabilities?

A decade ago, rapid and tactical space launch capabilities were considered extremely difficult to acquire due to the high costs of constructing rockets. They are now a reality because of innovations like 3D printing of components and carbon-fibre body construction.

The primary use is for military purposes. During a conflict with an adversary, India’s communications assets might be destroyed by an adversary’s offensive cyberattacks, kinetic kill capabilities or directed energy weapons.

This would be requiring quick replacement. In such cases, accessing reliable rockets launched on short notice becomes a strategic necessity.

Other use cases could include the deployment of small satellites for surveillance of borders during a crisis.

For small satellites, we can not rely on vehicles designed for satellites weighing around 1500 kg to launch these satellites.

At present ISRO’s Small Satellite Launch Vehicle is the only rocket in the small launch vehicle range capable of delivering a payload of up to 500 kg into orbit. But its tech demonstration mission earlier this year failed.

SSLV is a three-stage rocket powered by solid rocket motors. But having a solid propellant rocket for quick response comes with limitations. We need more innovative launch vehicles.

What is the way forward?

Private sector participation is necessary for making India a thriving space power.

GoI must remain consistent with its current policy to achieve its goals.

Developing an ecosystem for private players will not be possible without ISRO’s support. In the US, NASA still reserves a part of its budget for such enterprises.

There is a need for close collaboration between India’s premier space research institution and private players.


Yes, the Indian Air Force needs a new doctrine

Source: The post is based on an article “Yes, the Indian Air Force needs a new doctrine” published in The Hindu on 19th November 2022.

Syllabus: GS 3 – Security

Relevance: challenges with the Indian Air Force.

News: There has been an increase in the indigenization of the defense sectors in India which is leading India towards the Atmanirbhar in defense.

But the doctrine of Indian Air Force (IAF) is old and it needs to be revised to meet the current challenges.

What are the challenges with the IAF?

Weaponization of space: There is a need to examine the role of IAF as space would be a major source of conflict in the future. The weaponization of space with emphasis on unmanned platforms and space assets needs to be addressed.

Capital: Technologies have been increasing with the development of Artificial Intelligence (AI) and Machine Learning (ML). Therefore, including these advanced technologies would require good investment which would be a challenge in the future.

Integration: Department of Military Affairs and Chief of Defence Staff (CDS) are the new areas that require proper integration with the military forces including IAF. The creation of these two areas should not act as a hurdle for the IAF.

Further, Airborne Intelligence, Surveillance and Reconnaissance (ISR) and precision attack capabilities of the IAF would need to be merged effectively.

Threat: India faces two major threats: Pakistan and China. Therefore, there is a need for joint operations with friendly nations including commitments in partnerships such as the Quad.

Conflicts: India should also be ready to face future conflicts with other developing economies. India in the future would need raw material from other countries to fulfill its requirement which may be the reason for the conflict from other competitors of the world.

Technology: Multiple technologies in all areas such as cyber, space, electromagnetic spectrum, etc. require proper approach to meet the national objectives Therefore, IAF would require a proper synchronization with these technologies.

Human Resource: The IAF personnel should be trained well to handle new technologies and information from these technologies should not act as a stress for them.

Politics: IAF new doctrine should also focus on keeping IAF out of politics as national defence is a national endeavour.

Combat Enablers: There is a need to integrate combat enablers such as aerial refuellers, Airborne Warning and Control System, transport and helicopter fleets, etc. with the air force. Neglecting them would act as a disadvantage for India as they are required for proper military functioning.

Therefore, looking at challenges of security and limited finance IAF needs a revised doctrine.


Prelims Oriented Articles (Factly)

Draft digital data protection Bill tabled for comments

Source: The post is based on the following articles:

a) “Draft digital data protection Bill tabled for comments” published in The Hindu on 19th November 2022

b) “Draft digital personal data protection bill: Govt exemptions ‘vague’, little regulator independence, say experts” published in Indian Express on 19th November 2022.

What is the News?

The Ministry of Electronics and IT has released the new draft – the Digital Personal Data Protection Bill, 2022.

Note: The revised draft was released after the government withdrew an earlier version that sparked outrage from Big Tech and civil society.

About the Draft – the Digital Personal Data Protection Bill, 2022:

Source: Economic Times

Purpose: To provide for the processing of digital personal data in a manner that recognizes both the right of individuals to protect their personal data and the need to process personal data for lawful purposes.

Principles: The Bill is based on seven principles: 1) usage of personal data by organizations must be done in a manner that is lawful, fair to the individuals concerned, and transparent to individuals 2) personal data must only be used for the purposes for which it was collected 3) data minimization which means minimum and only necessary data should be collected to fulfill a purpose. 4) emphasis should be on data accuracy when it comes to collection 5) personal data that is collected cannot be “stored perpetually by default,” and storage should be limited to a fixed duration 6) There should be reasonable safeguards to ensure there is “no unauthorized collection or processing of personal data” and 7) The person who decides the purpose and means of the processing of personal data should be accountable for such processing”.

Key Provisions of the Bill:

Data Principal and Data Fiduciary: The bill uses the term “Data Principal” to denote the individual whose data is being collected.

– The term “Data Fiduciary” the entity (can be an individual, company, firm, state, etc.), which decides the “purpose and means of the processing of an individual’s personal data.”

– The Bill also makes a recognition that in the case of children –defined as all users under the age of 18— their parents or lawful guardians will be considered their ‘Data Principals.’

Personal data: Under the bill, personal data is “any data by which or in relation to which an individual can be identified.”

Individual consent: The bill makes it clear that individuals need to give consent before their data is processed.

Significant Data Fiduciaries: The bill talks of ‘Significant Data Fiduciaries, who deal with a high volume of personal data. The Central government will define who is designated under this category based on a number of factors ranging from the volume of personal data processed to the risk of harm to the potential impact on the sovereignty and integrity of India.

Right to erase data: Data principals will have the right to demand the erasure and correction of data collected by the data fiduciary.

Cross-border data transfer: The bill also allows for cross-border storage and transfer of data to “certain notified countries and territories.”

Exemptions to agencies: The Central government can issue notifications to exempt its agencies from adhering to provisions of the draft law for national security reasons.

A Data Protection Board is the adjudicating body to enforce the provisions of the Bill.

Penalties: The Bill proposes to impose significant penalties on businesses that undergo data breaches or fail to notify users when breaches happen.

What are the concerns with the Bill?

Firstly, wide-ranging exemptions to the Centre and its agencies with little to no safeguards in place. This may not qualify the test of ‘necessity’ and ‘proportionality’ as laid down in the landmark right to privacy judgment of 2017.

Secondly, the appointment of the chairperson and members of the proposed Data Protection Board is completely left to the discretion of the central government. This is unlike the Data Protection Authority (under the 2019 Bill), which was envisaged to be statutory.


50% mangroves in India to vanish by 2070: Study

Source: The post is based on the article 50% mangroves in India to vanish by 2070: Study” published in The Hindu on 19th November 2022

What is the News?

A study was conducted on the condition of mangroves in India by Birbal Sahni Institute of Palaeosciences(BSIP).

What are the key findings of the study?

Impact of Climate change on mangroves: Mangroves along Indian coasts that act as coastal guards have shrunk considerably due to climate change.

– By 2070, Indian mangroves will further reduce and shift by around 50%, especially in southern India, due to a decline in suitable habitats along the east and west coasts of India.

Impact on mangroves region-wise: Mangroves in the southwest and southeast of the country that cover four states, namely, Karnataka, Tamil Nadu, Kerala, and Andhra Pradesh will be the most vulnerable. These coastlines will submerge and mangroves in the area will degrade more, compared to other areas. 

– On the other hand, certain regions like Chilika and Sundarbans along the east coast and Dwarka and Porbandar along the west coast of India are likely to see less reduction and landward shift by 2070 due to the differential response to precipitation and sea level change in different parts of the Indian coastline.

Dominant mangrove species: Rhizophora mucronata and Avicennia officinalis are the two most dominant mangrove species along Indian Coastline. If they are reduced, the natural infrastructure that protects our coastlines and villages along them would be washed away.


Sweet, not protein, in bamboo fruits triggers rat boom

Source: The post is based on the article “Sweet, not protein, in bamboo fruits triggers rat boom” published in The Hindu on 19th November 2022

What is the News?

A study was conducted on Melocanna baccifera, a tropical bamboo species that has long fascinated researchers for its association with the occurrence of ‘bamboo death’ ‘rat floods’ and famines in northeast India.

What is Melocanna baccifera?

Melocanna baccifera is one of two bamboo species belonging to the Melocanna genus.It is also called ‘Muli’ in northeast India.

It is the largest fruit-producing bamboo and is native to the northeast India-Myanmar region.

It flowers almost fully synchronically every 48 years.This flowering results in the phenomenon known as Mautam.

How is Melocanna baccifera associated with famines in northeast India?

During its gregarious flowering, the Melocanna baccifera produces large fruits which draw animal visitors/predators. Of these, black rats greatly relish the fleshy, berry-like fruit. During this period, they also multiply rapidly, a phenomenon dubbed as ‘rat flood.’ 

Once the fruits are gone, they start devouring standing crops, causing famines that have claimed thousands of human lives.

Why do rats get attracted to the fruits produced by Melocanna baccifera?

Earlier, it was presumed that ‘high protein in fruits/seeds’ was attracting the rats.

However, a study in 2016 has found that the fruit actually contains very little protein.The predation is mainly due to the high content of sugar.


Aadhaar norms for prisoners simplified; Home Ministry calls for camps at all prisons for enrolment or update

Source: The post is based on the article “Aadhaar norms for prisoners simplified; Home Ministry calls for camps at all prisons for enrolment or update” published in The Hindu on 19th November 2022

What is the News?

The Ministry of Home Affairs has released the Standard Operating Procedure(SOP) for Aadhar enrollment of Prisoners.

What are the key provisions of SOP for Aadhar enrollment of Prisoners?

Unique Identification Authority of India(UIDAI) has agreed to accept the Prisoner Induction Document generated from the ‘ePrison’ module and certified by the authorized prison office as a valid document for Aadhaar enrolment or update.

Conduct regular camps for Aadhar enrolment at the jails in coordination with the State governments.

Note: Aadhaar saturation level in the country has crossed 93% and it is nearly 100% among the adult population. 

How will the Aadhar enrollment of prisoners help in prison administration?

As of December 31,2021, National Crime Records Bureau(NCRB) has reported that there were 1,319 prisons in the country.

The use of Aadhaar could help to regulate the day-to-day prison administration work, such as production of inmates in court and their return to prison, transport, health facilities, shifting of inmates to hospitals outside prisons, interviews, free legal aid, parole, temporary release and education/vocational training.


National Education Society for Tribal Students(NESTS) and 1M1B Foundation signed MoU to train teachers and students of EMRSs

Source: The post is based on the article National Education Society for Tribal Students(NESTS) and 1M1B Foundation signed MoU to train teachers and students of EMRSs published in PIB on 18th November 2022

What is the News?

National Education Society for Tribal Students(NESTS) and 1 Million For 1 Billion Foundation (1M1B) has signed a Memorandum of Understanding(MoU) to train teachers and students of Eklavya Model Residential Schools(EMRSs).

What is the objective of the MoU signed between NESTS and 1M1B?

The programme objectives include conduct of training and capacity-building programs for teachers and students of Eklavya Model Residential Schools (EMRSs).

The program will capacitate the teachers & students with Augmented Reality(AR) and Virtual Reality(VR) skills using the AR-VR skills curriculum launched by CBSE.

In pilot phase, the programme is being implemented in EMRSs of 2 states namely Rajasthan and Uttarakhand.

What is the National Education Society for Tribal Students(NESTS)?

NESTS is an autonomous organization established under the Ministry of Tribal Affairs(MoTA).

Aim: To provide high-quality education to the tribal students in their own environment.

What is 1 Million For 1 Billion Foundation(1M1B)?

1M1B is a USA based Not for Profit Company accredited to the United Nations Organization.

Purpose: It is a social innovation and future skills initiative aimed at redefining education in a conventional sense. 

Significance: It is aligned to the UN Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) to enable students to drive change with increased capacities.

– It also has special consultative status to the UN Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC) and is associated with the UN Department of Global Communications.

– It is also a registered credible organization with NGO Darpan Portal of NITI Aayog.


India’s first private rocket lifts off from ISRO spaceport

Source: The post is based on the article “India’s first private rocket lifts off from ISRO spaceport” published in The Hindu on 19th November 2022

What is the News?

India’s first privately developed rocket, Vikram-S was successfully launched from Indian Space Research Organisation’s(ISRO) launchpad in Sriharikota.

What is Vikram S?

Source: Skyroot

Vikram S has been developed by Skyroot Aerospace and has been named after Vikram Sarabhai hailed as the father of India’s space sector. 

The rocket has been launched under the mission named ‘Prarambh, which literally translates as “beginning”.

Purpose: It was a technology demonstration flight to showcase the capabilities of the company. The rocket will help validate the technologies that will be used in the subsequent Vikram-1 orbital vehicle of Skyroot.

Click Here to read more

Key Features of Vikram-S: Vikram-S is powered by the solid-fuelled propulsion, cutting edge avionics and all carbon fibre core structure.

– It is one of the world’s first few all composite space launch vehicles.

– Vikram-S has 3D printed solid thrusters for spin stability.

Vikram-S is capable of reaching Mach 5, five times the speed of sound.

– The vehicle is equipped with telemetry, tracking, GPS, on-board camera, data acquisition and power systems.

– The length of the rocket is six-meter and the mass is 545 kg and payload mass of 80 kg,


India and Russia agree to deepen cooperation on counter-terrorism at UN

Source: The post is based on the articleIndia and Russia agree to deepen cooperation on counter-terrorism at UNpublished in The Hindu on 19th November 2022

What is the News?

India and Russia has agreed to “deepen cooperation” on counter-terrorism issues and “enhance bilateral coordination” at the United Nations.

What are the key takeaways from the discussions held between India and Russia?

On Terrorism: India has a joint working group with Russia on counter-terrorism.

– The two countries have also worked on common objectives in the Financial Action Task Force (FATF).

On UNSC: Russia ​​congratulated India on its upcoming Presidency of the UN Security Council in December 2022.

– Both Sides support the comprehensive reform of the UNSC to reflect contemporary global realities and to make it more representative, effective and efficient in dealing with issues of international peace and security.


Register for SFG 2023 Level-1 Entrance Test-2 | Registration closes on 8th December 2022

Dear Friends, Greetings from ForumIAS, This is a timely reminder to all the students who have not yet registered for SFG 2023, Level-1 last entrance test. The last date for registration is 8th December 2022.  Beyond this time, the deadline will not be extended and we are not going to conduct any further entrance tests for… Continue reading Register for SFG 2023 Level-1 Entrance Test-2 | Registration closes on 8th December 2022

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Mentor’s Townhall to discuss CSE preparation related issues | 5th & 6th December

Dear Friends, We are pleased to inform you that in the series of Mentor’s Townhall the next townhall session shall be organized on  5th & 6th December 2022 from 1 PM to 2:30 PM. If you have lack of motivation and facing unplanned preparation, execution problems, time management and marks stagnation then it’s a golden opportunity for you. Our new initiative Mentor’s Townhall can help you to… Continue reading Mentor’s Townhall to discuss CSE preparation related issues | 5th & 6th December

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Measuring food insecurity

Source– The post is based on the article “Measuring food insecurity” published in The Indian Express on 3rd December 2022. Syllabus: GS3- Poverty and hunger Relevance– Issues related to malnutrition News– India ranked at 107th out of 121 countries in the Global Hunger Index 2022. There are some question marks on data used by FAO… Continue reading Measuring food insecurity

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Maritime stocktaking

Source– The post is based on the article “Maritime stocktaking” published in The Indian Express on 3rd December 2022. Syllabus: GS3- Various security forces Relevance– Issues related to Indian navy News– The article explains the importance of the navy for the security of our country. It also explains the achievement in the maritime sector. Why… Continue reading Maritime stocktaking

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Connecting India’s East with the Indo-Pacific

Source– The post is based on the article “Connecting India’s East with the Indo-Pacific” published in The Hindu on 3rd December 2022. Syllabus: GS2- Regional and global groupings affecting India interest Relevance– Understanding the concept of Indo-pacific News– The article explains the construct of the Indo-Pacific from the perspective of north-eastern India. Since 2018, India’s… Continue reading Connecting India’s East with the Indo-Pacific

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As CJI constitutes an all-women bench, what’s the status of women in law?

Source: The post is based on an article “As CJI constitutes an all-women bench, what’s the status of women in law?” published in Business Standard on 3rd December 2022.  Syllabus: GS 2 – Social Justice  Relevance: position of women in judiciary  News: The proportion of women enrolling in LLB courses or in judiciary is very low which is… Continue reading As CJI constitutes an all-women bench, what’s the status of women in law?

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Winning the world, softly

Source– The post is based on the article “Winning the world, softly” published in The Times of India on 3rd December 2022. Syllabus: GS2- International relations Relevance– Soft power of India News– The article explains the soft power enjoyed by India in ancient times. It also explains the steps needed to enhance India’s soft power.… Continue reading Winning the world, softly

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Can China and India settle the conflict over the Line of Actual Control?

Source: The post is based on an article “Can China and India settle the conflict over the Line of Actual Control?” published in The Indian Express on 3rd December 2022. Syllabus: GS 2 – International Relations Relevance: India and China relations News: China has objected to the military drill that is being conducted between India and the US.… Continue reading Can China and India settle the conflict over the Line of Actual Control?

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Why India needs timely and reliable data on crop production

Source: The post is based on the article “Why India needs timely and reliable data on crop production” published in the Indian Express on 3rd November 2022. Syllabus: GS 3 – Agriculture Relevance: About the credibility of NSO estimates News: According to the National Statistical Office’s (NSO) latest GDP estimates for July-September, manufacturing contracts 4.3% and agriculture growing… Continue reading Why India needs timely and reliable data on crop production

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Pension scheme: Why the EPF Federation has concerns over the Supreme Court’s ruling

Source: The post is based on the article “Pension scheme: Why the EPF Federation has concerns over the Supreme Court’s ruling” published in the Indian Express on 3rd November 2022. What is the News? The Employees’ Provident Fund Organisation (EPFO) is yet to issue any guidelines after the Supreme Court’s judgment on higher pensions. About the SC’s judgment… Continue reading Pension scheme: Why the EPF Federation has concerns over the Supreme Court’s ruling

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Divya Kala Mela; an event to showcase the products and craftsmanship of Divyang artisans

Source: The post is based on the article “Divya Kala Mela; an event to showcase the products and craftsmanship of Divyang artisans” published in AIR on 3rd December 2022. What is the News? The Union Minister for Social Justice and Empowerment has inaugurated the Divya Kala Mela in Kartavya Path at India Gate, Delhi. What… Continue reading Divya Kala Mela; an event to showcase the products and craftsmanship of Divyang artisans

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Ministry of Power launches scheme for Procurement of Aggregate Power of 4500 MW for five years under of SHAKTI Policy

Source:  The post is based on the article “Ministry of Power  launches scheme for Procurement of Aggregate Power of 4500 MW for five years under of SHAKTI Policy” published in PIB on 1st December 2022 What is the News? The Ministry of Power has announced a Scheme for Procurement of Aggregate Power of 4500 MW… Continue reading Ministry of Power launches scheme for Procurement of Aggregate Power of 4500 MW for five years under of SHAKTI Policy

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After complaints, Centre set to prioritize wages for MGNREGS site supervisors

Source: The post is based on the article “After complaints, Centre set to prioritize wages for MGNREGS site supervisors” published in The Hindu on 3rd December 2022. What is the News? The Union Rural Development Ministry has devised a protocol to prioritize payment to Mates or site supervisors under Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee… Continue reading After complaints, Centre set to prioritize wages for MGNREGS site supervisors

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Most drones crossing border originate from Pak Rangers outposts: Agencies

Source: The post is based on the article “Most drones crossing border originate from Pak Rangers outposts: Agencies” published in The Hindu on 3rd December 2022. What is the News? Most cases of violation of international borders by drones originating from Pakistan in the past one year have taken place in the Amritsar sector of… Continue reading Most drones crossing border originate from Pak Rangers outposts: Agencies

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DigiYatra: These airports in India now have facial recognition technology. How does it work?

Source: The post is based on the article “DigiYatra: These airports in India now have facial recognition technology. How does it work?” published in Indian Express on 3rd December 2022. What is the News? The Union Minister for Civil Aviation has launched Digi Yatra from the Indira Gandhi International Airport, New Delhi for three airports… Continue reading DigiYatra: These airports in India now have facial recognition technology. How does it work?

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Natovenator polydontus: A goose-necked dinosaur from Mongolia, built like a diving bird

Source: The post is based on the article “Natovenator polydontus: A goose-necked dinosaur from Mongolia, built like a diving bird” published in Indian Express on 3rd December 2022. What is the News? Scientists have discovered a dinosaur fossil in Mongolia that was likely a semi-aquatic diving predator. This dinosaur has been named as Natovenator polydontus.… Continue reading Natovenator polydontus: A goose-necked dinosaur from Mongolia, built like a diving bird

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Wormhole or Einstein-Rosen bridge Theory: Bifrost now a reality, or so

Source: The post is based on the article “Bifrost now a reality, or so” published in Business Standard on 3rd December 2022. What is the News? A team of physicists has created the first-ever wormhole, a tunnel that connects two distant points in space and time. This wormhole is like the magical Bifrost bridge in… Continue reading Wormhole or Einstein-Rosen bridge Theory: Bifrost now a reality, or so

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Tourist guides to front ‘unique India experience’ at G-20 meeting venues

Source: The post is based on the article “Tourist guides to front ‘unique India experience’ at G-20 meeting venues” published in The Hindu on 3rd December 2022. What is the News? One thousand tourist guides would fan out across the 55 locations where G-20 meetings would be held over the next one year to facilitate… Continue reading Tourist guides to front ‘unique India experience’ at G-20 meeting venues

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Explained | How will global layoffs impact India?

Source: The post is based on the article “Explained | How will global layoffs impact India?” published in The Hindu on 3rd December 2022. What is the News? Many U.S. multinational companies have announced massive layoffs, which already crossed 60,000 in September and October 2022. What is Layoff? A layoff is the temporary or permanent… Continue reading Explained | How will global layoffs impact India?

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Adivasis at bottom rung of India’s development pyramid, finds Tribal Development Report 2022

Source: The post is based on the article “Adivasis at bottom rung of India’s development pyramid, finds Tribal Development Report 2022” published in Down To Earth on 2nd December 2022 What is the News? Bharat Rural Livelihood Foundation(BRLF) has released the Tribal Development Report 2022. It is claimed to be the first of its kind… Continue reading Adivasis at bottom rung of India’s development pyramid, finds Tribal Development Report 2022

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Persons with Disabilities: Rights, Challenges and Solutions – Explained, pointwise

For 7PM Editorial Archives click HERE → Introduction In a recent Judgment related to compensation for a person rendered disabled by an accident, the Supreme Case made certain remarks regarding disability and persons with disabilities. The Court said, “…in the era of competition, the appellant cannot compete with ‘normal men’…”. The Court also noted that, “a person must… Continue reading Persons with Disabilities: Rights, Challenges and Solutions – Explained, pointwise

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Must Read Current Affairs Articles – December 3rd, 2022

About Must Read News Articles: Must Read News Articles is an initiative by Team ForumIAS to provide links to the most important news articles of the day. It covers The Hindu newspaper. This saves the time and effort of students in identifying useful and important articles. With newspaper websites requiring a paid subscription beyond a certain… Continue reading Must Read Current Affairs Articles – December 3rd, 2022

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Fighting the naval battle

Source: The post is based on an article “Fighting the naval battle” published in Business Standard on 2nd December 2022. Syllabus: GS 3 – Security Relevance: challenges associated with the Indian Navy News: The Exercise Malabar was conducted recently by the navies of four quadrilateral countries — Australia, India, Japan and the United States of America. What is… Continue reading Fighting the naval battle

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Coming clean on coal

Source: The post is based on an article “Coming clean on coal” published in The Indian Express on 2nd December 2022. Syllabus: GS 3 – Environment Relevance: coal-based energy generation and concerns associated with it News: The Union Minister of Power and New and Renewable Energy, RK Singh, highlighted the importance of coal-fired plants in meeting developmental requirements.… Continue reading Coming clean on coal

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Safer roads for a greener, more sustainable environment

Source– The post is based on the article “Safer roads for a greener, more sustainable environment” published in The Hindu on 2nd December 2022. Syllabus: GS3- Environment pollution Relevance– Causes of environmental pollution News– The article explains the linkages between road safety and clean environment. How do road accidents lead to environmental pollution? Most vehicles… Continue reading Safer roads for a greener, more sustainable environment

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The battle to bring freshwater turtles back from the brink

Source– The post is based on the article “The battle to bring freshwater turtles back from the brink” published in The Hindu on 2nd December 2022. Syllabus: GS3- Conservation News– The article explains the issues of turtle trafficking in India. Recently, West Bengal Police seized 270 kg of turtle calipee in Malda district. What is… Continue reading The battle to bring freshwater turtles back from the brink

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How can India make a soft landing amid global economic crash?

Source– The post is based on the article “How can India make a soft landing amid global economic crash?” published in The Indian Express on 2nd December 2022. Syllabus: GS3- Indian economy Relevance– Performance of economy News– The article explains the current situation of the Indian economy. It also exp-lains the future economic prospects. What… Continue reading How can India make a soft landing amid global economic crash?

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Why tracking migration is important for nutrition schemes?

Source– The post is based on the article “Why tracking migration is important for nutrition schemes?” published in The Indian Express on 2nd December 2022. Syllabus: GS2- Poverty and hunger Relevance– Issues related to malnutrition News– The article explains the challenges faced by the government in reducing malnutrition due to high migration in some areas.… Continue reading Why tracking migration is important for nutrition schemes?

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Agnikul inaugurates India’s first private space vehicle launch pad in Sriharikota

Source: The post is based on the article “Agnikul inaugurates India’s first private space vehicle launch pad in Sriharikota” published in Indian Express on 1st December 2022. What is the News? Chennai-based space tech startup Agnikul Cosmos inaugurated India’s first private space vehicle launchpad at the Satish Dhawan Space Centre(SDSC) in Sriharikota. What is Agnikul… Continue reading Agnikul inaugurates India’s first private space vehicle launch pad in Sriharikota

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Explained | How do personality rights protect celebrities?

Source: The post is based on the article “Explained | How do personality rights protect celebrities?” published in The Hindu on 2nd December 2022. What is the News? The Delhi High Court has passed an interim order to prevent the unlawful use of Bollywood star Amitabh Bachchan’s name, image and voice. The court through its… Continue reading Explained | How do personality rights protect celebrities?

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Union Minister for Civil Aviation Launches Digi Yatra for Three Airports in The Country

Source: The post is based on the article “Union Minister for Civil Aviation Launches Digi Yatra for Three Airports in The Country” published in PIB on 1st December 2022. What is the News? The Union Minister for Civil Aviation has launched Digi Yatra from the Indira Gandhi International Airport, New Delhi for three airports in… Continue reading Union Minister for Civil Aviation Launches Digi Yatra for Three Airports in The Country

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Centre to cut funds if land is not allotted for housing scheme

Source: The post is based on the article “Centre to cut funds if land is not allotted for housing scheme” published in PIB on 2nd December 2022. What is the News? The Central Government has said that the states which are unable to provide land to landless beneficiaries under Pradhan Mantri Gramin Awas Yojana(PMAY-G) by… Continue reading Centre to cut funds if land is not allotted for housing scheme

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Joint Exercise Agni Warrior with Singapore Armed Forces Concludes at Devlali (Maharashtra)

Source: The post is based on the article “Joint Exercise Agni Warrior with Singapore Armed Forces Concludes at Devlali (Maharashtra)” published in PIB on 2nd December 2022. What is the News? The 12th Edition of Exercise Agni Warrior between the Singapore & Indian Army has concluded at Field Firing Ranges, Devlali (Maharashtra). What is Exercise… Continue reading Joint Exercise Agni Warrior with Singapore Armed Forces Concludes at Devlali (Maharashtra)

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World’s first intra-nasal vaccine for COVID developed by India has got approval from the CDSCO for restricted use in emergency situations in the age group of 18 and above

Source: The post is based on the article “World’s first intra-nasal vaccine for COVID developed by India has got approval from the Central Drugs Standard Control Organisation (CDSCO) for restricted use in emergency situations in the age group of 18 and above” published in PIB on 2nd December 2022. What is the News? World’s first… Continue reading World’s first intra-nasal vaccine for COVID developed by India has got approval from the CDSCO for restricted use in emergency situations in the age group of 18 and above

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e-Rupee: Here’s a Quixplained on India’s first official digital currency

Source: The post is based on the article “e-Rupee: Here’s a Quixplained on India’s first official digital currency” published in Indian Express on 2nd December 2022. What is the News? The Reserve Bank of India (RBI) has launched the Central Bank Digital Currency (CBDC) — digital rupee or e-rupee(e₹). What is CBDC or the digital… Continue reading e-Rupee: Here’s a Quixplained on India’s first official digital currency

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Explained | What is the Karnataka-Maharashtra border dispute?

Source: The post is based on the article “Explained | What is the Karnataka-Maharashtra border dispute?” published in The Hindu on 2nd December 2022. What is the News? The Supreme Court will hear arguments about the maintainability of a petition filed by the Maharashtra government challenging some provisions of the State Reorganisation Act,1956 and demanding… Continue reading Explained | What is the Karnataka-Maharashtra border dispute?

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Zombie Virus’: See 50,000 years old virus found in Siberia

Source: The post is based on the article “Zombie Virus’: See 50,000 years old virus found in Siberia” published in Economic Times on 1st December 2022. What is the News? French scientists have warned of the onset of another outbreak after they revived a 48,500-year-old zombie virus buried under a frozen lake in Russia. What… Continue reading Zombie Virus’: See 50,000 years old virus found in Siberia

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State elections and the troubling return of the old pension scheme

Source: The post is based on the article “State elections and the troubling return of the old pension scheme” published in the Livemint on 2nd November 2022. Syllabus: GS 2- Governance Relevance: About reviving old pension scheme (OPS). News: The poll promises in ongoing state elections are always debatable. The Himachal Pradesh election witnessed a promise of revival… Continue reading State elections and the troubling return of the old pension scheme

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Air To Everywhere – North’s fewer farm fires were thanks to tech, incentives & some good politics. There’s a wider green lesson

Source: The post is based on the article “Air To Everywhere – North’s fewer farm fires were thanks to tech, incentives & some good politics. There’s a wider green lesson” published in The Times of India on 2nd November 2022. Syllabus: GS 3 – Environment. Relevance: About measures to tackle farm fires. News: This year winter witnessed… Continue reading Air To Everywhere – North’s fewer farm fires were thanks to tech, incentives & some good politics. There’s a wider green lesson

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Stats Of The Union – Economic gap between regions in India is growing. It will have consequences in other areas

Source: The post is based on the article “Stats Of The Union – Economic gap between regions in India is growing. It will have consequences in other areas” published in The Times of India on 1st November 2022. Syllabus: GS 3 – Inclusive growth and issues arising from it. Relevance: About subnational economic convergence. News: According to an… Continue reading Stats Of The Union – Economic gap between regions in India is growing. It will have consequences in other areas

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Before infection spreads – AIIMS episode shows big cyber-security review is needed

Source: The post is based on the article “Before infection spreads – AIIMS episode shows big cyber-security review is needed” published in the Business Standard on 2nd November 2022. Syllabus: GS 3 – Basics of cyber security. Relevance: About the recent ransomware attack on AIIMS. News: The recent massive ransomware attack has crippled the e-hospital services of AIIMS,… Continue reading Before infection spreads – AIIMS episode shows big cyber-security review is needed

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Waste Management in India: Status, Challenges and Solutions – Explained, pointwise

For 7PM Editorial Archives click HERE → Introduction India is set to undergo rapid urbanization in the coming decade. One major challenge accompanying the urbanization is rapid rise in waste generation. Waste Management Processes and Systems in India will need to be upgraded to meet this challenge. What is the status of Solid Waste Generation in India? Overall… Continue reading Waste Management in India: Status, Challenges and Solutions – Explained, pointwise

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[Download] 10 PM Weekly Compilation – November, 2022 – 4th week

Hello, everyone. We are posting a Compilation of the 10 pm current affairs quiz – November 2022 – Fourth week  Click on the following link to download Download The 10 PM Daily Current Affairs Quiz is focused on the current affairs part of UPSC Prelims. The daily current affairs quiz consists of 10 questions based on the daily current affairs.… Continue reading [Download] 10 PM Weekly Compilation – November, 2022 – 4th week

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Must Read Current Affairs Articles – December 2nd, 2022

About Must Read News Articles: Must Read News Articles is an initiative by Team ForumIAS to provide links to the most important news articles of the day. It covers The Hindu newspaper. This saves the time and effort of students in identifying useful and important articles. With newspaper websites requiring a paid subscription beyond a certain… Continue reading Must Read Current Affairs Articles – December 2nd, 2022

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An Indian recipe to quell micronutrient malnutrition

Source– The post is based on the article “An Indian recipe to quell micronutrient malnutrition” published in The Hindu on 1st December 2022. Syllabus: GS2- Issue relating to poverty and hunger Relevance– Malnutrition in India News– The article explains the benefits of food fortification in checking malnutrition What does the statistics say about malnutrition in… Continue reading An Indian recipe to quell micronutrient malnutrition

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Towards a robust triumvirate – on appointment of Election Commissioner

Source– The post is based on the article “Towards a robust triumvirate” published in The Hindu on 1st December 2022. Syllabus: GS2- Salient features of Representation of People Act Relevance– Electoral reforms News– THe article explains the issue of appointment of CEC and ECs. It also explains the issue of security of tenure for ECS.… Continue reading Towards a robust triumvirate – on appointment of Election Commissioner

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Re-design and deliver – Govt crop insurance scheme needs radical rethink

Source: The post is based on an article “Re-design and deliver – Govt crop insurance scheme needs radical rethink” published in Business Standard on 1st December 2022. Syllabus: GS 2 – Governance Relevance: problems with PMFBY and ways to address it News: The government has decided to bring changes in the Pradhan Mantri Fasal Bima Yojana (PMFBY) in… Continue reading Re-design and deliver – Govt crop insurance scheme needs radical rethink

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Party Congress over, understanding the China puzzle

Source– The post is based on the article “Party Congress over, understanding the China puzzle” published in The Hindu on 1st December 2022. Syllabus: GS2- Effect of Policies and Politics of Developed and Developing Countries on India’s interests Relevance– India and China relationship in global context News– The article explains China strategy in context of… Continue reading Party Congress over, understanding the China puzzle

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Has GST reduced inter-state disparities?

Source– The post is based on the article “Has GST reduced inter-state disparities?” published in the mint on 1st December 2022. Syllabus: GS2- Indian economy and mobilisation of resources Relevance– Taxation structure of country News– The article explains the performance of GST regime. Two months, April and October in 2022 have seen the highest GST… Continue reading Has GST reduced inter-state disparities?

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This global water audit should not gather dust

Source: The post is based on an article “This global water audit should not gather dust” published in Live Mint on 1st December 2022. Syllabus: GS 3 – Environment Relevance: findings of the World Meteorological Organization’s report News: The World Meteorological Organization (WMO) has released a water audit report that can guide global climate adaptation. What are the… Continue reading This global water audit should not gather dust

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