9 PM Daily Current Affairs Brief – September 16th, 2022
We have initiated some changes in the 9 PM Brief and other postings related to current affairs. What we sought to do:
- Ensure that all relevant facts, data, and arguments from today’s newspaper are readily available to you.
- We have widened the sources to provide you with content that is more than enough and adds value not just for GS but also for essay writing. Hence, the 9 PM brief now covers the following newspapers:
- The Hindu
- Indian Express
- Business Standard
- Times of India
- Down To Earth
- We have also introduced the relevance part to every article. This ensures that you know why a particular article is important.
- Since these changes are new, so initially the number of articles might increase, but they’ll go down over time.
- It is our endeavor to provide you with the best content and your feedback is essential for the same. We will be anticipating your feedback and ensure the blog serves as an optimal medium of learning for all the aspirants.
Mains Oriented Articles
GS Paper 2
- Parliamentary business and an essential pit stop
- The Eastern Economic Forum and India’s balancing act
- After BCCI vs Supreme Court, it’s back to status quo
- Abraham Accords have led to greater regional cooperation, expanding opportunities for India
- Climate action that runs on cooperative federalism
- A Tale Of American Gullibility And Pakistani Deceit
- Strategic autonomy: India’s membership of SCO serves its interests and is not at odds with its other alliances
- A Civilisational Diplomacy
GS Paper 3
- Synchronize policies to counter weak growth and high inflation
- A shimmer of hope for the golden fibre as demand for shopping bags rises
Prelims Oriented Articles (Factly)
- Online portal “E-Baal Nidan” for redressal of grievances against violation of child rights revamped
- Why Jharkhand wants to define a ‘local’ with 1932 as the cut-off for domicile
- Tamil Nadu’s new breakfast scheme in schools
- Delay in PM’s flagship rural housing scheme to invite penalty
- In rare move, SC bench order criticizes CJI’s listing system
- MeitY Startup Hub and Meta collaborate to accelerate XR technology startups in India
Mains Oriented Articles
GS Paper 2
Source: The post is based on the article “Parliamentary business and an essential pit stop” published in The Hindu on 16th September 2022.
Syllabus: GS 2 – Parliament and State legislatures—structure, functioning, conduct of business, powers & privileges.
Relevance: About the Department-Related Parliamentary Standing Committees (DRSC).
News: The recently concluded monsoon session was adjourned sine die. Parliament had only limited legislative time this session and could pass only five pieces of legislation and referred two bills to the Standing Committee. The Lok Sabha’s productivity was 47% and the Rajya Sabha’s productivity was only 42%.
What are Department-Related Parliamentary Standing Committees (DRSC)?
|Read here: Departmentally Related Standing Committees (DRSCs)|
What is the status of DRSC?
The percentage of Bills having been referred to the DRSCs during the tenures of the 14th (2004-2009), 15th (2009-2014) and 16th Lok Sabhas (2014-2019) has been 60%, 71% and 27%, respectively.
Why does the government have to refer the Bill to DRSCs?
The examination of the Bills by the parliamentary committees is more to the benefit of the Government than the Opposition. This is because a) The deliberations in these committees mostly add value to the content of the legislation as the Members discuss the provisions of the bill irrespective of their party positions, b) Committee members from both the ruling side and the opposition side have some sort of ownership of the bill as they examine the bill, c) As in most of these committees, the government has a majority and the final decision is always by the process of majority voting.
The Bills which are not being referred to the parliamentary committees are considered a) Not examined properly, especially from the perspective of consumers and stakeholders. For instance, the three Farm Bills were passed without being referred to the DRSC and had to be withdrawn later, b) Remain just a bureaucratically conceived piece of legislation.
|Read more: The issues faced by MPs in India in initiating reforms on their own and measures for their empowerment|
What should be done?
The following changes could be suggested to be made into procedures meant for consideration of Bills.
Compulsory reference of Bills: The process of reference of Bills to these committees compulsory/an automatic process. The Speaker of the Lok Sabha and the Chairman of the Rajya Sabha have powers to refer Bills to a DRSC of Parliament. An exemption could be made with the specific approval of the Speaker/Chairman after detailed reasons for the same.
Ensure frank and free discussions in DRSCs: During the discussions of the committee meetings, no whip of the party would apply to them.
Fixed timeline for DRSCs to come up with the recommendation and present its report: In case the committee fails to give its recommendation within the approved/extended time, the Bill may be put up before the House concerned directly.
Ensure quality work in the committee: Experts in the field may be invited who could bring with them the necessary domain knowledge and also help introduce the latest developments and trends in that field from worldwide.
Organise committee meetings for discussions between two sessions: It is important for the Ministry of Parliamentary Affairs to conduct committee meetings between two sessions to critically analyse the bill within the desired timeframe.
More power to discuss budget proposals: The committees should not limit themselves to discussing just the budget proposals and endorsing them with a few qualifications or amendments. They should come up with suggestions for the Ministry to take up new initiatives and people-friendly measures.
|Read more: The working of DRSCs with suitable examples|
Source: The post is based on the article “The Eastern Economic Forum and India’s balancing act” published in The Hindu on 16th September 2022.
Syllabus: GS 2 – Bilateral, regional and global groupings and agreements involving India.
Relevance: About Eastern Economic Forum (EEF).
News: Recently, Russia hosted the seventh Eastern Economic Forum (EEF) Vladivostok. The Prime Minister of India has virtually addressed the Plenary Session.
What is the Eastern Economic Forum?
|Read here: Eastern Economic Forum(EEF)|
The primary objective of the EEF is to increase the Foreign Direct Investments in the RFE.
What is the significance of Russia’s Far East (RFE)?
The primary objective of the EEF is to increase the Foreign Direct Investments in the RFE. This is because, a) The region encompasses one-third of Russia’s territory and is rich with natural resources such as fish, oil, natural gas, wood, diamonds and other minerals, b) The region has a sparse population the EEF aims to encourage people to move and work in the Far East. Despite the abundance and availability of materials, procuring and supplying them is an issue due to the unavailability of personnel, c) RFE is geographically placed at a strategic location. The region is acting as a gateway into Asia. The Russian government has strategically developed the region with fast modernisation of cities that aims of connecting Russia to the Asian trading routes.
Who are the major actors in the Forum? What are their interests?
This year, the Forum aimed at connecting the Far East with the Asia Pacific region.
China: China is promoting the Chinese Belt and Road Initiative and the Polar Sea Route in Russia’s Far East (RFE). China’s investments in the region account for 90% of the total investments. China is also looking to develop its Heilongjiang province which connects with the RFE.
Russia and China: Russia has been welcoming Chinese investments since 2015. The Trans-Siberian Railway has further helped Russia and China in advancing trade ties.
Both Russia and China share a 4000-kilometre-long border, which enables them to tap into each other’s resources with some infrastructural assistance.
South Korea: South Korea has invested in shipbuilding projects, manufacturing of electrical equipment, gas-liquefying plants, agricultural production and fisheries. In 2017, Korea along with the Far East Development Fund announced their intention to inject $2 billion into the RFE in a span of three years.
Japan: Japan identified eight areas of economic cooperation and pushed private businesses to invest in the development of the RFE. Japan seeks to depend on Russian oil and gas resources. Japan also sees a market for its agro-technologies which have the potential to flourish in the RFE.
The trade ties between Japan and Russia are hindered by the Kuril Islands dispute as they are claimed by both countries.
India: India is keen to deepen its cooperation in energy, pharmaceuticals, maritime connectivity, healthcare, tourism, the diamond industry and the Arctic. In 2019, India also offered a $1 billion line of credit to develop infrastructure in the RFE. Through the EEF, India aims to establish a strong inter-state interaction with Russia.
|Read more: Explained: Why the Eastern Economic Forum matters for India|
What is Indo-Pacific Economic Framework for Prosperity (IPEF)?
|Read here: IPEF: Indo-Pacific Economic Framework – Explained, pointwise|
The IPEF also presents an ideal opportunity for India to act in the region, without being part of the China-led Regional Comprehensive Economic Partnership or other regional groupings like the Comprehensive and Progressive Agreement for Trans-Pacific Partnership.
Can India balance between the EEF and the IPEF?
India has vested interests in both forums and has worked towards balancing its involvement. India understands the benefits of being involved in the development of the RFE but India also perceives the IPEF as a vital platform to strengthen its presence in the Indo-Pacific region.
Source: The post is based on the article “After BCCI vs Supreme Court, it’s back to status quo” published in the Indian Express on 16th September 2022.
Syllabus: GS 2 – Statutory, regulatory and various quasi-judicial bodies.
Relevance: About the recent amendment to BCCI Constitution.
News: Recently, the Supreme Court approved the amendments proposed to the BCCI constitution to give office bearers longer terms.
What are the recent modifications done by the court to BCCI Constitution?
|Read here: BCCI office-bearers can have two terms before cool-off period|
What are the concerns associated with the recent judgement?
1) The original 2016 SC order, based on the Justice RM Lodha committee recommendations, wanted the office-bearers to take a mandatory break after every three-year term. According to Justice RM Lodha, the “cooling off period clause” was “the most important pillar of our report as far as governance and structure of BCCI is concerned” to check monopolies and enforce antitrust regulations.
But, with the current judgement, the office-bearers can remain in a state body and the BCCI together for an unbroken stint of 12 years.
2) There have been three different cooling-off periods — three, six and 12 years — in three SC orders since 2016. FIFA’s ultimatum to ban Indian football because of recent court interference might make the judges sceptical about wading into sporting arenas.
3) State units continued to be run as private fiefdoms, and cricketing controversies didn’t quite end. For instance, Six years later, the original order of the Supreme Court hadn’t gotten implemented by the BCCI.
|Must read: SC alters Lodha’s BCCI proposals|
Source: The post is based on an article “Abraham Accords have led to greater regional cooperation, expanding opportunities for India” published in The Indian Express on 16th September 2022.
Syllabus: GS 2
Relevance: bilateral relations
News: It has been two years of Abraham Accords. It has helped not only the member nations but has also provided various benefits to India as well.
The article discusses those benefits and highlights the importance of Abraham Accords.
What is Abraham Accord and what are its benefits?
It is collaboration among Israel, the United Arab Emirates and Bahrain brokered by the US.
It aims towards normalisation of ties by bringing Israel closer to the Gulf nations and taking forward the peace initiative.
The benefits of this agreement continue to grow, which can be seen by the deepening people-to-people ties and business opportunities.
New joint ventures are also being undertaken in critical sectors such as clean energy, health, innovation, etc.
It has also worked towards academic collaborations between universities, promoting cultural exchange in the arts field and raising awareness about the shared histories and heritage.
How Abraham Accords has helped India?
Regional connectivity: Abraham Accords has improved the regional connectivity between the member countries. This regional connectivity has also helped Indians.
- For example, the Indian diaspora in the Gulf can now fly directly from the UAE to Israel or from Israel to Bahrain.
Economic opportunities: The Accords have provided for greater regional and multinational cooperation between companies from the UAE, Israel, Bahrain and the United States with the Indian private sector.
Group formation: The Accords has helped in the formation of the I2U2 Group. This group is established by Israel, India, the UAE, and the United States.
What is I2U2 and its benefits?
I2U2 focuses on joint investments in water, energy, transportation, space, health, and food security between the member countries.
The member countries will try to mobilize private sector capital and expertise to help modernise infrastructure, decarbonise industries, etc. in India.
I2U2 combines the strengths and resources of each member country to find innovative solutions to rising global challenges.
It will also serve as a model for multilateral cooperation with other like-minded countries.
Source: The post is based on an article “Climate action that runs on cooperative federalism ” published in The Hindu on 16th September 2022.
Syllabus: GS 2
News: India has decided to buy 5,450 buses with an ambitious target to have 50,000 e-buses on the country’s roads by 2030. It shows India’s efforts towards climate goals.
Rapid electrification is a key pillar of India’s public transportation. This pillar has a potential to reduce India’s pollution and it’s import bill.
What is the current situation of state buses and the problems associated with them?
There are currently around 1,40,000 registered public buses on India’s roads.
Around 40,000 of these buses are at the end of their lifespan and their operation must be immediately stopped.
Most of the buses are owned by State transport undertakings and all these are in poor financial condition.
These buses run in losses due to the subsidised fares. State Transport undertakings pay high prices when they buy the buses in the market.
Furthermore, there are limitations to nation-wide laws on the issue of state governments control on transport, urban governance and pollution control.
However, cooperative federalism can play an important role in tackling these issues.
How cooperative federalism has helped in the decision to buy buses?
Grand Challenge 1 is a great example of cooperative federalism. Under Grand Challenge 1, a unified tender for 5,450 buses (across five major Indian cities — Kolkata, Delhi, Bengaluru, Hyderabad and Surat) was issued.
This is for the 1st time that a unified tender to address the challenging issue of climate change, has been issued.
Convergence Energy Services Limited (CESL), a nodal agency of the Union government in collaboration with State-led demand and customisation acted as the programme manager in this effort of centralised procurement.
This coordination among central and state governments led to the finding of the low price required to operate the buses.
For example, on a cost-per-kilometre basis, the prices discovered were 40% lower than diesel and 34% less than CNG (without factoring in the subsidy through FAME-II).
What led to the success of this unified tender?
This change in unified tender was enabled by three key factors a) collaboration, b) pace, and c) transparency.
First, the tender was a fully consultative process. The different contributions by participants helped in influencing the design of future tenders also.
Second, there was a sense of climate urgency that shaped this collaboration.
Third, transparency was the strongest aspect of this tender. There was clarity about the intention to build trust and build a publicly available process that invited bids from automakers and operators.
Therefore, excessive centralization can have limitations and contradict the federal principles enshrined in the Constitution.
How decentralization decision can help in improving the climate conditions?
Indian states and districts vary vastly in their vulnerability to climate impacts.
Decentralized decision-making and locally-led adaptation will help reduce possible damage to lives and livelihoods.
Urban local bodies and gram panchayats can be the heart of climate action and they can be consulted in the decision making process.
However, centralised procurement and programme management can deliver huge transformations in certain areas. Because, states lack size and financial power for electrification of mass mobility.
Although a good start has been made still much work remains to be done to enable the electrification of mass mobility in India.
What can be the further course of action?
The country’s shift to clean public transportation will require a range of efforts.
First, it will require increasing the manufacturing capacity of domestic battery production, building out charging infrastructure among others.
Second, effort on cooperative federalism can play an important role to fulfil the ambitious targets for green and inclusive economic development in India.
Source– The post is based on the article “A Tale Of American Gullibility And Pakistani Deceit” published in The Times of India on 16th September 2022.
Syllabus: GS2- International Relations
News– The article explains the sale of US military weapons to Pakistan and changing dynamics of US-Pakistan relationship.
Recently the US decided to provide a sustenance package for the Pakistan F-16 fleet.It announced fopreign military sales to Pakistan worth $450 million.
What are the reasons given by US for military sale?
According to the USA, military sales support the foreign policy and national security objectives of the US. It provides interoperability in counterterrorism efforts. It will not alter the basic military balance in the region”.
After Pakistan was designated a Major Non-Nato Ally to secure its cooperation on global war on terror, USA sold 36 F-16 in 2006.
Why Trump presidency Changed the US policy?
Trump’s administration accused Pakistan of providing “safe haven to terrorists”.
It lashed out at Pakistan for its “lies and deceit”.
US suspended $900 million in aid to Pakistan and froze $225 million foreign military sale for 2017. It demanded decisive action against groups, including Afghan Taliban and the Haqqani Network.
In the backdrop of the Balakot incident, the US warned Pakistan about the use of F-16.
Pakistan has a proven record of the misuse of US military equipment against India.
What are the changing dynamics of Pakistan relations with the USA and China?
China has replaced the US as the primary strategic partner of choice for Pakistan.
China accounted for 53% of Pakistan’s arms imports between 2002-21 as compared to 20% from the US.
Washington thinks that military sales to Pakistan do not alter the power balance in the region.
The US image in Pakistan is deteriorating.Imran Khan accused USA hand in his ouster.
What is the strategy of Pakistan?
Pakistan army is concerned about deepening strategic partnership between USA and India.It is trying to improve its relationship with USA.
Strategic autonomy: India’s membership of SCO serves its interests and is not at odds with its other alliances
Source– The post is based on the article “Strategic autonomy: India’s membership of SCO serves its interests and is not at odds with its other alliances” published in The Times of India on 16th September 2022.
Syllabus: GS2- Regional and global grouping
Relevance– About SCO
News-The article explains the relevance of SCO for India.
PM Modi is attending the 22nd summit of the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation.
What are some facts about SCO?
SCO accounts for 40% of the global population and 30% of GDP.
Majority of SCO members have a pronounced anti-western position.
What is its significance for India and what are the limitations?
SCO is important from the perspective of India’s strategic autonomy.For example, during the Ukraine crisis, we imported crude oil from both US and Russia.
SCO is a reminder of pragmatism in foreign policy that we can have an economic relationship with adversaries.For example, both Japan and Australia, despite being members of Quad, have close economic integration with China.
What are the limitations?
Gains from SCO will be limited on account of China.Given the structural nature of disputes between them,bilateral meetings on the sidelines of the summit will not be successful.
Source– The post is based on the article “A Civilisational Diplomacy” published in The Indian Express on 16th September 2022.
Syllabus: GS2- International Relations.
Relevance– About Foreign policy of India.
News– The article explains the foreign policy choices of India and changing Chinese opinion about our foreign policy.
PM Modi and President Xi Jinping are meeting for the first time in the post-Covid world, at the 22nd Council of Heads of State of the SCO
What is the changing Chinese opinion about foreign policy of India?
The visible change in Chinese public opinion about India is due to India’s principled stand on the Ukraine crisis and assertion of an independent foreign policy.
The Chinese strategic community views Modi as being politically astute in pursuing India’s national interests by balancing relations with major powers.
Chinese social media voices draw attention to India using media platforms alongside official diplomacy to convey Indian viewpoints, and expose the fallacy in the Western arguments.
Many in China also believe that Beijing should have pursued a similar balanced approach to the Ukraine conflict.
India’s stance on Ukraine has generated a positive mood in China that may help resolve the on-going disputes between India and China.
What are the foreign policy choices of present government?
As per present government policies, both Russia and China are civilisational states.Complete weakening of either of them may have implications for India’s external security.This view stems from the weakening Asian civilisation against western dominance.
What are the implications of these foreign policy choices?
Due to foreign policy choices, India can have good relations with both Russia and China despite both having different world outlook.
This outlook has enabled India to have a prudent diplomatic approach.It denies the charges of India going very close to western powers.
GS Paper 3
Source: The post is based on an article “Synchronize policies to counter weak growth and high inflation” published in The Live Mint on 16th September 2022.
Syllabus: GS 3 – Indian Economy – Growth and Development
News: This article discusses the problem associated with the rising inflation and measures that can be taken to tackle this.
The Indian economy has suffered a huge set-back with the pandemic. However, with the efforts of RBI and government, it is reviving still there are other problems emerging that need attention.
What is the current situation of Indian economy?
The headline inflation rate in India has remained above RBI’s upper tolerance limit of 6% since January and now has again exceeded 7%.
The reason behind high headline inflation is high food and energy price inflation across the world.
It has brought the challenge of low growth and high inflation, which requires the close fiscal-monetary policy coordination for resolution.
How coordination of fiscal-monetary policy can help?
Finance Minister Nirmala Sitharaman recently reportedly remarked that RBI cannot contain inflation on its own. Some of the facts make this statement true.
There is a significant supply disruption both at home and abroad due to various factors like Ukraine crisis. RBI’s policy instruments are not particularly effective in addressing supply constraints.
Given supply constraints, RBI can impose exceptionally harsh contractionary policies to curtail demand, even for necessities like food. These policies may lower the inflation rate but poor households will be the most affected.
Therefore, it is required that central and state government should intervene in using its fiscal measures to ease the restrictions from the supply side.
What can be the further course of action to tackle the increasing inflation?
First, there should be close coordination between RBI and the government to tackle this issue.
Second, government can intervene by taking different measures like easing domestic infrastructure, imposing temporary restrictions on exports of essential commodities, etc.
Apart from the intervention the central government’s fiscal policy should continue to focus on stimulating aggregate demand and reviving growth.
Third, the Tinbergen rule should be followed. This rule says that the monetary and fiscal policy instruments should be separately assigned to address the two different policy goals of reducing inflation and reviving growth.
Source: The post is based on an article “A shimmer of hope for the golden fibre as demand for shopping bags rises” published in The Business Standard on 16th September 2022.
Syllabus: GS 3 – Transport and marketing of agricultural produce and issues
Relevance: issues with the jute industry and measures to improve them
News: The government has recently banned single use plastic bags and this has led to an increase in the demand for jute bags. However, the jute industry faces many challenges and has to stay in line with this demand.
Jute is 100 per cent biodegradable and environment-friendly.
What is the current situation of jute industry in India?
Jute mills mainly focus on exporting jute bags due to the high global demand.
According to data from the Indian Jute Mills Association (IJMA), export of jute handbags was about 47 million in 2015-16 and increased to 104 million in 2021-22.
Shopping bags account for about 50 per cent of the export basket for most mills.
However, there are many problems this industry is facing.
What are the problems with the jute industry in India?
Market diversification: The jute industry in India is small and only few mills have taken the advantage to export.
This sector is highly dependent on government orders and small to medium sized mills are producing almost 100 per cent government orders.
The size of the jute industry is about Rs 10,000 crore out of which the government is procuring around Rs 7,500 crore of jute bags. The rest is exported to various firms.
Only few large companies with modernised facilities are generating 30-40 per cent of their revenue from exports.
Financial Issues: The other problem is the financial condition of the jute industry is challenging.
Regulations: The jute sector is a highly regulated sector. The government determines the minimum support price (MSP) of jute crops for each crop year and jute bag prices are fixed on a price formula of the Tariff Commission.
The Jute Packaging Materials Act (JPMA), 1987 has mandated that 100 per cent of food grain and 20 per cent of sugar production is packed in jute bags.
But the margins on government orders are low. It lies between 5 and 7 per cent for jute bags other than shopping bags which has over 10 percent margin.
What are the challenges with the low margin in the jute?
The low margin has various challenges.
For example, the jute production was very low in the year 2021 which led to the minimum carryover for FY 2022. This caused the rise in jute prices upto Rs 7000 – 7200 per quintal.
The government announced maximum procurement price of raw jute in September 2021 which was around Rs 6,800 while the MSP was Rs 4500 per quintal.
In many cases, the government-mandated maximum price of raw jute doesn’t work. However, this price cap didn’t work and jute mills had to buy raw jute at higher prices. This led to the closure of operations in about 15 jute mills.
What can be further course of action?
First, the jute industry’s dependence on the mandatory sector is another challenge. There is a need to develop new markets for jute products in order to make this industry survive. The other probable markets may be soil savers and jute geotextiles. But we need research and development to figure out where jute fiber is required.
Second, there is currently demand for shopping bags only in export markets. However, with the ban on single-use plastic items, it is expected there will be a rise in the demand in the domestic markets as well.
Third, Bring Your Own Bag campaign (BYOB) campaign has been represented before the Ministry of Textiles. This campaign focuses on using reusable bags.
However, in India, campaigns can lift the demand but industries also need to push towards modernization to grab the market and bring back the lost shine in the jute (golden fiber).
Prelims Oriented Articles (Factly)
Source: The post is based on the article “Online portal “E-Baal Nidan” for redressal of grievances against violation of child rights revamped” published in PIB on 15th September 2022.
What is the News?
National Commission for Protection of Child Rights(NCPCR) has added several new features to the “E-Baal Nidan” portal.
What is the E-Baal Nidan Portal?
Launched by: National Commission for Protection of Child Rights(NCPCR) in 2015.
Purpose: It is an online portal wherein any person can register a complaint reporting any violation committed against a child.
After registration of the complaint, the complainant will get a complaint registration number. Through this number, the progress of redressal of the complaint in the Commission can be tracked by the complainant.
What are the new features added to the E-Baal Nidan Portal?
Firstly, NCPCR will be providing user IDs and Passwords to the State Commission for Protection of Child Rights (SCPCRs) to enable them to view the complaints registered on the portal to take necessary action. The portal will also have an option of transferring the registered complaints from NCPCR to the concerned State Commission.
Secondly, an option of joint inquiry will also be provided to the state commissions if they want the involvement of NCPCR in complaint resolution.
Thirdly, there will be a bifurcation of complaints based on the nature of the complaint into their subject matters like Juvenile Justice, POCSO, Labour, and Education.
What is the National Commission for Protection of Child Rights(NCPCR)?
NCPCR is a statutory body constituted under Section 3 of the Commission for Protection of Child Rights (CPCR) Act,2005 to protect child rights and other related matters in the country.
The Commission is further mandated to monitor the proper and effective implementation of the Protection of Children from Sexual Offences (POCSO) Act, 2012; Juvenile Justice (Care and Protection of Children) Act, 2015 and the Right to Free and Compulsory Education (RTE) Act, 2009.
Source: The post is based on the article “Why Jharkhand wants to define a ‘local’ with 1932 as the cut-off for domicile” published in Indian Express on 16th September 2022.
What is the News?
The Jharkhand Cabinet has approved the draft ‘Local Resident of Jharkhand Bill’.
What is the purpose of draft ‘Local Resident of Jharkhand Bill’?
As per the Bill, a local will be a person whose name or his ancestors’ name is recorded in the survey/khatiyan of 1932 or before.
In case of persons who are landless, local persons shall be identified by the Gram Sabhas based on the culture, local customs and tradition among others.
The draft Bill says that living conditions, customs, traditions, and social development of the moolwasis and people from tribal communities, have been negatively impacted due to pre and post-1932 migration of people from other states to Jharkhand (erstwhile Bihar). The definition of local persons is on the basis of this fact.
What benefits will locals get?
The locals will receive certain rights like preferential treatment 1) over their land 2) in their stake in the local development of the rivers, and lakes, 3) in local traditional and cultural and commercial enterprises 4) in their rights over agricultural indebtedness or availing agricultural loans 5) in social security and 6) in case of employment both in private and public sector; and for trade and commerce in the state.
Will this Bill pass the legal challenge?
In 2002 also, Jharkhand Government had brought a similar bill, but it was struck down by the courts.
That’s why the Jharkhand cabinet note now gives a clear indication that this Act will not come into force until it is included in the Ninth Schedule of the Constitution to avoid judicial scrutiny.
The Ninth Schedule of the Constitution contains a list of central and state laws which cannot be challenged in courts. However, the courts in the past have said that it can be reviewed if it violates the fundamental rights or the basic structure of the Constitution.
Hence, the state government will send the Act to the Centre and request a Constitutional amendment for the Act’s inclusion in the Ninth Schedule.
Source: The post is based on the article “Tamil Nadu’s new breakfast scheme in schools” published in The Hindu on 16th September 2022.
What is the News?
Tamil Nadu Chief Minister has launched the Chief Minister’s Breakfast Scheme for students of Class I to V in government schools.
What is the Chief Minister’s Breakfast Scheme?
Launched by: Tamil Nadu
Aim: To encourage more children to continue to come to school and help prevent dropouts at the primary level.
Features: Under the scheme, children in government schools from Class I to Class V will get nutritious breakfast provided in their schools every morning.
– The menu of breakfast includes rava upma, semiya upma with sambar, rava khichdi, semiya khichdi and rava Pongal. The breakfast will be served from Monday to Friday. A dessert will also be served to students on Fridays, which will be either Rava kesari or semiya kesari.
Note: Tamil Nadu has been the pioneer of the midday meal scheme as the first initiative to provide meals to children had been taken by the erstwhile Madras Municipal Corporation around 1920.
– In post-Independence India, Tamil Nadu was again the pioneer, with Chief Minister K Kamaraj rolling out a school feeding scheme in 1956.
– This scheme was later emulated by the union government in the shape of what’s today known as the midday meal scheme.
Source: The post is based on the article “Delay in PM’s flagship rural housing scheme to invite penalty” published in The Hindu on 16th September 2022.
What is the News?
The Union Ministry of Rural Development has come up with a set of penalties that the State governments will have to bear for any further delay in implementation of Pradhan Mantri Awas Yojana(Gramin).
What is Pradhan Mantri Awas Yojana(Gramin)?
What has been the progress of the scheme?
Pradhan Mantri Awas Yojana(Gramin) was launched in April 2016 with a target of constructing 2.95 crore houses. This number was deduced from the Socio-Economic Caste Survey, 2011.
The initial deadline for the scheme was March 2022, which owing to the COVID pandemic was extended by another two years till March 2024.
As per the statistics available with the Union Ministry of Rural Development, by August 2022, 2.02 crore houses have been constructed.
There have been several delays by the states in reaching the targets under the scheme. Due to this, the government has now introduced a penalty that the State governments will have to bear for any further delay in the implementation of the scheme.
What is the penalty introduced by the government?
If the sanction of the house is delayed for more than one month from the date of issue of the target, the State government will be penalized ₹10 per house for the first month of delay and ₹20 per house for each subsequent month of delay.
Similarly, if the first installment due to the beneficiary is delayed for more than seven days from the date of sanction, then the State governments will have to pay ₹10 per house per week of delay.
No penalty would be imposed if the central funds are not available to the State.
Source: The post is based on the article “In rare move, SC bench order criticizes CJI’s listing system” published in TOI on 15th September 2022.
What is the News?
A Supreme Court Bench has said the new listing system hardly gives any time to hear cases post-lunch.
What is the new listing system introduced by the present CJI?
The new listing system is one of the sweeping reforms introduced by the Chief Justice of India U.U. Lalit
Under this system, on Mondays and Fridays, the Supreme Court benches hear anything between 60 to over 70 cases a day.
On Tuesdays, Wednesdays, and Thursdays, the judges have to divide their pre-lunch session between Constitution Bench matters and long-pending regular matters before three-judge Benches.
The post-lunch hours between 2 p.m. and 4 p.m witness combinations of two-judge Benches hearing over 30 miscellaneous cases a day. Which are dealt with in 120 minutes, which amounted to each case getting on average four minutes of judicial attention.
What is the problem with this new listing system?
The Supreme Court judge has said that as per the current system of listing cases, there are too many matters in the afternoon session which leaves the bench with little time to take up matters fixed for final disposal.
Source: The post is based on the article “MeitY Startup Hub and Meta collaborate to accelerate XR technology startups in India” published in PIB on 14th September 2022.
What is the News?
MeitY Startup Hub(MSH) in collaboration with Meta will launch a program to support and accelerate Extended reality(XR) technology startups across India.
What is Extended reality(XR)?
Extended reality(XR) is an umbrella term referring to all real-and-virtual combined environments and human-machine interactions generated by computer technology and wearables.
It includes representative forms such as augmented reality, mixed reality, and virtual reality and the areas interpolated among them.
What is MeitY Startup Hub?
MeitY Startup Hub is an initiative of the Ministry of Electronics and Information Technology (MeitY).
Purpose: It is a national platform focused on promoting technology innovation, start-ups, and the creation of intellectual properties.
Hello everyone, We are posting a compilation of Mains Marathon for the month of September 2022 – Third week. Click on the following link to download Download About Mains Marathon Daily Mains Marathon is focused on UPSC Mains 2023. Under this initiative, we post, daily 2 articles, based on the provided weekly schedule. For More… Continue reading [Download] Mains Marathon Weekly Compilation – September, 2022 – 3rd week
Dear Friends, Following are answers to Mains Marathon questions, we posted yesterday. About Mains Marathon – This is an initiative of ForumIAS to help/aid aspirants in their writing skills, which is crucial to conquering mains examination. Every morning, we post 2 questions are based on current affairs. The questions framed are meaningful and relevant to the exam.… Continue reading [Answered] Mains Marathon I Daily Answer Writing I September 29th, 2022
About Must Read News Articles: Must Read News Articles is an initiative by Team ForumIAS to provide links to the most important news articles of the day. It covers The Hindu newspaper. This saves the time and effort of students in identifying useful and important articles. With newspaper websites requiring a paid subscription beyond a… Continue reading Must Read Current Affairs Articles – September 30, 2022
Source: The post is based on an article “Democracy in Kashmir: Indira’s failure, Vajpayee’s success” published in The Indian Express on 29th September 2022. Syllabus: GS 2 Relevance: concerns associated with Jammu and Kashmir News: Elections in Jammu and Kashmir is due for the past four years. It has been under direct administration of the Union government since Article 370… Continue reading Democracy in Kashmir: Indira’s failure, Vajpayee’s success
Source: The post is based on the article “Centre extends Pradhan Mantri Garib Kalyan Ann Yojana (PMGKAY) for another three months” published in PIB on 28th September 2022 What is the News? Union Cabinet has approved the extension for the Pradhan Mantri Garib Kalyan Anna Yojana (PMGKAY-Phase VII) for a further period of 3 months… Continue reading Centre extends Pradhan Mantri Garib Kalyan Ann Yojana (PMGKAY) for another three months
Source– The post is based on the article “Talent, recognition” published in The Hindu on 29th September 2022. Syllabus: GS3- Science and Technology Relevance– Importance of awards News– The article explains the rationale behind central government’s proposed move to have a re look at awards, prizes and fellowships. It also explains the issues faced by… Continue reading Talent, recognition – on awards to scientists
Source: The post is based on the article “Foreign trade: Going beyond a phrase” published in the Business Standard on 29th September 2022. Syllabus: GS 3 – Changes in industrial policy and their effects on industrial growth. Relevance: About India’s foreign trade policy. News: Recently, India’s foreign trade policy, 2015 was extended by six months at a time… Continue reading Foreign trade: Going beyond a phrase
Source– The post is based on the article “In nature’s warning signs, a nudge to riparian states” published in The Hindu on 29th September 2022. Syllabus: GS2- International Relations Relevance– Hydro Diplomacy News-The article explains the challenges faced by India due to frequent floods in trans-boundary rivers. It also explains the international mechanism to mitigate… Continue reading In nature’s warning signs, a nudge to riparian states
Source– The post is based on the article “Globe-changing reverberations of the Ukraine war” published in The Hindu on 29th September 2022. Syllabus: GS2- International Relations Relevance– Global impacts of Ukrainian crisis News– The article explains the impacts of Russia-Ukraine powers. It also explains the response of major powers and its implications for future world… Continue reading Globe-changing reverberations of the Ukraine war
Source– The post is based on the article “Eye of the State” published in The Indian Express on 29th September 2022. Syllabus: GS2- Fundamental rights Relevance– Surveillance powers of state News– The article explains the vast surveillance power provided to the State by the draft Telecommunication Bill and its impact on fundamental rights enjoyed by… Continue reading Eye of the State – on draft Telecommunication Bill