9 PM Daily Current Affairs Brief – September 17th, 2022
We have initiated some changes in the 9 PM Brief and other postings related to current affairs. What we sought to do:
- Ensure that all relevant facts, data, and arguments from today’s newspaper are readily available to you.
- We have widened the sources to provide you with content that is more than enough and adds value not just for GS but also for essay writing. Hence, the 9 PM brief now covers the following newspapers:
- The Hindu
- Indian Express
- Business Standard
- Times of India
- Down To Earth
- We have also introduced the relevance part to every article. This ensures that you know why a particular article is important.
- Since these changes are new, so initially the number of articles might increase, but they’ll go down over time.
- It is our endeavor to provide you with the best content and your feedback is essential for the same. We will be anticipating your feedback and ensure the blog serves as an optimal medium of learning for all the aspirants.
Mains Oriented Articles
GS Paper 1
- Remember Periyar with a pledge to embrace dissent
- The consequences of declining fertility are many
GS Paper 2
- How Supreme Court can redeem itself in India’s 65-year battle against electoral corruption
- Eat and learn
GS Paper 3
Prelims Oriented Articles (Factly)
- Varanasi nominated as the first-ever SCO Tourism and Cultural Capital at the 2022 SCO Summit
- Shallow-water mining not a ‘silver bullet’ to resolve growing global need for metals: Study
- IAF to fly AN-32 on blended biodiesel for 200 hours
- Union Home Minister presided over the signing of historic agreement between Government of India, Government of Assam and representatives of eight Adivasi Groups
- Centre revises threshold for paid up capital of small companies
- Need to build resilient supply chains, boost connectivity: PM Modi at SCO
- India to host 9th session of SEED Treaty
- Global Estimates of Modern Slavery report: United Nations Estimates 50 Million People Across World Stuck In ‘modern Slavery’
- NCERT issues guidelines to schools for early identification of mental health problems in students
Mains Oriented Articles
GS Paper 1
Source– The post is based on the article “Administrator-Statesman” published in The Indian Express on 17th September 2022.
Syllabus: GS1- Modern Indian History
Relevance– About Madhav Rao.
News-The article explains the contribution of Madhav Rao in administrative reforms.
What changes were happening in princely states thinking about statecraft?
The book by Rahul Sagar gives a base for thinking about what an alternative state and constitutional imagination based on the princely states would have looked like.
In the late 19th century, some princely states were experimenting with a new form of government that maintains the monarchy intact. It will partially modernize the state by devolving power into the hands of capable administrators.
They supported intellectuals. Examples are Baroda’s roles in the life of both Ambedkar and Aurobindo Ghosh. Vivekananda relied on the Maharaja of Khetri.
What was the contribution of Madhav Rao to his State?
He transformed Travancore and Baroda. He fixed the revenues of these states, encouraged industry, modernized their practices, created new administrative cultures. He promoted learning and interest in culture.
What details have been provided in his book?
He delivered a series of lectures, “Hints on the Art and Science of Government, a treatise in the education of the Ruler”. They are instructions to the prince.
The lecture has two objectives-
(1) It articulates the aims and ends of government.
It provides for rule of law and due process. It grants great personal liberty and equality before law. It has strong emphasis on public health and education, and a taxation policy that encourages manufacturing. It is open to men of talent without being a meritocracy.
(2) The second objective is the art and science of administration. There is emphasis on recognition of human character. King should know how to spot discontent and factionalism among ministers. He should know how to inspire confidence in ministers.
The book is also concerned about liberty.
We can even trace secularism in his book. He writes that religious instructions should not be given in matters of education.
What are PM Modi viewpoints about Madhav Rao?
He praises his emphasis on teamwork and fair play. He recommends that his teachings have the potential to solve any problem faced by Governments and the Corporate World.
Source: The post is based on an article “Remember Periyar with a pledge to embrace dissent” published in The Hindu on 17th September 2022.
Syllabus: GS 1 – important personalities
News: Periyar E.V. Ramasamy’s birth anniversary is on 17th September. It is celebrated as Social Justice Day.
Periyar is often referred to as an iconoclast because of the rebellious nature of his ideas.
His thoughts had clarity and honesty which led people practicing different faiths to discuss and debate his ideas on rationality and religion.
He had vision for eradiating social evils, political reforms, oppressing the minorities, etc. some of his vision has been discussed in this article.
What were the different visions of Periyar?
He did not only aim at the eradication of social evils but he also wanted to put an end to activities that do not raise the standards of society.
He was one of the pioneering voices against the Kula Kalvi Thittam introduced by the then Chief Minister C. Rajagopalachari.
Kula Kalvi Thittam proposed to impose a method of education on schoolchildren where students would learn their family’s profession as part of the school curriculum.
Periyar felt that it would encourage caste-based divisions that might cause irreparable damage to society.
Periyar’s vision was about inclusive growth and freedom of individuals. He was an important personality of his time because of the clarity in his political stand.
Periyar was way ahead of his time. All the reforms he shared with people could not be implemented at the time because his thought led to extreme discussions.
Castes: He felt that there is a need to change the priesthood of all castes if we want to change caste dynamic.
Oppression of minorities: Periyar proclaimed that he would always stand with the oppressed in the fight against oppressors as oppression was his enemy.
People used to oppose his ideas and thoughts but he had a very clear vision on his points.
He said that opposition that is not based on rationalism or science or experience will lead to fraud, selfishness and conspiracies.
Periyar reminds us of welcoming the ideas of oppositions as he used to invite the opposition for the debate.
Therefore, we should create a society with social justice by creating open spaces for oppositions by discussing and debating.
Source: The post is based on an article “The consequences of declining fertility are many” published in The Hindu on 17th September 2022.
Syllabus: GS 1 – Population and Associated issues
News: According to the World Population Prospects 2022, the average number of children per woman in the reproductive age group has declined by 50%.
This has changed from an average of five children per woman in 1951 to 2.4 children in 2020.
What has led to decline of in the global fertility rate?
Poorer countries have speeded the reduction in fertility rate faster than the richer countries.
According to the World Population Prospectus, the global fertility rate fell from three in 1990 to 2.3 in 2021.
Most advanced economies have their fertility rate below the replacement rate of 2.1 with South Korea has the lowest at 1.05 children per woman.
What is the situation of India in the fertility rate?
India’s fertility rate was 6 per woman at the time of independence.
It further declined to 4 in the 1990s. Kerala became the first State in India to have a fertility rate below replacement level.
According to the latest National Family Health Survey (NFHS) of 2021 –
- Fertility rate has fallen below the replacement level for the first time to 2.0 in 2021.
- Only five States have a fertility rate above the replacement rate. They are Bihar, Meghalaya, Uttar Pradesh, Jharkhand, and Manipur.
The fall in the fertility rate has been caused due to increased use of contraception, more years of average schooling, better health care, and an increase in the mean marriage age of women.
However, there are many positive and negative aspects of the declining fertility rate on the nation’s economy.
What are the advantages and disadvantages of the declining fertility rate on the nation’s economy?
Income: Lower fertility rate improves the employment rate of the workforce which increases their income. Lower fertility helps in the increase in the ratio of the working-age population.
This high ratio of workforce boosts income, investment and savings due to lower dependence.
Education: Lower fertility rate improves women’s education and lowers the fertility rate of future generations.
Resources: Lower fertility rate will also lead to lower pressure on land, water and other resources and would also contribute to achieving environmental goals.
Public finance: A lower fertility rate will also have a positive impact on public finance. It will lead to a fall in government debt due to lower savings of households and corporates with the increase in the higher dependency.
This will lead the government to have surplus than going in to the deficit.
Inflation: A falling fertility rate will have a positive effect on inflation. There will be lower labour supply with increase in the salary. This will lead to the change in unemployment inflation trade-off.
However, there are other problems associated with the declining fertility rate.
Japan became the first country to experience the consequences of declining fertility rate.
For example, there has been increase in the dependency ratio in the Japan. This has led to near zero GDP growth since the 1990s and Japan is facing fiscal challenges to meet rising social security costs.
It will have a negative effect on the proportion of the working population. This will affect output in the economy.
An ageing population will also affect global interest rates negatively as the share of people over 50 years will be almost 40% of the population by 2100.
It could also diminish the creative capacity of humankind.
What can be the further course of action?
The labour laws should be reformed with flexibility for workers. This would encourage working women to have more children and non-working mothers to enter the labour market.
For example –
- Germany found success in boosting births through liberal labour laws, allowing more parental leave and benefits.
- Denmark offers state-funded IVF for women below 40 years, and Hungary recently nationalised IVF clinics.
Further, with labour reforms focus should also be on nutrition and health of the workers. This would ensure sustained labour supply and output despite lower fertility.
GS Paper 2
Source– The post is based on the article “How Supreme Court can redeem itself in India’s 65-year battle against electoral corruption” published in The Print on 17th September 2022.
Syllabus: GS2- Salient features of representation of people act.
Relevance– About electoral bonds
News– The article explains electoral bonds.
The roots of all political corruption lie in electoral funding. In 2017, electoral Bonds were legalised with the Union Budget taking effect.
The Supreme Court is going to hear this matter very soon.
What is the Supreme Court stand?
In 2019, SC passed an interim order. The interim order was indecisive. Since then, there has been a delay of three and half years in hearing the case.
In his interim order, SC observed that there should be some transparency. They asked political parties to submit the details of donation through these electoral bonds to the Election Commission in a sealed envelope.
How does it work?
A donor goes to the State Bank of India. He buys the electoral equivalent of a bearer cheque or bond. These are given away to the party of their choice. The party would deposit it into a designated bank account
What arguments were given in favour of electoral bonds?
The Union Finance Minister during its introduction conceded that it was a partial reform. It was the first step to resolve the issue of black money in electoral funding.
The parties have incentives in buying electoral bonds through electoral bonds as they were tax-exempt.
What are the issues with electoral bonds?
It brings anonymity to electoral funding. It takes away the voters’ right to know the source of electoral funding.
Parties make policies in favour of persons purchasing electoral bonds rather than voters who put their faith in these parties.
Source: The post is based on an article “Eat and learn” published in The Hindu on 17th September 2022.
Syllabus: GS 2 – Welfare schemes for vulnerable sections of the population
News: Recently, the Tamil Nadu government has come with free breakfast scheme for schoolchildren.
This scheme will take care of hunger, the calorific requirements, and energy and micronutrient requirements of the children.
This breakfast scheme is important for the children as there are many benefits of the breakfast.
What are the benefits of the breakfast for children?
Studies show that there are many benefits of eating breakfast regularly. They are –
- It improves the student’s affecting ability to focus, learn and retain information positively. This leads to the improvement of the performance in the schools.
- A regular breakfast also takes care of the diet quality like micronutrient sufficiency, anaemia and height and weight issues in children among others.
What can be the further course of action?
Pilferage, poor quality of food, delays in sanctioning funds, and caste-related disruptions should be avoided.
Other states can also learn from Tamil Nadu to enact the free breakfast scheme to ensure the growth and development of the children.
GS Paper 3
Source– The post is based on the articles “Why the return of cheetah is a powerful symbol” published in the mint and “Cheetahs will do well as India has history of their Presence” in The Times of India on 17th September 2022.
Syllabus: GS3- Environment
Relevance– About species reintroduction
News– The article explains the government action plan for African Cheetah reintroduction to Kuno National Park.
Eight African Cheetahs will be reintroduced to Kuno national park.
The last Cheetah was recorded in 1947. After independence, it became extinct.
What is the plan for the Cheetah reintroduction to Kuno?
The cheetahs will be first released in large fenced areas for adapting to the new environment. They will be fitted with satellite collars to track their movements.
After a short stay, they will be released into a large enclosure to make them familiar with the new environment. Here they will remain for around a month before being released into the wild.
Their movements will be monitored by researchers.
What are the issues related to reintroduction?
The animals being brought are southeast African Cheetah. It is a different subspecies from Asiatic Cheetah.
Instead of being allowed to run wild, they will be held up in tightly controlled Kuno national park.
Earlier plans to relocate Asiatic lions from Gujarat to Kuno national park were not successful.
Other cats will have to be removed first. Recently, leopards entered into enclosures meant for Cheetah into Kuno national park.
It will have to survive alongside tigers and leopards. The habitat of cheetahs is totally different from that of tigers and leopards. Cheetahs thrive in grasslands while tigers and leopards survive in dry deciduous forests.
What are the factors favouring its reintroduction?
It can survive in Indian habitats. Kuno is the same place where cheetahs once existed. The area has grasslands and forest habitats appropriate for this species.
African and Indian cheetahs have little genetic difference.
How will reintroduction of the species help?
Bringing back cheetahs will restore the historic evolutionary balance. Dryland ecosystems of India will have a chance to return to their natural state as it is the flagship species of grasslands.
It will also uplift the livelihood of the indigenous forest communities. It will increase tourism as India is the only country where all the six big cat species are found.
In saving the cheetah, grassland-dependent species like caracal, which are on the brink, will also be saved.
Project Cheetah will boost the ecosystem and biodiversity where it will live.
What needs to be done?
Other cats that are extinct like caracals also need attention.
We need to focus upon other Indian animals like great Indian bustard and vultures.
Cheetah conservation can be used for consolidation of grassland and shrubland that are languishing.
Source: The post is based on an article “Climate change as business: Crisis, opportunity and everything in between” published in The Business Standard on 17th September 2022.
Syllabus: GS 3 – Climate Change
News: There is a need to take steps towards climate change and adopt net zero emission targets as soon as possible.
This net zero target will not only have a positive impact on the climate but it will also change the economic activities of the nation.
How will the net zero goal change the economy?
It will help in transformational economic change through massive investment.
This change will be seen in almost every major industry and it will also give boost to businesses like solar panels and batteries amongst others.
For example, new hydrogen pipeline grids may supplement existing ones for gas and oil, and charging stations could be found everywhere.
Therefore, net zero target has led to the opportunity for new businesses.
How climate change has led to different business opportunities?
Reliance has asked the Gujarat government for 1,800 sq km of land in Kutch for its green energy project.
Public sector companies like Indian Oil and NTPC, Larsen & Toubro and ReNew Power, among others, are also in the race to catch the new opportunities.
Ola has already taken opportunity in e-scooters.
Investment by big companies now focuses on electric cars and scooters, electric traction for the railways, and scaling up of solar and wind energy farms.
Even though climate change brings new opportunities for businesses but there are many businesses that will suffer.
Businesses like travel and hospitality, office-wear market, cinema halls and commercial real estate are some of the businesses that will suffer because of the change in human activities.
How climate change will impact human activities?
Digitization, virtual communication and data revolution will help in decarbonizing human activities.
This will lead to a change in the traditional methods of communicating or living.
For example, daily travel will be changed with virtual meetings and offline education with online education, etc. These will have impacts on long-term lifestyle changes.
Prelims Oriented Articles (Factly)
Source: The post is based on the article “Varanasi nominated as the first-ever SCO Tourism and Cultural Capital at the 2022 SCO Summit” published in PIB on 16th September 2022.
What is the News?
The 22nd Meeting of the Shanghai Cooperation Organization(SCO) Council of Heads of State was held in Samarkand, Uzbekistan. The Samarkand Declaration was released after the summit.
After the summit, Uzbekistan handed over the rotating presidency of the SCO to India. India will host the next SCO summit as a chairman of the SCO in 2023.
What are the key highlights from the summit?
Decision on the Comprehensive Action Plan for 2023-2027 for implementation of provisions of the Treaty on Long-Term Good Neighbourliness, Friendship and Cooperation among the Member States.
Inclusion of members and dialogue partners: Iran to become a member State of the SCO. Iran was admitted to the SCO in 2021 and will become full member in 2023.
– Launched the procedure of admitting Belarus as a member of the SCO.
– Granting Maldives, Bahrain, Myanmar, United Arab Emirates, Kuwait, the status of SCO dialogue partner.
Varanasi as SCO Tourism and Cultural Capital: The city of Varanasi has been nominated as the first-ever SCO Tourism and Cultural Capital during the period 2022-2023.
– This will promote tourism, and cultural and humanitarian exchanges between India and the SCO member Countries.
– Under the framework of this major cultural outreach program, a number of events will be hosted in Varanasi during 2022-23 for which guests will be invited to participate from the SCO Member States.
– Notes: The regulations for the nomination of the SCO Tourism and Cultural Capital were adopted at the Dushanbe SCO Summit in 2021 with the objective of promoting cooperation between the SCO Member States in the field of culture and tourism.
Source: The post is based on the article “Shallow-water mining not a ‘silver bullet’ to resolve growing global need for metals: Study” published in Down To Earth on 15th September 2022.
What is the News?
A group of researchers has suggested that Shallow Water Mining is in direct conflict with Biodiversity Conservation and Sustainability Goals as the activity poses severe environmental risks.
What is Shallow Water Mining?
Mining metals such as gold, cobalt and copper from depths of 200 metres below the sea is known as ‘shallow-water mining’.
It is considered a relatively low-risk and low-cost option to satisfy the demand for metals and minerals.
Shallow-water mining projects are already underway in Namibia and Indonesia, and projects have been proposed in Mexico, New Zealand, and Sweden.
Why is Shallow water mining not considered a sustainable option?
Shallow Water Mining is not a sustainable substitute for Deep-Sea Mining.
This is because mining metals from the shallow-water ocean floor requires removing large amounts of sediment.
Removing these sediments, which takes thousands of years to accumulate, means jeopardizing organisms that call it home.
This could trigger local extinctions and changes in species composition. Other issues could be the impact on water quality and release of harmful substances from the sediment and disturbance from noise and light.
What is the suggestion given by the researchers?
Shallow-water mining activities should not be considered the “silver bullet to resolve the growing global need for metals” until the environmental and socioeconomic impacts are thoroughly investigated.
Source: The post is based on the article “IAF to fly AN-32 on blended biodiesel for 200 hours” published in The Hindu on 17th September 2022.
What is the News?
Indian Air Force(IAF) is planning to fly an AN-32 transport aircraft modified to operate on 10% blended biodiesel for 200 flight hours in the next six months.
Why is AN-32 aircraft being operated on blended biodiesel?
The aviation industry both civil and military is one of the biggest emitters of greenhouse gases which cause global warming.
For instance, the annual fuel consumption of the IAF for 2021-22 was 6.2 lakh kilo litres which contributed around 15 lakh tonnes of carbon dioxide.
Hence, it is important that the industry finds ways to reduce its carbon footprint for global efforts to achieve ‘net zero emissions’ to be successful.
What are the steps being taken to reduce aviation carbon emissions?
Indian Air Force: In 2019, AN-32 aircraft, powered by a blend of biodiesel flew over the Rajpath during Republic Day.
This biofuel was extracted from Jatropha plant seeds using a technology patented by the Council of Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR) and the Indian Institute of Petroleum, Dehradun.
The plan is eventually to expand the usage of aviation turbine fuel blended with biodiesel to all fixed-wing and rotary-wing aircraft through evaluation and certification.
Such usage has the dual benefit of reducing carbon footprint as well reducing the usage of fossil fuels which will also result in savings for the IAF.
Civilian Aircraft: Airbus has plans to offer 100% sustainable aviation fuel (SAF) compatibility on its commercial aircraft latest by 2030.
What are the challenges in this?
There are significant challenges in production and supply chain to ensure the IAF gets enough Jatropha and at reasonable rates.
For instance, IAF would require over 3,000 kilo litres of biofuel annually just for operating the AN-32 fleet with a 10% biofuel mix.
To overcome this challenge, India is planning to set up its first mass production bio-ATF plant at Mangalore in Karnataka.
Union Home Minister presided over the signing of historic agreement between Government of India, Government of Assam and representatives of eight Adivasi Groups
Source: The post is based on the article “Union Home Minister presided over the signing of historic agreement between Government of India, Government of Assam and representatives of eight Adivasi Groups” published in PIB on 15th September 2022.
What is the News?
The government of India and the Assam Government has signed a tripartite agreement with eight armed tribal groups in Assam to bring them into the mainstream and give them political and economic rights.
What is the purpose of the agreement?
The agreement was signed to end the decades-old crisis of Adivasis and tea garden workers in Assam.
What are the key terms of the agreement?
As per the terms of the settlement, the armed Adivasi cadres will give up violence follow the rule of law and join the peaceful democratic process.
The government of India and the Assam government in return will fulfil the adivasi groups’ political, economic and educational aspirations which include: 1) protect, preserve and promote their social, cultural, linguistic and ethnic identity, 2) ensure focused and rapid development of tea gardens and adivasi villages of Assam, 3) establish an adivasi welfare and development council, 4) rehabilitate armed cadres and ensure welfare of tea garden workers and 5) provide a Rs 1,000-crore special development package for infrastructure upgrade in adivasi villages.
What is the significance of the agreement?
The tripartite agreement with the Adivasi groups is the latest in the series of peace accords signed by the Centre and relevant state governments since 2014 with different insurgent groups in the northeast region starting with the settlement with NLFT(SD) in 2019, the Bru-Reang agreement and Bodo accord in 2020, Karbi Anglong pact in 2021 and the Assam-Meghalaya inter-state boundary agreement in March this year.
What have been the recent figures regarding insurgency in India?
Since 2014, around 8,000 insurgents have joined the mainstream of society by laying down their arms. The year 2020 recorded the lowest number of insurgency incidents in the last two decades.
In comparison to 2014, there has been a 74% reduction in the incidents of insurgency in 2021. In the same period, there has been a 60% reduction in the casualties of security forces and 89% in the number of civilian casualties.
Source: The post is based on the article “Centre revises threshold for paid up capital of small companies” published in PIB on 16th September 2022.
What is the News?
The Ministry of Corporate Affairs has revised the threshold for paid up capital of “small companies”.
What is a Small Company?
Small businesses are corporations, partnerships, or sole proprietorships which have fewer employees and/or less annual revenue than a regular-sized business or corporation.
The Companies Act 2021 defines the rules and provisions regarding a Small Company.
Which companies can be classified as Small Company?
The Ministry of Corporate Affairs has notified an amendment in the Companies (Specification of Definitions Details) Rules, 2014 that came into force on 1st April 2021.
According to it, the definition of “Small Companies” under the Companies Act,2013 was revised by increasing their thresholds for paid-up capital from “not exceeding Rs 50 lakh” to “not exceeding Rs 2 crore” and turnover from “not exceeding Rs 2 crore” to “not exceeding Rs 20 crore”.
Now the definition has been revised again.
According to the latest revision, the definition of ‘Small Companies’ has further been revised by increasing the thresholds for paid-up Capital from “not exceeding Rs 2 crore” to “not exceeding Rs 4 crore”. Furthermore, the turnover has increased from “not exceeding Rs 20 crore” to “not exceeding Rs 40 crore”.
What are the benefits of small companies in terms of compliance?
The small companies have the following advantages in terms of compliance: 1) No need to prepare a cash flow statement as part of a financial statement, 2) Mandatory rotation of the auditor is not required, 3) Holding only two board meetings in a year unlike other companies which are required to hold four such meetings in the same period, 4) Annual Return of the company can be signed by the company secretary and 5) Lesser penalties for small companies.
What are the other measures taken towards ease of doing business?
The Ministry of Corporate Affairs(MCA) has taken several measures toward ease of doing business and ease of living for the corporates. These measures include decriminalization of various provisions of the Companies Act, 2013 & the LLP Act, 2008, extending fast-track mergers to start-ups, incentivizing incorporation of One Person Companies (OPCs) and more.
Source: The post is based on the article “Need to build resilient supply chains, boost connectivity: PM Modi at SCO” published in Business Standard on 17th September 2022.
What is the News?
The Indian Prime Minister addressed the 22nd Meeting of Shanghai Cooperation Organization(SCO) Council of Heads of State held at Samarkand, Uzbekistan.
What are the key highlights from his address?
Resilient Supply Chain: SCO should create trusted and resilient supply chains to bolster economic recovery and overcome impediments created by the Covid-19 pandemic and the Ukraine crisis.
Startups: There are over 70,000 start-ups in India today of which over 100 are unicorns. India is ready to share its experience in the startups sector with other SCO member countries by establishing a new special working group on start-ups and innovation.
Food Security: The world today faces a major challenge of ensuring the food security of our citizens. One possible solution to this problem is to promote the cultivation and consumption of millets.
– Millets are a ‘superfood’ and have been grown for thousands of years.They represent a traditional, nutritious and low-cost alternative to the food crisis.
– The year 2023 will be celebrated as the UN International Year of Millets.Hence, the PM suggested that SCO should consider organizing a ‘Millet Food Festival’.
Traditional Medicine: India has become one of the most affordable destinations for medical and wellness tourism in the world.
– The WHO Global Centre for Traditional Medicine was inaugurated in Gujarat in April 2022. This will be the WHO’s first and only Global Centre for Traditional Medicine.
– Similarly, SCO should also increase cooperation on traditional medicine among them.
Source: The post is based on the article “India to host 9th session of SEED Treaty” published in Hindu Business Line on 15th September 2022.
What is the News?
India is going to host the 9th session of the Governing Body of the International Treaty on Plant Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture(ITPGRFA).
What is the International Treaty on Plant Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture (ITPGRFA)?
The International Treaty on Plant Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture (ITPGRFA) also known as the Seed treaty was adopted by the 31st session of the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) in November 2001.
The Treaty aims at 1) recognising the enormous contribution of farmers to the diversity of crops that feed the world, 2) establishing a global system to provide farmers, plant breeders and scientists with access to plant genetic materials, and 3) ensuring that recipients share benefits they derive from the use of these genetic materials with the countries where they have been originated.
The treaty came into force in 2004 and has been ratified by 149 countries including India.
What is the expected outcome of the summit?
The countries are likely to reach a consensus on benefit-sharing of germ plasm which will provide access to better quality seeds.
Note: Germplasm is the term used to describe the seeds, plants, or plant parts useful in crop breeding, research, and conservation efforts. Plants, seeds, or cultures of germplasm when maintained for the purposes of studying, managing, or using the genetic information they possess.
Global Estimates of Modern Slavery report: United Nations Estimates 50 Million People Across World Stuck In ‘modern Slavery’
Source: The post is based on the article “United Nations Estimates 50 Million People Across World Stuck In ‘modern Slavery’” published in NDTV on 14th September 2022.
What is the News?
International Labour Organization (ILO) has released a report titled Global Estimates of Modern Slavery report.
What are the key findings of the report?
Modern Slavery: Modern Slavery includes two forced labour and forced marriage, both referring to the situation of exploitation when a person cannot refuse to comply or cannot escape owing to threats, violence, deception and abuse of power.
– Around 50 million people were living in modern slavery in 2021. Of these people, 28 million were in forced labour and 22 million were trapped in forced marriage.
– The number of people in modern slavery has risen significantly in the last five years. 10 million more people were in modern slavery in 2021 compared to 2016 global estimates. Women and children remain disproportionately vulnerable.
Forced Labour: It accounts for 27.6 million of those in modern slavery. Around 86% of forced labour cases are found in the private sector. Almost one in eight of all those in forced labour are children.
Forced Marriage: An estimated 22 million people were living in forced marriage on any given day in 2021. This indicates an increase of 6.6 million since the 2016 global estimates.
What are the recommendations given by the report?
The report proposes a number of recommended actions which include: 1) Improving and enforcing laws and labour inspections, 2) ending state-imposed forced labour, 3) stronger measures to combat forced labour, 4) extending social protection, 5) strengthening legal protections, 6) addressing the increased risk of trafficking and forced labour for migrant workers and 7) greater support for women, girls and vulnerable individuals.
Source: The post is based on the article “NCERT issues guidelines to schools for early identification of mental health problems in students” published in The Hindu on 16th September 2022.
What is the News?
The National Council of Educational Research and Training (NCERT) has issued guidelines titled “Early identification and intervention for mental health problems in school-going children and adolescents” following a mental health survey among school children.
What are the reasons for stress and anxiety among school-going children?
Exam and peer pressure, Results-pressure, a decline in satisfaction with personal and school life and parental expectations.
What are the key guidelines issued by NCERT?
Firstly, schools should establish a Mental Health Advisory Panel. It should be chaired by the principal and have teachers, parents, students and alumni as members. It will create awareness and also plan and enforce an age and gender-appropriate annual school mental health programme.
Secondly, mechanisms should be in place for early Identification of behavioural patterns in students including substance use and self-harm.
Thirdly, teachers must be trained in identifying early signs in students for attachment issues, separation anxiety, anxiety patterns, depressive states, excessive internet use, hyperactivity, intellectual disability and learning disabilities.
Lastly, teachers should talk about bullying cases in class and empower students by educating them regarding bullying.
Government Initiatives to tackle Mental Health among School Children
Manodarpan: The initiative aims to address the psychosocial issues of students. It includes support and counselling sessions for students in regard with their mental health and wellbeing. Students can call the toll-free national helpline number — 8448440632 for counselling.
NCERT Counseling Services for School Children: This initiative was launched in April 2020 to support students’ mental health amid the Covid-19 pandemic.
SAHYOG: Guidance for Mental Wellbeing of Children: This includes live interactive sessions mental well-being of children. The sessions are telecasted on 12 PM eVidya DTH-TV channels for classes 1 to 12.
Wellbeing material by NCERT: NCERT has developed a comprehensive package known as ‘Training and Resource Material: Health and Wellness of School-going Children’. It includes a specific module on “Emotional Well-being and Mental Health”, which has activities related to the mental health and well-being of students and teachers.
Hello everyone, We are posting a compilation of Mains Marathon for the month of September 2022 – Third week. Click on the following link to download Download About Mains Marathon Daily Mains Marathon is focused on UPSC Mains 2023. Under this initiative, we post, daily 2 articles, based on the provided weekly schedule. For More… Continue reading [Download] Mains Marathon Weekly Compilation – September, 2022 – 3rd week
Dear Friends, Following are answers to Mains Marathon questions, we posted yesterday. About Mains Marathon – This is an initiative of ForumIAS to help/aid aspirants in their writing skills, which is crucial to conquering mains examination. Every morning, we post 2 questions are based on current affairs. The questions framed are meaningful and relevant to the exam.… Continue reading [Answered] Mains Marathon I Daily Answer Writing I September 29th, 2022
About Must Read News Articles: Must Read News Articles is an initiative by Team ForumIAS to provide links to the most important news articles of the day. It covers The Hindu newspaper. This saves the time and effort of students in identifying useful and important articles. With newspaper websites requiring a paid subscription beyond a… Continue reading Must Read Current Affairs Articles – September 30, 2022
Source: The post is based on an article “Democracy in Kashmir: Indira’s failure, Vajpayee’s success” published in The Indian Express on 29th September 2022. Syllabus: GS 2 Relevance: concerns associated with Jammu and Kashmir News: Elections in Jammu and Kashmir is due for the past four years. It has been under direct administration of the Union government since Article 370… Continue reading Democracy in Kashmir: Indira’s failure, Vajpayee’s success
Source: The post is based on the article “Centre extends Pradhan Mantri Garib Kalyan Ann Yojana (PMGKAY) for another three months” published in PIB on 28th September 2022 What is the News? Union Cabinet has approved the extension for the Pradhan Mantri Garib Kalyan Anna Yojana (PMGKAY-Phase VII) for a further period of 3 months… Continue reading Centre extends Pradhan Mantri Garib Kalyan Ann Yojana (PMGKAY) for another three months
Source– The post is based on the article “Talent, recognition” published in The Hindu on 29th September 2022. Syllabus: GS3- Science and Technology Relevance– Importance of awards News– The article explains the rationale behind central government’s proposed move to have a re look at awards, prizes and fellowships. It also explains the issues faced by… Continue reading Talent, recognition – on awards to scientists
Source: The post is based on the article “Foreign trade: Going beyond a phrase” published in the Business Standard on 29th September 2022. Syllabus: GS 3 – Changes in industrial policy and their effects on industrial growth. Relevance: About India’s foreign trade policy. News: Recently, India’s foreign trade policy, 2015 was extended by six months at a time… Continue reading Foreign trade: Going beyond a phrase
Source– The post is based on the article “In nature’s warning signs, a nudge to riparian states” published in The Hindu on 29th September 2022. Syllabus: GS2- International Relations Relevance– Hydro Diplomacy News-The article explains the challenges faced by India due to frequent floods in trans-boundary rivers. It also explains the international mechanism to mitigate… Continue reading In nature’s warning signs, a nudge to riparian states
Source– The post is based on the article “Globe-changing reverberations of the Ukraine war” published in The Hindu on 29th September 2022. Syllabus: GS2- International Relations Relevance– Global impacts of Ukrainian crisis News– The article explains the impacts of Russia-Ukraine powers. It also explains the response of major powers and its implications for future world… Continue reading Globe-changing reverberations of the Ukraine war
Source– The post is based on the article “Eye of the State” published in The Indian Express on 29th September 2022. Syllabus: GS2- Fundamental rights Relevance– Surveillance powers of state News– The article explains the vast surveillance power provided to the State by the draft Telecommunication Bill and its impact on fundamental rights enjoyed by… Continue reading Eye of the State – on draft Telecommunication Bill