9 PM Daily Current Affairs Brief – September 4th, 2021

Dear Friends,
We have initiated some changes in the 9 PM Brief and other postings related to current affairs. What we sought to do:

  1. Ensure that all relevant facts, data, and arguments from today’s newspaper are readily available to you.
  2. We have widened the sources to provide you with content that is more than enough and adds value not just for GS but also for essay writing. Hence, the 9 PM brief now covers the following newspapers:
    1. The Hindu  
    2. Indian Express  
    3. Livemint  
    4. Business Standard  
    5. Times of India 
  3. We have also introduced the relevance part to every article. This ensures that you know why a particular article is important.
  4. Since these changes are new, so initially the number of articles might increase, but they’ll go down over time.
  5. It is our endeavor to provide you with the best content and your feedback is essential for the same. We will be anticipating your feedback and ensure the blog serves as an optimal medium of learning for all the aspirants.
  • For previous editions of 9 PM BriefClick Here
  • For individual articles of 9 PM BriefClick Here

Mains Oriented Articles 

GS Paper 2

GS Paper 3

Prelims Oriented Articles (Factly) 

Mains Oriented Articles

GS Paper 2

Why a Caste Census is needed-and why it may not see light of the day

Source: This post is based on the article” Why a Caste Census is needed-and why it may not see light of the day” published in the Indian Express on 4th September 2021.

Syllabus: GS 2 – Fundamental Rights

Relevance: To understand the reservation policy.

Synopsis: Although caste-based census would provide up-to-date data to calibrate reservation, it also threatens social justice as it can roll back the discrimination regime.


Recently, the Indian Parliament passed the 127th Constitution Amendment Bill, 2021. It overrides the Supreme Court’s (SC) interpretation of the 102nd Constitutional Amendment.

SC judgment in the Maratha case had concluded that the 102nd Constitution Amendment curtailed the state government’s power to identify backward classes.

Read more:

What are the limitations of this Statute?

Firstly, A 50% limit on caste-based quotas (Indra Sawhney Judgment) imposes a serious limitation on states’ power to expand the composition of backward class beneficiaries. This is because in most States the existing quotas for SC, ST, OBC and SBC already breach this benchmark.

Secondly, The rise of the private sector coupled with the privatisation of Public Sectors Undertakings has led to the erosion of the public sector jobs. This also impacted the reservation framework.

For instance, between 2011-12 and 2017-18, due to a fall in employment of 2.2 lakh jobs in Central Public Sector Enterprises, the reduction in employment of SCs amounted to 33,000 jobs.

Thirdly, the introduction of a 10% quota in 2019 for economically weaker sections (EWS) has altered the standard definition of backwardness. By setting an income limit of ₹8,00,000 per annum, the government has made this quota accessible to about 99% of the upper castes – not just the poor.

This issue is further compounded by the reluctance of the Government to enumerate OBCs in the Caste Census.

What is the need for a caste-based census?

This would help in analysing the accomplishments and limitations of reservation policies. It would show the gap between economic and social capital holdings within and between the general category as well as the reserved sections. It would also help in revising the benchmark for social, economic and educational backwardness. Further, it would help in authenticating the findings and recommendations of Union and state-level backward caste commissions.

Read more: Caste based census in India

Lastly, a caste census would facilitate compliance with recent court decisions. For example,

Chebrolu L Prasad v State of AP (2020) case: The court directed the Centre to periodically revise the list of reservation beneficiaries based on sound data and evidence.

Davinder Singh v State of Punjab (2020) case: The judgment opened the question of sub-classification within the SC category. Thus, raising the need for credible data on internal differentiation and sophisticated educational and occupational profiles.

Thus, the move of passing the power to enumerate OBC’s to State’s may not solve the problem of affirmative action for the backward classes. The larger need is for evidence-based policymaking backed by caste census data.

GS Paper 3

Govt-industry talks on proposed FTAs with EU-Australia at premature stage

Source: This post is based on the article “Govt-industry talks on proposed FTAs with EU-Australia at premature stage “published in Business Standard on 4th September 2021.

Syllabus: GS3 – Issues related to External sector

Relevance: Free trade agreement and Exports

Synopsis: FTAs are important for boosting exports and India should try to take a step in the right direction by signing mini trade deals.


According to sources from Industries, discussions with the government regarding proposed trade deals with the United Arab Emirates (UAE) and the United Kingdom (UK) have already kicked off.

India hopes to kick-start FTA negotiations with the UK by the end of December. Recently, a joint statement by India and UK said that they agree to be ambitious in the forthcoming FTA negotiations.

As far as the UAE is concerned, India is aiming to finalize a comprehensive trade deal by December.

Must Read: Free Trade Agreements – Explained

However, with respect to countries such as the European Union (EU), Australia, the discussion with industry is at a premature state.

With regard to U.S, it has indicated that it is not considering a new trade agreement with India.

How FTAs with EU, the US, Australia, and the UK will benefit India?

Make India’s exports competitive: Currently, Indian is losing out to other manufacturing competing nations like Bangladesh, who currently have a 10-12 per cent price advantage due to their concession agreement with countries such as the UK. Hence, FTAs with the EU, the US, Australia, and the UK would be a win-win situation.

What is the way forward?

According to Industry Experts, signing mini trade deals can be a good strategy to begin with, before signing a full-fledged deal. Till now, India has signed an early harvest deal with Thailand and Singapore.

Early harvest agreement can be a good strategy because first it will help us to start the FTA in a limited way. Over a period of time, as industries give more negotiating room to the government, the list can be expanded.

What ails India’s coronavirus genome sequencing system

Source: This post is based on the article “What ails India’s coronavirus genome sequencing system“ published in Down to Earth on 4th September 2021. 

Syllabus: GS3 – Science and Technology- Developments and their Applications and Effects in Everyday Life. 

Relevance: Applications of Biotechnology 

Synopsis: Sequencing and analysis of the novel coronavirus, a crucial step in infection containment strategy, declined sharply in India, even as cases of the resultant disease continued to rise.  


India formed the Indian SARS-CoV-2 Consortium on Genomics (INSACOG), a consortium of 10 genome sequencing labs, in December 2020 to boost efforts for genome sequencing. The number of labs involved in coronavirus sequencing since then has gone up to 28. 

Despite government efforts, the number of coronavirus samples sequenced and analysed in the country went down by 76% in July.  

Must Read: What is genomic sequencing?

Whereas, the United Kingdom and the United States have sequenced and shared data for 866,000 and 755,000 samples already, according to GISAID, a global, open-access online repository of genomic data. India has sequenced only 82,000 samples, a meager 0.2% of its cumulative cases.

More than 100 countries have sequenced a greater share of samples than India. 

Must read: How Genome sequencing works?
How new guidelines hampered the process of sequencing and analysis of the novel coronavirus? 

Initial guidelines from the central government aimed to analyse 5% of all positive samples from each state. This method is known as ‘randomised surveillance’. 

However, four months later, the government decided to change the policy. Only 300 samples were decided to be sent from every state to genome sequencing labs every month. This is called ‘sentinel site surveillance’. 

The government justified the move saying, as cases were rising exponentially at that time, a 5% sequencing would put a lot of load on the sequencing labs. Further, the revision was according to the World Health Organisation (WHO) standards for genome sequencing. 

What is the WHO’s recommendation in this regard? 

WHO never discouraged random surveillance and even said it is the more sensitive method. WHO has suggested Sentinel surveillance to be adopted by countries that have ‘minimal lab capacity. Further, WHO had outrightly said that Sentinel surveillance might not be the best representation, contrary to what the government claimed. 

What issues and challenges are faced by India’s coronavirus genome sequencing system? 

Firstly, only two states (Maharashtra and Kerala) have genome sequencing facilities of their own. The rest of the country has to send samples to INSACOG labs run by the Centre. 

Secondly, it is difficult for a country as big as India to sequence a greater number of samples due to a high caseload. 

Thirdly, according to scientist working at an INSACOG lab, many labs, do not get an adequate number of quality samples either in time or with scientific parameters intact. 

Fourthly, India has long turnaround time. The UK with 410,000 sequences had uploaded raw data within 16 days on an average. Whereas, India takes about 57 days 

Why the sequencing data needs to be in public domain? 

The WHO has informed that the data of any sequencing done anywhere in the world should be submitted to open-access platforms like GISAID. This will allow a sequence done in one part of the world to be looked at by the global scientific community.  

If sequences are not shared in the public domain timely, it may defeat the purpose of sequencing because by the time the sequence is uploaded, it would have undergone several mutations. 

Also, a scientist outside the government setup will not be able to see the nature or location of mutations in the genome sequence of the virus unless raw data is posted. 

From Four to 500: How citizens joined naturally to save nature in Kharghar

Source: This post is based on the article “From Four to 500: How citizens joined naturally to save nature in Kharghar” published in The Times of India on 4th September 2021.

Syllabus: GS 3 – Conservation of Biodiversity and Environment

Relevance: Social initiatives to save nature.

Synopsis: A small group of dedicated volunteers has managed to save Khargar wetlands.

Where is Kharghar wetland located?

It lies within Navi Mumbai. It is home to multiple species with natural environments like hills, green mangroves and lush grasslands.

Why this wetland was in danger?

Kharghar lakes were in danger of being encroached on and built over by brick kilns, shrimp farmers and slum extensions. The other reasons were human-made factors like man-made fires, air pollution from chemical units and brick kilns etc.

What conservation efforts helped in saving Kharghar?

Word of mouth communication & use of Social media: This mode helped to encourage people to join the efforts. Conservators grew into a big group, with IIT researchers, photographers, animal activists, retired officials, birders, writers, lawyers etc.

Help from officials: The help of officials of the Forest department, Municipal Corporation and other state agencies were taken for guidance and administrative support.

Judicial steps: Bombay High Court-appointed mangroves and wetlands protection panels to ensure that local spots rich with biodiversity receive protection and care.

Regular Checks: This was done to pre-empt encroachment and avoid illegal activities like quarrying, lighting fires on the hills or dumping debris in the water bodies.

Collaboration: Events have been organised around Kharghar’s natural treasures and collaboration with similar citizens groups.

What was the result of these conservation efforts?

Due to the above-mentioned activities, three Kharghar wetlands are included in the National Wetlands Atlas. Further, they also got listed in the Collector’s protected list.

Kharghar wetlands and hills group has also documented over 200 bird species like smooth-coated otters, black-headed ibis, painted storks and several IUCN Vulnerable category birds.

Delhi government shouldn’t congratulate itself on CCTV coverage

Source: This post is based on the article “Delhi government shouldn’t congratulate itself on CCTV coverage” published in the Indian Express on 4th September 2021.

Syllabus: GS 3 – Challenges to internal security through communication networks

Relevance: This article explains the challenges associated with the installation of CCTVs.


Rather than deterring crime, the surveillance projects compromise women’s safety and the liberties of all citizens.


Recently the Delhi government has reported that Delhi beat cities like Shanghai, New York and London with the most CCTV cameras per square mile across the world. The government has also mentioned that Delhi has 1,826 CCTVs per square mile, ranking it above 150 global cities.

The first and foremost reason provided by the Delhi government for the mass installation of CCTVs is to improve public safety.

Does CCTVs reduce crime and improve public safety?

There is no public data available on how CCTVs contribute to a reduction in violent crimes or make policing more efficient. Similarly, there are no feasibility reports or any evidence-based research to support such a massive installation of CCTVs.

A Comparitech study mentions that “a higher number of cameras just barely correlate with a lower crime index.” Another study from the Internet Democracy Project in Bengaluru reveals that CCTV footage had not helped in even a single case of sexual harassment.

What are the other challenges associated with the installation of CCTVs?

The longevity of the CCTVs: The CCTVs will require fixed one-time costs and will include replacement, repairs, maintenance, provision of internet and electricity. An audit by the CAG points out that, of the 3,870 CCTVs installed by the Delhi Police from 2008 to 2015, feeds are available only for 22-48 per cent.

No legal framework: There is no underlying legal framework for the use of CCTVs. In Delhi, all that exists is a one-page standard operating procedure (SOP), issued by the Public Works Department of Delhi. The SOP also does not contain any data protection principles or security practices.

The cost of the project: Delhi government spent almost ₹1200 crores for the installation. Apart from Delhi, other Indian cities such as Chennai, Mumbai are also pursuing the surveillance race. They’re also spending huge money on installing CCTVs. This money can be used for other better purposes.

Efficient in curbing individual rights: Internet Democracy Project study reveals that CCTV footages were used to identify “troublemakers” to prevent workers from organising and demanding labour protections. This is against the concept of individual autonomy as articulated by the Supreme Court in the Puttaswamy judgment.

China uses digital surveillance for behavioural modification and assigning a social credit score for individuals. India has to be cautious about promoting CCTV programmes, that undermine fiscal prudence and civil liberties.


Prelims Oriented Articles (Factly)

India’s 1st N-missile tracking ship Dhruv to be launched on Sept 10

What is the news?

National Security Advisor is expected to commission India’s first satellite and ballistic missile tracking ship Dhruv from Visakhapatnam on September 10.


Dhruv is built by Hindustan Shipyard in collaboration with Defence Research and Development Organisation (DRDO) and National Technical Research Organisation (NTRO).

What are some key features of INS Dhruv?

Mapping: It has the capability to also map ocean beds for research and detection of enemy submarines.

Enhanced surveillance capabilities: INS Dhruv is equipped with DRDO developed state-of-the-art active scanned array radar or AESA. It has the ability to scan various spectrums to monitor spy satellites watching over India, as well as monitor missile tests in the entire region.

Surveillance: The ship will be a vital key to maritime domain awareness in the Indo-Pacific and is being commissioned at the time when the era of underwater armed and surveillance drones has dawned.

Real time warning system: It will act as an early warning system for enemy missiles headed towards Indian cities and military establishments.

Control: The nuclear missile tracking ship will be manned by Indian Navy personnel with the Strategic Forces Command (SFC).

Why is Dhruv significant?

Strategic significance: Both China and Pakistan having nuclear ballistic missile capability and land disputes with India.

Counter China: China has moved to sea-based military doctrine with huge investments in long-range aircraft carriers, warships and submarines. Dhruv will help India’s electronic intelligence-gathering spy agency, the NTRO, to project threat to India in real-time.

Maritime defence: It will act as a major force multiplier to India’s maritime security architecture as well add to the capability to understand the true missile capability of the adversary when they test their ballistic missiles.

India joins Premier League of Nations: The 10,000-tonne ship will be at the heart of India’s future anti-ballistic missile capability. Such ships are operated by France, the US, the UK, Russia, and China only.

Net security provider: It will add to the Indian Navy’s capability to monitor the region from the Gulf of Aden to the ingress routes to the South China Sea via Malacca, Sunda, Lombok, Ombai and Wetar straits.

Mapping ocean floor: it will help in mapping the Indian Ocean bed to help the Indian Navy plan better military operations in all three dimensions—sub-surface, surface and aerial.

Source: This post is based on the article “India’s 1st N-missile tracking ship Dhruv to be launched on Sept 10” published in Hindustan Times on 4th September 2021.

India and US sign Project Agreement for Air-Launched Unmanned Aerial Vehicle

Source: This post is based on the following articles:

  • “India and US sign Project Agreement for Air-Launched Unmanned Aerial Vehicle” published in the PIB on 3rd September 2021.
  • “India, US sign project agreement on air-launched UAV” published in The Hindu on 4th September 2021.
What is the news?

Recently, India & the US signed the Project Agreement (PA) for Air-Launched Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (ALUAV).

What is this project about?

This is a project is signed between the Ministry of Defence & the US Department of Defence under the Defence Technology & Trade Initiative (DTTI). It is considered a major accomplishment for DTTI.

The project falls under the Research, Development, Testing and Evaluation (RDT&E). For this, MoU between the Ministry of Defence and the US Department of Defence was first signed in January 2006 and renewed in January 2015.

Why this move is considered significant?

The agreement is a significant step towards deepening defence technology collaboration between the two nations through the co-development of defence equipment.

What is Defence Technology & Trade Initiative (DTTI)?

DTTI mechanism was launched in 2012. It is not a treaty or a law.

Aim: It aims to include strengthening of India’s defence industrial base, exploring new areas of technological development and creating opportunities for co-production and co-development of future technologies for Indian and the US military forces.

Under DTTI, Joint Working Groups on land, naval, air, and aircraft carrier technologies have been established. The Project Agreement for co-development of ALUAV has been overseen by these Joint Working Groups.

Explained: How the Supreme Court judges are appointed

What is the news?

Recently, the appointment of 9 judges takes the Supreme Court (SC) strength to 33, of whom 4 are women.

What are the age criteria for Judges?

The age of retirement is 65 years for SC judges and 62 for HC judges, unlike in the United States, where Supreme Court judges serve for life.

How do the SC judges get appointed?

Articles 124(2) and 217 of the Constitution: It governs the appointment of judges to the SC and HC respectively. Under the provisions, the President has the power to make the appointments “after consultation with such of the Judges of the SC and of the HC in the States as the President may deem necessary”.

Must read: Evolution of Collegium System

What is the selection process for HC judges?

For HC appointments, the process is initiated by the HC collegium. The file then moves to the state government, the central government and then to the SC collegium after intelligence reports are gathered on the candidates recommended. This process often takes over a year.

Once the SC collegium clears the names, then the file will go to the government level for final approval and appointment. If the government wants the collegium to reconsider a recommendation, the file is sent back and the collegium can reiterate or withdraw its decision.

How many judges does the Supreme Court have? How is the number decided?

Currently, the Supreme Court has 34 judges, including the CJI. In 1950, when SC was established, it had 8 judges, including the CJI.

Parliament, which has the power to increase the number of judges, has gradually done so by amending the Supreme Court (Number of Judges) Act. The number of judges were increased from 8 in 1950 to 11 in 1956, 14 in 1960, 18 in 1978, 26 in 1986, 31 in 2009, and 34 in 2019.

Present Figure: The court continues to have one vacancy and eight more judges are due to retire next year.

What is the number of women judges?

SC has had only 11 women judges, including the three women appointed recently.

2018 study by Vidhi Centre for Legal Policy noted that while the representation of women in the lower judiciary is higher at 27%, they hit a glass ceiling in higher appointments — as district judges and subsequently at the high court level.

Read more: Issue of Gender Gap in Judiciary – Explained, Pointwise 

Source: This post is based on the article “Explained: How Supreme Court judges are appointed” published in the Indian Express on 4th September 2021.

Experts flag diversion of fresh water from Brahmani river

What is the News?

The Wildlife Society of Orissa (WSO) has expressed concern over the massive diversion of fresh water from the Brahmani river basin which could pose a grave threat to the Bhitarkanika mangroves in Odisha.

About Bhitarkanika Mangroves

Bhitarkanika Mangroves is a mangrove wetland in Odisha. It covers an area of 650 km in the Brahmani and Baitarani river deltas.

Ramsar Site: It was designated as a Ramsar Wetland of International Importance in 2002.

Fauna: It is home to 62 mangrove species. Besides, 1,600 saltwater crocodiles crawl on the mudflats of the Bhitarkanika mangrove forest.

Significance: Mangroves grow in brackish water. Proportionate freshwater flow from the Brahmani river basin and the Kharasrota river keep the salinity level of the water along the shore down.  Hence, the brackish water becomes ideal for the mangroves to grow and stay healthy.

What is the issue?

Talcher-Angul coal mines as well as the Kalinganagar steel and power hub are using enormous quantities of freshwater from the Brahmani river. Moreover, a huge amount of water flow would also be withdrawn for a mega drinking project.

This diversion and reduction in water flow in Brahmani river would lead to drastic changes in the water regime of the Bhitarkanika mangroves. 

Note: The Sundarbans mangrove forest was drastically affected after the Farakka barrage was commissioned.

Moreover, lack of normal flow of freshwater would increase saline ingression upstream. This would affect the local flora and fauna as well as the livelihoods of the farmers and fishermen.

Besides, there could be a quantum increase in the man–crocodile conflict since the estuarine crocodiles would leave the core sanctuary area and migrate upstream once salinity increases.

Source: This post is based on the article “Experts flag diversion of fresh water from Brahmani river” published in The Hindu on 4th September 2021.

DCGI approves clinical trials of Biological E. Covid-19 vaccine CORBEVAX

What is the News?

Drugs Controller General of India (DCGI) has approved the Phase II/III clinical trials of the CORBEVAX vaccine in children aged above 5 years. It has also received the nod for conducting Phase III trials in adults.

About CORBEVAX Vaccine:

CORBEVAX is an indigenously produced COVID-19 vaccine candidate developed by the Indian pharmaceutical firm Biological E. Limited (BioE).

It is a “recombinant protein sub-unit” vaccine which means it is made up of a specific part of SARS-CoV-2 — the spike protein on the virus’s surface.

About Subunit Vaccine:

Source: WHO

A subunit vaccine is one that only uses the very specific parts (the subunits) of a virus or bacterium that the immune system needs to recognize. 

It doesn’t contain the whole microbe or uses a safe virus as a vector. The subunits may be proteins or sugars.

Source: This post is based on the articleDCGI approves clinical trials of Biological E. Covid-19 vaccine CORBEVAX ” published in PIB on 4th September 2021.

Footprints of 3 dinosaur species found in Thar

What is the News?

A team of palaeontologists have found footprints of three different species of dinosaurs in the Thar desert of Jaisalmer district in Rajasthan.

What are the three different Dinosaur Species?

The three species of dinosaurs include Eubrontes cf. giganteus, Eubrontes glenrosensis and Grallator tenuis.

The footprints of these dinosaur species were spotted in the deposits of the seashore which eventually became permanent stone-like figures.

These dinosaur species have distinguishing features like hollow bones and feet with three digits. 

Moreover, all these three species belong to the early Jurassic period and were carnivorous.

About Dinosaur

Dinosaur is the common name given to a group of reptiles often very large.

They first appeared roughly 245 million years ago (near the beginning of the Middle Triassic Epoch) and thrived worldwide for nearly 180 million years. Most died out by the end of the Cretaceous Period.

Source: This post is based on the article “Footprints of 3 dinosaur species found in Thar” published in The Hindu on 4th September 2021.

Impact of Aerosols and Clouds on Solar Energy generation leading to financial loss

What is the News?

A team of Indian and international researchers have conducted a study to understand the economic impact of aerosols, dust, and clouds on solar energy generation from the photovoltaic and rooftop solar installation.

What did the study find out?

Solar Energy Generation has been widely used in developing countries such as India which has sufficient solar resources.

However, clouds and aerosols limit the solar irradiance causing performance issues in the solar energy generation from photovoltaic and rooftop solar installations.

The performance issues also result in substantial economic impact. The study has estimated that the impact of total aerosol optical depth on Photovoltaic and rooftop installations amount to an annual financial loss of upto 1.55 million Rupees and the corresponding financial loss due to dust and clouds is 0.56 and 2.47 million Rupees.

This estimation can help the Indian solar energy producers and the electricity handling entities for efficient transmission and distribution system operations and grid stability optimization.

Source: This post is based on the articleImpact of Aerosols and Clouds on Solar Energy generation leading to financial losspublished in PIB on 3rd September 2021.

Army conducts exercise with armoured elements in Ladakh

What is the News?

The Indian Army has conducted the live fire exercises in Ladakh using tanks and helicopters.

About the Exercise

The exercise was conducted at a Super High Altitude Area —one higher than 15,000 feet in Ladakh. It was conducted under the aegis of the Leh-based 14 Corps.

Purpose: The exercise reviewed the operational preparedness of the Snow Leopard Brigade through integrated manoeuvre and live fire exercises.

Note: The Snow Leopard Brigade is located at Nyoma, which is very close to the Chushul range.

About Chushul

Source: Indian Express

Chushul is a village in the Leh district of Ladakh. It is located south of Pangong Lake and west of Spanggur Lake. 

The Line of Actual Control with China runs about 5 miles east of Chushul, across the Chushul Valley.

Source:  This post is based on the article “Army conducts exercise with armoured elements in Ladakh” published in The Hindu on 4th September 2021.

Union Minister launches “AYUSH AAPKE DWAR” Campaign at Ayush Ministry

What is the News?

Union Minister for Ayush has launched the “AYUSH AAPKE DWAR” campaign from more than 45 locations across the country.

About AYUSH AAPKE DWAR campaign:

Nodal Ministry: Ministry of Ayush

Aim: To distribute medicinal plant saplings to 75 lakh households across the country in one year. 

The medicinal plants include Tejpatta, Stevia, Ashoka, Jatamansi, Giloy/Guduchi, Ashwagandha, Kumari, Shatavari, Lemongrass, Guggulu, Tulsi, Sarpagandha, Kalmegh, Brahmi and Amla.

About e-CHARAK Platform:

The platform was launched by the National Medicinal Plants Board (NMPB), Ministry of Ayush. The Full Form of the platform is an e-Channel for Herbs, Aromatic, Raw material And Knowledge. It is an online market portal for the trade of medicinal plants.

Source: This post is based on the article “Union Minister launches “AYUSH AAPKE DWAR” Campaign published in PIB on 3rd September 2021.

Indian Railways rolls out Hospital Management Information System (HMIS) over 156 Health facilities across Indian Railways

What is the News?

Indian Railways has rolled out the Hospital Management Information System (HMIS) over 156 Health facilities across Indian Railways.

About Hospital Management Information System(HMIS)

Objective: HMIS is an initiative of Indian Railways to bring the entire Railway Health System on a single architecture to provide faster, seamless and hassle free healthcare.

Implemented by: RailTel- a miniratna PSU of Ministry of Railways and C-DAC under Ministry of Electronics & Information Technology.

Key Features of HMIS:

HMIS will cover clinical care such as labs, Pharmacies as well as Hospital Administration.

A mobile app has also been developed which enables the patients to access their Electronic Medical Record (EMR) from anywhere. 

Moreover, features like teleconsultation, lab report access, medicines disbursed to patients have also been provided through this app. 

This system is also fully integrable with the National Digital Health Mission program of the Ministry of Health and Family Welfare.


This will bring improvement in patient care and patient services to approximately 10 million Railway health beneficiaries.

Source: This post is based on the article “Indian Railways rolls out Hospital Management Information System(HMIS)” published in PIB on 3rd September 2021.

Hansa New Generation (NG) aircraft, designed and developed by CSIR-NAL, successfully make its maiden flight

What is the News?

Hansa New Generation (NG) aircraft has successfully made its maiden flight from Hindustan Aeronautics Limited (HAL) airport.

About Hansa New Generation(NG) aircraft:

Hansa New Generation(NG) aircraft is an upgraded version of the two-seater Hansa trainer aircraft.

Designed by: National Aerospace Laboratories (NAL), Bangalore 

Features: The unique features of Hansa-NG are

  1. Glass cockpit with cabin comfort
  2. Highly efficient digitally controlled engine
  3. Electrically operated flaps
  4. Long endurance
  5. Low acquisition and low operating cost.

About National Aerospace Laboratories(NAL):

NAL was established in 1959. It is a constituent of the Council of Scientific and Industrial Research(CSIR).

It is India’s only government-owned aerospace research and development laboratory in the civilian sector.

Source: This post is based on the article “Hansa New Generation (NG) aircraft, designed and developed by CSIR-NAL” published in  PIB on 3rd September 2021.

Scientists develop bio-methanation technology for integrated treatment of sewage, organic solid waste

What is the News?

Indian Scientists have developed a high rate biomethanation technology for the integrated treatment of sewage and organic solid waste.

What is Biomethanation Technology?

Biomethanation is a process by which organic material is microbiologically converted under anaerobic conditions to biogas. 

About High Rate Biomethanation Technology:

High Rate Biomethanation Technology has been developed to convert sewage into clean water, biogas and manure.

It has been developed with the support of the ‘Waste Management Technology’ program.

About Waste Management Technology Program:

It has been launched by the Department of Science & Technology (DST) in 2015 in alignment with Swachh Bharath Abhiyan.

Aim: To promote the development of suitable technologies with the potential to clean the environment from the huge amount of residuals generated by industrial development and consumption lifestyles.

Source: This post is based on the articleScientists develop bio-methanation technology for integrated treatment of sewage” published in PIB on 3rd September 2021.

Govt sets exports target for textile industry at $100 bn, up from $33 bn

What is the News?

The Union Minister for Textiles has asked the textile industry to set an aim to increase textiles exports three times from the present export value of $33 billion to $100 billion of textiles exports.

India’s Textile and Apparel Industry: 

India is among the world’s largest producers of Textiles and Apparel. The domestic textiles and apparel industry contributes 5% to India’s GDP and 12% of the country’s export earnings. 

India is the 6th largest exporter of textiles and apparel in the world. The share of India’s textiles and apparel exports in mercantile exports is 11% for the year 2019-20.

The textiles and apparel industry in India is the 2nd largest employer in the country providing direct employment to 45 million people and 100 million people in allied industries. 

Export Target for Textile Sector:

The government aims to reach the target of $ 44 bn of exports in 2021-22 for Textiles & Apparel including Handicrafts from the present export value of $33 bn.

Initiatives to improve exports in Textiles:

Amended Technology Upgradation Fund Scheme(ATUFS)


Production-Linked Incentive (PLI) Scheme in Textiles Products.

Mega Investment Textiles Parks (MITRA) Scheme: Under this, there is a plan to establish Seven textile parks over three years.

Source: This post is based on the article “Govt sets export target for textile industry at $100 bn, up from $33 bn” published in PIB on 4th September 2021.

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