9 PM Daily Current Affairs Brief – September 5th, 2022
Dear Friends,We have initiated some changes in the 9 PM Brief and other postings related to current affairs. What we sought to do:
- Ensure that all relevant facts, data, and arguments from today’s newspaper are readily available to you.
- We have widened the sources to provide you with content that is more than enough and adds value not just for GS but also for essay writing. Hence, the 9 PM brief now covers the following newspapers:
- The Hindu
- Indian Express
- Business Standard
- Times of India
- Down To Earth
- We have also introduced the relevance part to every article. This ensures that you know why a particular article is important.
- Since these changes are new, so initially the number of articles might increase, but they’ll go down over time.
- It is our endeavor to provide you with the best content and your feedback is essential for the same. We will be anticipating your feedback and ensure the blog serves as an optimal medium of learning for all the aspirants.
Mains Oriented Articles
GS Paper 2
- A lot is at stake for India-Bangladesh ties
- Coercion as conversion: Sexual orientation and gender identities do not require medical intervention
- Bittersweet pills: A simpler drug regime should mean better TB outcomes not another missed opportunity
GS Paper 3
- Precision farming needs to be promoted to get more output with less exploitation of natural resources
- The road to energy atmanirbharta
- Heavy debt burdens are the real issues in our debate over freebies
- A new dawn for nuclear energy
Prelims Oriented Articles (Factly)
- Parliamentary panel flags low ridership, need for unified Metro law
- Government push to coarse cereals as climate change affects wheat, paddy cultivation
- India’s first-ever “Night Sky Sanctuary” to be set up in Ladakh; the proposed Dark Sky Reserve will be completed at Hanle in Ladakh within 3 months
- Shumang Leela, the traditional form of theatre celebrated in All Manipur Shumang Leela Festival 2021-2022 in Imphal
- Who can enter various zones in an airport
- NASA scheduled its Artemis-1 mission launch at 11.47 pm, why so precise?
- Scientists are unsure about how ‘Nano Urea’ benefits crop
- A golden memory of Rajahmahendravaram
- Government of India approves year-long commemoration of the “Hyderabad Liberation Day”
- ISRO tests system to recover spent rocket stages
Mains Oriented Articles
GS Paper 2
Source: The post is based on the article “A lot is at stake for India-Bangladesh ties” published in The Hindu on 5th September 2022.
Syllabus: GS 2 – India and its neighbourhood- relations.
Relevance: About the India-Bangladesh relationship.
News: Recently Bangladesh Foreign Minister requested India to ensure that Prime Minister Sheikh Hasina stays in power in next year’s polls. He claimed that both India and Bangladesh would gain political stability by ensuring this. His comments came before the Bangladesh PM’s visit to India.
What are the possible outcomes of Bangladesh PM’s visit to India?
Both countries aim to sign a Comprehensive Economic Partnership Agreement (CEPA). CEPA comes at a time when Bangladesh is set to lose the duty-free and quota-free market-access facility to India after 2026 when it graduates to a developing country.
What is the present status of India-Bangladesh relations?
Trade: Bangladesh is India’s sixth largest trade partner with bilateral trade rising from $2.4 billion in 2009 to $10.8 billion in 2020-21.
According to a World Bank working paper, Bangladesh’s exports could rise 182% under a free trade agreement. This could become 300% if combined with trade facilitation measures and reduced transaction costs.
Connectivity: India and Bangladesh have implemented several projects to boost eastern India-Bangladesh connectivity. India’s connectivity projects with ASEAN and Bangladesh will open up the region to economic growth.
Bangladesh has expressed its interest in joining the India-Myanmar-Thailand highway project. India-Bangladesh bilateral waterway trade will get boosted as India can now use the Mongla and Chittagong ports.
Currently, three express trains and international bus services operate between Indian and Bangladesh.
India-Bangladesh Joint Consultative Commission: The commission expanded the India-Bangladesh partnership to include Artificial Intelligence, Fintech, cybersecurity, startups, and connectivity.
Land Swap Agreement: In 2015, India and Bangladesh resolved the decades-long border dispute through the Land boundary Agreement.
Curb of illicit activities: Bangladesh’s government has uprooted all anti-India insurgency activities within Bangladesh by leading from the front.
|Read more: Recent Developments in India-Bangladesh Relations – Explained, pointwise|
What are the opportunities in India-Bangladesh relations?
1) Bangladesh could improve several manufacturing industries by leveraging Indian expertise in service sectors, 2) India is rallying Bangladesh to divert its exports through Indian ports in place of Malaysian or Singaporean ports.
What are the challenges in India-Bangladesh relations?
Teesta river water sharing: For West Bengal, Teesta is important to sustain its impoverished farming districts which comprise 12.77% of its population. For Bangladesh, the Teesta’s flood plains cover about 14% of the total cropped area of the country and provide direct livelihood opportunities to approximately 7.3% of the population.
NRC: In 2019, India enacted the National Register of Citizens and the Citizenship (Amendment) Act. This created an uproar within and beyond the borders. Bangladesh government termed the move as “unnecessary”.
Role of China: China had successfully approached China for a mega project to enhance Teesta river water flow. Bangladesh also requires China’s support in resolving the Rohingya refugee crisis. Bangladesh is the second biggest arms market for China after Pakistan.
Ties with Pakistan: Although memories of 1971 remain, Bangladesh has expressed its interest in establishing peaceful relations with Pakistan.
|Read more: Improper Comments on Bangladesh will impact India Bangladesh ties|
What should be done to improve India-Bangladesh relations?
Long-term stable relations with its most trusted friend(Bangladesh) in the neighbourhood is the need of the hour for India. But the challenge for India is to earn the trust and confidence of Bangladeshis across the spectrum and strata. This can be done by resolving long-standing issues such as Teesta water-sharing and killings at the border.
Coercion as conversion: Sexual orientation and gender identities do not require medical intervention
Source: The post is based on the article “Coercion as conversion: Sexual orientation and gender identities do not require medical intervention” published in The Hindu on 5th September 2022.
Syllabus: GS 2 – Mechanisms, laws, institutions and Bodies constituted for the protection and betterment of these vulnerable sections.
Relevance: About conversion therapy.
News: Recently, the National Medical Commission (NMC) declared conversion therapy a “professional misconduct” and empowered State Medical Councils to take disciplinary action if the guideline is breached. This is a significant and welcome move to remove another layer of discrimination against the LGBTQIA+ community.
What is the reason behind NMC banning conversion therapy?
In its landmark 2021 judgment, the Madras High Court issued guidelines for the police, social welfare ministries of the State and Centre, and the medical council for the protection of the LGBTQIA+ community.
Madras High Court had directed NMC to issue an official notification listing conversion therapy as a wrong, under the Indian Medical Council (Professional Conduct, Etiquette and Ethics) Regulations, 2002.
What is conversion therapy?
Members of the lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, queer, intersex, asexual or of any other orientation are often subjected to conversion or ‘reparative’ therapy, particularly when they are young, to change their sexual orientation or gender identity by force.
The therapy varies from psychiatric treatment, use of psychosomatic drugs, electroshock therapy, exorcism and violence.
Impacts: The therapy can lead to trauma, manifesting in depression, anxiety, drug use, and even suicide.
|Read more: Rainbow of Hope|
Basis of conversion therapy: American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry contends that the interventions offered in conversion therapy are provided under the “false premise that homosexuality and gender diverse identities are pathological”.
Why Conversion therapy for LGBTQIA+ should be banned?
|Read here: Need to ban the Conversion therapy of the LGBTQIA+ community|
How to improve the life of the LGBTQIA+ community further?
Clear-cut definition: Like Canada, India should be clear on what action will be taken against quacks, psychiatrists and doctors accused of offering reparative treatment and the punishment they will face.
Change the education policy: Medical textbooks prescribed in 2018 still consider lesbianism a “perversion”, an act of “mental degenerates”. This has to be changed.
Legislative changes: Societal change has to be complemented by laws that address the needs of a diverse community higher than the Transgender Persons (Protection of Rights) Act, 2019 has sought to do.
Society has to acknowledge the “variability of human beings” and accord equal respect to everyone, whatever their sexual orientation or gender identity.
Bittersweet pills: A simpler drug regime should mean better TB outcomes not another missed opportunity
Source: The post is based on an article “Bittersweet pills: A simpler drug regime should mean better TB outcomes not another missed opportunity” published in The Times of India on 5th September 2022.
Syllabus: GS 2 – Issues related to health
News: The article discusses about the issues in tackling tuberculosis in India and the impact of recent drug invented.
The ZeNix phase III trial has shown that only 3-4 drugs will be needed for 6 months for tuberculosis than the other treatment which requires 13-14 drugs daily for 18-24 months.
What is the current situation of TB in India?
India has been struggling with the TB for a longer period of time.
A government survey finds that 63% of the chest symptomatic do not seek healthcare.
It shows the shortfalls of public awareness campaigns and also the broken primary care health services in India.
Lack of timely diagnosis of TB is one of the issues along with the overall gaps in proper observation of the disease.
The mortality rate in 2019-20 increased by 11% even though there was a 25% reduction in the number of cases.
The present invented drug ZeNix will have a great positive impact in India because India has the world’s highest burden of the TB disease including its multidrug-resistant strains.
GS Paper 3
Precision farming needs to be promoted to get more output with less exploitation of natural resources
Source: The post is based on the article “Precision farming needs to be promoted to get more output with less exploitation of natural resources” published in the Indian Express on 5th September 2022.
Syllabus: GS 3 – Different types of irrigation and irrigation systems storage, transport and marketing of agricultural produce and issues and related constraints.
Relevance: About India’s farming activities.
News: Humans are over-exploiting planet’s natural resource endowment. This may boomerang and threaten the very existence of humanity.
What are the challenges in current farming methods?
a) Lands are degrading, especially the topsoil that is crucial for providing us with food, animal feed and fibre, b) Groundwater is depleting and its quality is becoming poorer with the increasing use of chemical fertilisers and other industrial waste, c) Air human breathe is polluted. When stubble burning peaks in farmers’ fields in Punjab and Haryana it is difficult to even breathe in a city like Delhi.
The extreme weather events such as the recent heat waves in Europe and Asia alongside droughts and floods in other areas exacerbate these issues even more.
Why there is an imbalance between people and the planet?
In 1804, for the first time in history, the human population touched one billion. The next billion was added in 123 years with the count touching two billion by 1927. Several major breakthroughs in medical science ensured that the next billion was added in just 33 years by 1960.
Thereafter, humanity progressed even faster. For instance, it took only 12 years to reach six to seven billion in 2010, and another 12 years to touch eight billion in 2022.
This created a huge imbalance between the demands of people and the capacity of this planet to supply them in a sustainable manner.
|Read more: What is Zero Budget Natural Farming?|
What is the role of natural/organic farming in correcting this imbalance?
Many governments, religious organisations, and some NGOs believe that organic/natural farming is the only way to correct this imbalance. Most of the studies conducted by ICAR in India show that with the adoption of natural farming yields go down for major staple crops like wheat and rice by as much as 30 to 50%. But the yields recover back to normal levels after some time.
Organic farming in India: Sikkim was declared an organic state, etc. The Indian government has initiated a major programme on natural farming along the Ganga, five kilometres on each side of its banks. Many states like Andhra Pradesh are also scaling up natural farming.
|Must read: Natural Farming – process, advantages and challenges – Explained, pointwise|
Why does India need to focus on farming?
Sri Lanka wanted to get rid of chemical fertilisers but facing an economic challenge. India is going to be the most populous country on the planet in 2023. So, India needs a proper policy decision with better and more scientific evidence if India wants to avoid a Sri Lanka-like fiasco.
What should be done to improve farming activities?
Focus on precision farming: It can give India “more from less”. The innovations and developments in GIS (Geographical Information System), AIML (Artificial Intelligence and Machine Learning) can use enormous data and bring about precision in farming.
Reduction of subsidies: In India, there is a culture of free power, free water, almost 80 to 90% subsidy on urea, and so on. These subsidy policies may have been good in the 1960s or the 1970s when the country was hugely food deficit. But now these subside have to be reduced.
Source: The post is based on an article “The road to energy atmanirbharta” published in The Indian Express on 5th September 2022.
Syllabus: GS 3 – Indian Economy – energy
Relevance: steps that can be taken by India to achieve Energy Atmanirbharta.
News: This article discusses about the steps that can be taken by India to achieve ‘Energy Atmanirbharta’ by 2040.
The Prime Minister has called for “Energy Atmanirbharta” by 2040 recently.
What are the requirements needed for India to achieve Energy Atmanirbharta by 2040?
First, India should be clear with the definition of Atmanirbharta. It means self-reliance not self-sufficiency. Self-sufficiency should not be our goal as energy self-sufficiency is infeasible and uneconomic.
Second, we should prioritize access to fossil fuels because the transition to a green energy system is a lengthy, time taking and costly process. There is a low probability of finding substantive, additional domestic resources of hydrocarbons, even if India is able to enhance domestic exploration, it may be difficult to produce them on commercially viable terms. Therefore, our policy must continue to emphasize affordable and secure access to oil and gas.
Third, prioritize access to the building blocks of green energy. We have ambitious targets for renewables. However, minerals/components (copper, cobalt, lithium, semiconductor chips etc.) required to build EVs, solar panels, wind turbines and batteries are concentrated in countries that are not on the same political page with India. For example, 38 per cent of copper is produced from Chile and Peru. China controls 47 per cent of copper smelting and 42 per cent of copper refining. Therefore, India must remove the obstacles to domestic mining and develop strategies to manage the international market dynamics.
Fourth, In a recent example of Germany, it faced the LNG supply problem because it was not connected by a pipeline built by Spain. Therefore, it became possible for Russia to weaponize the gas supply.
Thus, infrastructure development is needed. GAIL is investing in the development of a national gas pipeline grid. In addition to it India must expand its strategic petroleum reserves to cover at least 30 days of consumption.
Fifth, offering green incentives to encourage private participation. For example, investors response was encouraging after the government’s production-linked incentive scheme (PLI) offers benefits for investment in green energy.
Private capital can help meet net carbon zero targets of the country.
Sixth, In the face of high gas prices, Europe is enjoying the disproportionately positive benefits of demand management. This must be corrected. Energy usage norms must be standardised and tightened. Legislation should be properly enacted to ensure compliance.
Seventh, retraining and upskilling.
The nature of jobs and their location will change with the gradual transition to a green energy system. Therefore, the requirements for training/skilling should be anticipated and delivered.
Eighth, energy diplomacy. Our diplomats should add energy to their diplomacy. This is because of our dependence on the international energy supply chains. Success in navigating economic and geopolitical uncertainties will depend greatly on skillful diplomacy.
Ninth, holistic governance. The current energy governance requires proper administration. Institutions should be created to facilitate integrated energy planning and implementation.
Source: The post is based on an article “Heavy debt burdens are the real issues in our debate over freebies” published in The Live Mint on 5th September 2022.
Syllabus: GS 3 – Indian Economy
News: This article discusses the measures that can be adopted to achieve the fiscal deficit target.
The Centre never logged a fiscal deficit ratio of less than 3% after 2007-08 and all states combined had logged less than 3% after 2004-05.
This is because, the Fiscal Responsibility and Budget Management (FRBM) rules cap the deficit at 3% of gross state domestic product. It requires special permission to go beyond this level.
What are the rules needed to be adopted to check the fiscal deficit?
There are rules needed to cap the deficit as well as ensure transparency.
First, we need a rule that is binding on both the Centre and states. The Reserve Bank of India can be made the care taker to ensure that access to the debt market for states and center closes beyond a prescribed level.
Second, Contingent liabilities must be counted as a part of the fiscal deficit—both of the Centre and states. This will deliver transparency and ensure that debt doesn’t build up outside budgets.
Third, guarantees by the government to any publicly-owned entity should be banned. Because, it creates an environment of not taking responsibility for performance and the entity will be forced to operate on commercial terms. If guarantees are gone, they will have to borrow money from the financial system based on their strength and performance.
Fourth, to ensure a certain amount is spent as a capital expenditure a certain portion of the borrowing should be set aside by a rule. This will ensure that the government is building infrastructure. The Finance Commission must strongly mandate the level of capex at 20% or 25%.
Source: The post is based on an article “A new dawn for nuclear energy” published in The Business Standard on 5th September 2022.
Syllabus: GS 3- Energy
News: This article discusses about the issues related with nuclear energy and the position of India in the nuclear power generation.
What is discouraging nuclear energy?
The accidents at Three Mile Island in the US (1979), Chernobyl in the USSR (1986), and particularly Fukushima in Japan (2011) raised a concern for the use on nuclear energy.
But researchers found that stopping nuclear energy production contributed to more deaths in Japan than the accident itself.
While conventional big nuclear plants have faced difficulties, progress has taken place with small plants.
Submarines and aircraft carriers in the West have used numerous small nuclear plants for decades. Their safety record has been perfect.
Can costs of setting-up nuclear power become low?
It will require assembly line manufacturing for making it at a low cost.
Under present calculations, if 12 modules are installed giving a 600 MW plant, the cost of electricity (under first world conditions) is estimated at between $41 and $65 per MWh.
In India, both costs (nuclear and renewables) will be higher because of the country risk and the difficulties of the financial system.
Competition, innovation, learning that comes from scale, and manufacturing on assembly lines will all contribute to gains in the cost structure.
What is the situation in India in nuclear power generation?
In India nuclear generation has not worked out well.
The state sector faces problems and progress requires importing nuclear reactors made by private companies.
The economics of large-scale nuclear plants that can be imported from the West is unattractive.
Electricity system in India has envisaged a combination of renewables and storage to get to zero emissions.
These things could change if SMR technology gets on a time trend of declining prices.
If it works well then firms in India will see these new SMRs as components that can fit in their business planning.
An SMR is just a cylinder, 23-metre-high and 4.5-metre-wide, which generates 50 MW, which could be put in the corner of a factory.
Prelims Oriented Articles (Factly)
Source: The post is based on the article “Parliamentary panel flags low ridership, need for unified Metro law” published in The Hindu on 5th September 2022.
What is the News?
Parliamentary Standing Committee on Housing and Urban Affairs has submitted a report titled “implementation of Metro rail projects” to the Lok Sabha.
What are the key highlights from the report?
Low ridership: Most metro projects (except Delhi and Mumbai line 1) have seen lower actual average daily ridership than what is required to breakeven. These metro projects include Bengaluru, Hyderabad, Chennai, Lucknow, and Jaipur.
– The poor performance of metro projects indicates several things such as: (i) lack of first and last mile connectivity, (ii) faulty detailed project reports, and (iii) absence of parking at stations.
– Therefore, the Committee recommended: (i) ensuring ridership estimation (which determines the selection of the type of metro) is realistic and accurate, and (ii) taking concrete steps to increase the ridership of all metro projects.
Law governing metro projects: The Committee observed that as more cities are taking up metro projects, there is a need to have a comprehensive law for metro projects. Currently, metro projects are governed by three central Acts.
– Note: The Ministry of Housing and Urban Affairs had stated that it is drafting a Bill to replace the three existing Acts.
Unified Metropolitan Transport Authority(UMTA): State governments are required to constitute UMTAs for managing urban transport. The Committee observed that several states such as Karnataka, Gujarat, and Rajasthan have not constituted UMTAs. It recommended the Ministry to encourage the setting up of UMTAs in states.
Payment of fare via single card: The National Common Mobility Card (NCMC), launched in March 2019, allows payment across different modes of public transport throughout India. Payment through a single card attracts customers towards public transport and increases ridership.
– The Committee noted that NCMC-compliant systems have not been installed in Kolkata, Jaipur, Lucknow, Kanpur, Chennai, and Gujarat. It recommended the Ministry to take suitable steps to operationalise NCMC
Sourcing of power from renewables: Metro networks such as Chennai, Hyderabad, Delhi, and Lucknow are adopting energy conservation measures. For instance, Kochi and Pune metro have planned to meet 60% of their energy requirements from solar power.
– The Committee recommended the Ministry to encourage mandatory sourcing of power from renewables, especially solar, by metro networks.
Source: The post is based on the article “Government push to coarse cereals as climate change affects wheat, paddy cultivation” published in PIB on 1st September 2022.
What is the News?
The Government of India is considering pushing toward coarse cereals as climate change is affecting wheat and paddy cultivation.
What are Coarse Cereals?
Coarse cereals are a broad sub-group of several short-duration warm weather (Kharif) crops such as Jowar (Sorghum), Bajra (Pearl Millet), Maize, Ragi (Finger Millet) etc.
They are used in food, fodder, fuel; value added products and also fast food products.
In India, coarse cereals are mainly grown in poor agro-climatic regions, particularly rainfed areas of the country.
These crops are grown in areas with high temperatures and are called dryland crops because they can be grown in areas with 50-100 cm rainfall.
These crops are also less sensitive to soil deficiencies and can be grown in an inferior alluvial or loamy soil.
Coarse Cereals Production in India
Coarse cereals have been sown in 17.63 million hectares in 2022 as against 16.93 million hectares in 2021.
About 50 million tonnes of coarse cereals are produced in the country at present. Maize and millets are grown the most.
The major coarse cereals growing states in India are Rajasthan, Maharashtra, Karnataka, Uttar Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh and Gujarat.
Why is the Government shifting focus toward coarse cereals?
Firstly, climate change has affected the production of wheat and paddy in the country, indicating a need to shift focus to coarse cereals.
Secondly, coarse cereals have characteristics like drought tolerance, photo-insensitivity and resilience to climate change etc.
Thirdly, the cost of cultivation of coarse cereals is less compared to summer paddy cultivation and also it requires a lesser quantum of water for irrigation.
India’s first-ever “Night Sky Sanctuary” to be set up in Ladakh; the proposed Dark Sky Reserve will be completed at Hanle in Ladakh within 3 months
Source: The post is based on the article “India’s first-ever “Night Sky Sanctuary” to be set up in Ladakh; the proposed Dark Sky Reserve will be completed at Hanle in Ladakh within 3 months” published in PIB on 4th September 2022.
What is the News?
The Department of Science & Technology (DST) has announced the setting up of India’s first Dark Sky Reserve in Hanle, Ladakh in the next three months.
About India’s First ever Dark Sky Reserve
Located at: Hanle in Ladakh as a part of Changthang Wildlife Sanctuary.
To be Developed by: Ladakh administration will work with Ladakh Autonomous Hill Development Council(LAHDC) and the Indian Institute of Astrophysics (IIA) for developing this reserve.
Significance: The reserve will boost Astro tourism in India and will be one of the world’s highest-located sites for optical, infrared, and gamma-ray telescopes.
What is Dark Sky Reserve?
A Dark Sky Reserve is a designation given to a place that has policies in place to ensure that a tract of land or region has minimal artificial light interference.
The International Dark Sky Association is a U.S.-based non-profit that designates places as International Dark Sky Places, Parks, Sanctuaries and Reserves depending on the criteria they meet. Several such reserves exist around the world but none so far in India.
Why was Hanle chosen for setting up Dark Sky Reserve?
Hanle is best suited for the project as it is located in Ladakh’s cold desert region with clear sky and dry weather conditions throughout the year and away from human disturbance.
Shumang Leela, the traditional form of theatre celebrated in All Manipur Shumang Leela Festival 2021-2022 in Imphal
Source: The post is based on the article “Shumang Leela, the traditional form of theatre celebrated in All Manipur Shumang Leela Festival 2021-2022 in Imphal” published in AIR on 1st September 2022.
What is the News?
The 50th All Manipur Shumang Leela Festival 2021-2022 has started at Iboyaima Shumang Leela Shanglen at Palace Compound in Imphal.Manipur.
What is Shumang Leela?
Shumang Leela is a traditional form of theatre in Manipur. The theatre is arranged in the form of open-air from four sides.
In this, the roles of female artists are all played by male actors and male characters are played by female artists.
The present-day Shumang Leelas address the issues of moral values, unity and integrity. The fostering of bonds of brotherhood and friendship among various communities in the State is also promoted by the theatre.
In 2017, Shougrakpam Hemanta was conferred with the prestigious Sangeet Natak Akademi Award in recognition of his contribution to Shumang Leela. With this, he became the first person to receive the award for this art form.
Source: The post is based on the article “Who can enter various zones in an airport” published in Indian Express on 5th September 2022.
What is the News?
Delhi Police have registered an FIR accusing the deputy commissioner of Deoghar of sedition after he reported to the Jharkhand government that two MPs had entered Air Traffic Control (ATC) at the airport and forced officials to clear their aircraft for take-off even though the airport does not have facilities for night operations.
Who can enter an airport in India?
A person who is not a passenger with a valid ticket requires an Aerodrome Entry Permit(AEP) that is issued by the airport operator in concurrence with the security agency in charge of the airport.
Typically, at the bigger airports, the Central Industrial Security Force (CISF) undertakes the security responsibilities while at a smaller airport like Deoghar, it is the state police that manages security.
What is the ATC in an airport?
Air traffic control(ATC) is the traffic control room for aircraft at airports and in certain designated airspaces from where ground-based air traffic controllers direct aircraft movements.
The controllers use equipment including radar to track aircraft and communicate with pilots over the radio. The ATC complex typically has a tower, which may be attached to a building.
The primary purpose of the ATC system is to prevent a collision between aircraft operating in the system and to organize and expedite the flow of (air) traffic.
Under certain circumstances, the ATC may have security or defence responsibilities as well and may be manned by military officers.
Does an AEP authorize the holder to enter the ATC premises?
It does not happen automatically; prior approval is needed to enter the ATC building.
Does a Member of Parliament have special privileges to enter airport premises?
An order issued by the Ministry of Civil Aviation in 2007 said that a Member of Parliament may be allowed free access to the Terminal building and Visitors Gallery on the basis of MPs Identity Card.
However, the order did not state whether MPs were allowed to also enter ATC premises.
Source: The post is based on the article “NASA scheduled its Artemis-1 mission launch at 11.47 pm, why so precise?” published in Indian Express on 5th September 2022.
What is the News?
After an aborted attempt, NASA was to make another bid to launch its Artemis-1 mission.
There was a two-hour window to launch the mission. However, the mission was aborted for a second time due to a hydrogen leak.
Why are there launch windows for space missions?
Space missions cannot be launched anytime they are ready to go. Very precise time slots are calculated for their launch.
Two main factors
Shortest Distance: Nothing in space is stationary. The origin (Earth) is moving, and so is the destination (Moon, or any other planetary body the mission is headed to).
– Hence, one reason for scheduling a launch window is to look for the shortest distance to the destination.
Fuel Efficiency: The other related reason is the need for fuel efficiency. There is no refuelling opportunity in space. And, the more fuel the rocket carries, the heavier it becomes, which again means more fuel is required to propel it.
Weather: A space mission cannot be launched if the temperature is too cold or too hot or if the wind is blowing at a very strong speed. Rainfall, humidity, lightning, cloud or smoke are all factors that need to be considered for a safe and successful launch.
– Favorable weather conditions are required not just at the time of the launch, but also during the fuelling of the engines.
Source: The post is based on the article “Scientists are unsure about how ‘Nano Urea’ benefits crop” published in The Hindu on 4th September 2022.
What is the News?
Nano Urea (a fertilizer) has been approved by the government for commercial use because of its potential to substantially reduce the import bill, but several experts have questioned the science underlying its efficacy.
What is Nano Urea?
Why have experts raised questions about the efficacy of Nano Urea?
Firstly, plants need nitrogen to make protein and they source almost all of it from soil bacteria which live in a plant’s roots and have the ability to break down atmospheric nitrogen or from chemicals such as urea into a form usable by plants.
– Chemically packaged urea is 46% nitrogen which means a 45 kg sack contains about 20 kg of nitrogen. Contrastingly, Nano Urea sold in 500 ml bottles has only 4% nitrogen (or around 20 gm). How this can compensate for the kilogrammes of nitrogen normally required puzzles scientists.
Secondly, urea is highly water soluble and already reaches the lowest form of concentration when absorbed. How nanoparticles can increase the effectiveness of nitrogen uptake by being still smaller is unclear.
Source: The post is based on the article “A golden memory of Rajahmahendravaram” published in The Hindu on 5th September 2022.
What is the News?
Seven Gold coins that date back to the Eastern Chalukya dynasty including the rule of Rajaraja Narendra are preserved at the Rallabandi Subbarao Government Museum in Rajahmundry in Andhra Pradesh.
Who was Rajaraja Narendra?
Rajaraja Narendra(1019 – 1061 AD) was the Eastern Chalukya king of the Vengi kingdom in South India.
He established the city Rajahmahendravaram (Rajahmundry) on the banks of the Godavari during his reign.
His period was famous for its Social and Cultural heritage.
Rajaraja Narendra asked his court poet Nannayya to transcreate Mahabharata written in Sanskrit by Veda Vyas into the Telugu language to make it more comprehensible to the Telugus in his kingdom.
Nannayya could do so for three parvas. This was followed by the efforts of two other poets — Tikkanna and Yerrapragada – who completed the whole exercise to transcreate the greatest epic into Telugu.
Source: The post is based on the article “Government of India approves year-long commemoration of the “Hyderabad Liberation Day” published in PIB on 4th September 2022.
What is the News?
The Ministry of Culture will organize the inaugural programme of the year-long commemoration of the Hyderabad Liberation Day on 17th September 2022.
The date assumes significance as it was on 17 September 1948 that the erstwhile Hyderabad State under Nizam rule merged with the Indian Union.
Liberation of Hyderabad
India had several princely states. When the British left India in 1947, they gave the princely states the option of joining India or Pakistan or remaining independent.
Out of the 565 princely states that existed at the time, 562 decided to join India. However, neither did Hyderabad, Junagadh, nor Kashmir, three princely states, integrate into India or demonstrate any interest in doing so.
The state of Hyderabad was under the Nizam which included the whole of current-day Telangana, the Marathwada region in Maharashtra and several regions of Karnataka.
The Nizam of Hyderabad hoped to retain his sovereignty and opposed the idea of merging with India after Independence. Osman Ali Khan Asaf Jah VII, the last Nizam of the princely state of Hyderabad proclaimed Hyderabad as a sovereign state and this added to the tension and led to communal clashes.
The Indian government did not want Hyderabad to remain free fearing that it would lead to the country’s balkanization.
The then Home Minister Sardar Patel referred to the concept of an independent Hyderabad as “an ulcer in the heart of India which needed to be removed surgically.”
Hence, India decided to annex Hyderabad and named the operation “Operation Polo”. On September 13, 1948, Indian forces attacked Hyderabad. In a five-day battle, the Indian Army took Hyderabad and fully integrated it into Indian territory by decisively defeating Nizam.
Source: The post is based on the article “ISRO tests system to recover spent rocket stages” published in The Hindu on 4th September 2022.
What is the News?
Indian Space Research Organization(ISRO) has successfully demonstrated the new technology with Inflatable Aerodynamic Decelerator (IAD).
This could aid the cost-effective recovery of spent rocket stages and safely land payloads on other planets.
What is an Inflatable Aerodynamic Decelerator(IAD)?
Inflatable Aerodynamic Decelerator or IAD is a technique used to decelerate an object plunging down through the atmosphere.
What is ISRO’s IAD?
The ISRO’s Inflatable Aerodynamic Decelerator(IAD) was designed and developed by Vikram Sarabhai Space Centre(VSSC) on a Rohini-300 (RH300 Mk II) sounding rocket.
IAD was initially folded and kept inside the payload bay of the rocket. At around 84 km altitude, the IAD was inflated and it descended through the atmosphere with the payload part of the sounding rocket.
IAD has systematically reduced the velocity of the payload through aerodynamic drag and followed the predicted trajectory.
Note: This is the first instance where an IAD has been specially created for spent stage recovery.
Where does ISRO intend to use IAD?
The IAD will help ISRO in performing many space tasks effectively including recovery of spent stages of rockets, for landing payloads on missions to other planetary bodies.
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