[Answered] “A transition to electric vehicle transportation demand major efforts by the government but also need extra efforts of Indian automobile industry”. Discuss. What should be done to fast track the adoption of electric vehicles?

Demand of the question
Introduction. Contextual introduction.
Body. Need of of government and industrial efforts. How to fast track adoption of EVs?
Conclusion. Way forward.

India has aligned its policies with its commitment to the Paris accord on climate change.Governmentof India is pushing for rapid adoption of electric vehicles as a way to cut down on greenhouse gas emissions through various schemes like FAME (Faster Adoption And Manufacturing of (Hybrid &) Electric Vehicles). Although lot is needed to be done by Government and Indian automobile industry to develop an ecosystem of electric vehicles in India.

Need of efforts of Indian Government and Indianautomobile industry:

  1. Increasing efficiency of vehicles: There is need to increase vehicle efficiency. This will help in reducing energy consumption and will enable to a vehicle to travel the same distance on a smaller battery.
  2. Testing Indian Conditions:Performance of electric vehicles at Indian humid conditions and hot temperatures need to be tested.
  3. Need of innovation:Automobile sector need to focus on innovation to enhanceperformance of electric vehicles.
  4. Focusing battery life:Indian automobile industry should focus on battery life to enhance performance of EVs.India should encourage manufacturing of battery cells in India.
  5. Need of power-electronics: EVs use power-electronics extensively. Power-electronics industry India has not kept pace with new developments. India would need a new power-electronics industry. A special effort is needed to promote such industries.

How to fast track adoption of electric vehicles?

Adoption of electric vehicles can be fast tracked through:

  1. Infrastructure: The present batteries capacity limit the driving range of electric vehicles.
    • This can be addressed by developing an ecosystem of fast-charging. This requires creating of an infrastructure, maybe even at every kilometre in dense areas.
    • India has to be creative to make electric vehicles and its infrastructure economically viable from the very beginning.
  2. Market incentives: Early plants can be set-up either by international manufacturers or as joint ventures between Indian companies and international manufacturers.
    • Tax incentives need to be provided to these companies.
    • Incentives/subsidies could be given in the form of Tradable Auto-Emission Coupons or credits based on Carbon dioxide emissions per km as well as on a basis of vehicle efficiency. This will encourage the market to build efficient vehicles with lower emissions per km.
  3. Technical Expertise: India should invest in developing technical expertise.
    • Research and Development (R&D) in EV and its components should be promoted.
    • Energy efficiency can be enhanced by using more efficient electric motors, using better tyres, enhancing the aero dynamics of the vehicles and reducing its weight.
    • Efforts should be made to bring together IITs, private manufacturing and government to work together.
  4. Policy Measures: India would need various policy measures:
    • Local manufacturing should be promoted.
    • Policies measures focusing on securing materials used in Lithium-ion batteriesis needed.
    • Scanning of these resources within India should be done.
    • Strategic investments in mines in India and outside for these materials is needed.
    • India would need to introduce strict norms for recycling every Lithium-ion battery.
    • The necessary electricity should be made available to support EVs industry. Regular supply of electricity is must for growth of EVs industry.

Electric Vehicles carry many inherent advantages especially in era of climate change. A collaborative effort of Government of India, state governments and various stakeholders for the e-mobility is needed. Coordination is needed among the department of heavy industries, the finance ministry, the department of science and technology, the ministry of road transport and highways and the the ministry of urban development.

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