[Answered] Analyse the complexity and intensity of terrorism, its causes, linkages and obnoxious nexus. Also suggest measures required to be taken to eradicate the menace of terrorism.

Terrorism is the illegitimate use of force to provide injury to common people for political and ideological gains. Terrorists violate law, threaten common people and directly challenge the state. 

Causes of Terrorism 

  1. Perceptions of deprivation and inequality, especially amongst culturally defined groups. This can lead to civil violence, of which terrorism may be a part. 
  2. A lack of political legitimacy and continuity, as well as a lack of integration for the political fringes, encourages ideological terrorism. The potential is exacerbated by ethnic diversity. 
  3. Terrorism in one country can spillover into neighbouring areas. (For example – state sponsored terrorism in India by Pakistan) 
  4. Extreme ideologies may sometime result in hatred towards other section of society and may lead to terrorism. Examples of terrorist groups motivated by ideology include the Irish Republican Army (IRA), in Sri Lanka the Liberation Tigers of Tamal Eelam (LTTE), and the Bader Meinhoff in Germany. 

Linkages and obnoxious nexus of terrorism  

  1. The terrorism and organised crime support each other to thrive and survive. The economic proceeds of organised crime, such as extortion/kidnapping are made legitimate through money laundering and then used to fund terrorist activities. For example – In the Northeast, extortion, kidnapping, human and drug trafficking, arms smuggling (organised crime) is the fundamental basis for funding all forms of terrorism. In J&K, counterfeit currency has been a major source of funding terrorism. In Punjab, drug trafficking is rampant to fund terrorism.Thus illegal money generated through organised crime and this money is then used to fund terrorist activities. 
  2. Organized criminals give arms, ammunition and weapons by smuggling to terrorist parties in exchange for drugs and diamonds. Terrorist parties use smuggling nets set up by organized criminal parties to send their members to different countries of the world. Organized criminal groups also act as money laundering. Terrorist groups levy taxes on drug traffickers to provide security to criminals in their controlled area. 

Steps Taken 

  1. Legislative Measures – Unlawful Activities (Prevention) Act, 1967, Prevention of Money Laundering Act, 2002 
  2. Strengthening Border Management to prevent cross border terrorist activities. 
  3. FATF 
  4. UN Conventions on Transnational Organised crime and UN Convention on Corruption 

Measures Required 

  1. Strengthening national coordination mechanisms to promote inter-agency participation and information exchange, facilitating joint monitoring, threat assessment. 
  2. Updating national legislation to ensure that terrorist and organized crime offences are precisely defined, in accordance with international standards. 
  3. Promote border security efforts to prevent the illicit transit of goods and people. 
  4. Adoption of a Comprehensive Convention on International Terrorism 
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