[Answered] Analyse the multidimensional challenges posed by external state and non-state actors, to the internal security of India. Also discuss measures required to be taken to combat these threats. 

India face multifold threat from external states and non-state actors on internal security front. State actors includes government’ representative and their agencies. Non state actors may include international NGOs, multinational companies, terrorist and religious groups, hackers etc.   

 Challenge posed by external state actors: 

  1. May support various insurgent groups such as Naxalites or separatist groups through illegal money, supplying arms etc. 
  2. Instability in Jammu and Kashmir by the Pakistan (Pakistan’s state policy to bleed India through a thousand cuts) 
  3. External state actors may also indulge in cyberattacks, thus affecting national security. (e.g. cyberattacks emanating from China) 

Non-state actors:  

  1. Terrorism: State sponsored terrorism as well as support to other terrorist groups such as Lashkar-e-Taiba, Jaish-e-Mohammad by Pakistan. 
  2. Indulging in counterfeit currency and money laundering activities and providing illegal funds to insurgents in NE India 
  3. Inter and Intra state drug trafficking (proximity to golden crescent and golden triangle routes). 
  4. The deep-rooted nexus between drug mafias, arms dealers, and money launderers for financing terrorism. 

Measures required to combat these threats are: 

  1. Effective communication and co-ordination between intelligence agencies and law enforcement agencies. To ensure better coordination, interoperability among the agencies must be improved.  
  2. Cyber security measures to thwart any attempt of cyber attacks 
  3. Collaboration between the government, media and the public to ensure quick and efficient sharing of information about suspicious activities to the law enforcement agencies.  
  4. Local police forces must be well trained and well equipped with necessary gears so that they can respond to the terrorist attacks until the Special Forces reach the site 
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