[Answered] Describe various measures taken in India for Disaster Risk Reduction (DRR) before and after signing ‘Sendai Framework for DRR (2015-2030)’. How is this framework different from ‘Hyogo Framework for Action, 2005’?

Demand of the question
Introduction. Contextual Introduction.
Body. Measures taken before and after signing Sendai Framework for DRR. How it is different from Hyogo Framework?
Conclusion. Way forward.

Disaster leads to sudden disruption of normal life, causing severe damage to life and property. Its origin can be natural or man-made. India due to its geography and scarce resources is more prone to Disasters. For disaster management India has enacted many guidelines and laws. It has signed Sendai Framework and earlier Hyogo Framework and continuously work towards protecting its vulnerable community.

Measures taken in India for DRR before signing Sendai Framework

  1. Before signing the Sendai Framework for DRR, the Disaster Management Act was enacted in 2005, which ushered in a paradigm shift from a relief-centric approach to a more proactive regime that laid greater emphasis on preparedness, prevention and mitigation.
  2. The plan also aims at maximising the ability to cope with disasters at all levels of administration as well as among communities.
  3. The National Policy on Disaster Management (NPDM) has been prepared in pursuance of the Disaster Management Act, 2005, which laid the framework/roadmap for handling disasters in a holistic manner.
  4. In 2016, India released the country’s first ever National Disaster Management Plan, a document based on the global blueprint for reducing disaster losses, the Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction. It will cover all phases of disaster management, from prevention and mitigation to response and recovery.

Measures taken in India for DRR after signing Sendai Framework

  1. India recently released first ever National Disaster Management Plan, a document based on the global blueprint for reducing disaster losses, the Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction.
  2. The plan is based on the four priority themes of the Sendai Framework, namely: understanding disaster risk, improving disaster risk governance, investing in disaster risk reduction (through structural and non- structural measures) and disaster preparedness, early warning and building back better in the aftermath of a disaster.
  3. The plan has a regional approach, which will be beneficial not only for disaster management but also for development planning.
  4. It is designed in such a way that it can be implemented in a scalable manner in all phases of disaster management.
  5. It also identifies major activities such as early warning, information dissemination, medical care, fuel, transportation, search and rescue, evacuation, etc. to serve as a checklist for agencies responding to a disaster.

The difference between Hyogo Framework and Sendai Framework:

  1. The Sendai Framework (2015-30) is the successor instrument to the Hyogo Framework for Action (2005-15).
  2. The Hyogo framework was the first plan which explained, described and detailed the work that is required from all different sectors and actors to reduce disaster losses.
  3. Sendai framework recognises that the State has the primary role to reduce disaster risk but that responsibility should be shared with other stakeholders including local government, the private sector and other stakeholders.
  4. The Hyogo Framework sets five priorities for action, the first two being: governance and risk identification.
  5. The Sendai Framework sets four priorities for action to be implemented at national & local levels and at global & regional levels-
  6. Understanding disaster risk.
  7. Strengthening disaster risk governance to manage disaster risk.
  8. Investing in disaster risk reduction for resilience.
  9. Enhancing disaster preparedness for effective response and to “Build Back Better” in recovery, rehabilitation and reconstruction.

India has been traditionally vulnerable to natural disasters on account of its unique geo-climatic conditions. Floods, droughts, cyclones, earthquakes and landslides have been a recurrent phenomenon in the country. India has adopted the Sendai framework for disaster risk reduction and the first country to have drawn a national and local strategy with a short term goal achievement target set for 2020.

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