|Demand of the question |
Introduction. Contextual Introduction.
Body. Impact of migration on urban demography.
Conclusion. Way forward.
The 21st century is seeing a phenomenon of rapid urban expansion and internal migration in the developing countries. According to UN, internal migration continues to be one of the major components of urban growth and socioeconomic transformation, and a central mechanism for population redistribution. These processes lead to demographic, social, economic and environmental consequences in both urban and rural areas.
Impact of migration on urban demography: Migration brings tangible change in demographic characteristics of place of origin and place of destination. The absolute number of population, the density of population, age composition, and literacy rates are either favourably or adversely affected.
- Migration changes the characteristics of the population in regions of out migration-the proportion of old, children and females increases due to out-migration in source region.
- Migration leads to demographic changes with large young male population dominating the age-sex composition.
- Migration of skilled workers leads to a greater economic growth of the region. The population density of urban areas increases with increase in birth rates.
- Migration fills gaps in demand for and supply of labour and efficiently allocates skilled and unskilled labour.
- Migration leads to intermixing of people from different cultures which brings up a composite culture among the people.
- UNESCO’s 2019 Global Education Monitoring Report (GEM Report) shows that children left behind by migrating parents and seasonal migrants face fewer educational opportunities overall. According to the report, 80% of migrant children across seven Indian cities did not have access to education near worksites.
- Large scale movement of people from rural to urban areas causes overcrowding in cities and puts heavy pressure on urban infrastructure. Improper urban planning coupled with large influx of poor migrants lead to development slums lacking basic infrastructural facilities such as safe drinking water, electricity, sewage, housing, security, hospital etc.
- It provides remittances to households in the areas of origin, increases consumer expenditure and investment in health, education and assets formation.
- When a migrant return to its place of origin, he/she brings knowledge, skills and innovation. It enhances knowledge and skills of migrants through exposure and interaction with the outside world.
- Lack of affordable housing in Indian cities force migrants to live in slums. Many seasonal migrants are not even able to afford rents in slums force them to live at their workplaces (such as construction sites and hotel dining rooms), shop pavements, or in open areas in the city.
Migration lead to mixing of people from one are to another. It impact urban services and change demography of place of origin and destination. It often put burden on urbanisation and hinder health of an urban centre. A proper management and plan is needed to make migration to urban centres fruitful.