|Demand of the question |
Introduction. Introduce with what is UNSC.
Body. Issue of permanent membership. Importance for India.
Conclusion. Way forward.
The United Nations Security Council (UNSC) is one of the organs of the United Nations which deal with the maintenance of international peace and security. The Security Council consists of five permanent members- the United Kingdom, France, China Russia, and the United States.
Issue of permanent membership in UNSC:
- Concentration of powers: UN represents a larger world. Only 5 permanent members in such an important body has led to concentration of powers.
- New Realities: Current composition of the Security Council represents the post World War II realities. Thus it is not in pace with the changing balance of power in the world. Reforms are needed.
- Emergence of new powers: At the time of the formation of UNSC, big powers were given powers for councils’ proper functioning. Rise of G4 (India, Brazil, Germany, and Japan) as important economies and emerging world powers demand UN Security Council reforms.
- No Representation: The regions like far East Asia, South America, Africa have no representation in the permanent membership of the council.
- Serious Consequences: Its powers to establish international sanctions, and the authorization of military action through Security Council resolutions which are binding to member states can have serious consequences on economies.
- Veto Power: Another criticism of the Security Council is the veto power of the five permanent members. One country’s objection, rather than the opinions of a majority of countries, may prevent any possible UN response to a crisis. Recent case of Masood Azhar which was vetoed by China is an example of this.
- Lack of transparency: The the permanent members meet privately and then present their resolutions to the full council, behaving like a private club who secretly come to decision. This lead to opacity in decision making.
Importance of permanent seat in the council to India:
- By inclusion into UNSC as permanent member India will be able to tackle China more comprehensibly.
- India will be able to work better for its interests.
- India’s presence as a permanent member will be an acknowledgment of its rise as a global power, ready to play a key role in the council’s objectives of international peace and security.
- India will be able to enjoy the ‘prestige’ associated with the permanent membership of the council.
- It will help in India to get involved more at international platform and will help its diplomatic missions.
Thus India’s entry as permanent member is important not only for India but also for whole world for better distribution of powers. This demand comprehensive UNSC reforms.