[Answered] Discuss various conditions that lead to formation of cyclones in tropical regions. Highlight some of the measures available for mitigation of harmful impacts of cyclones in India.

Introduction: Write about tropical cyclones.
Body: Write necessary condition for cyclone formation and also explain some ongoing mitigation initiatives.
Conclusion: Give a way forward.

Cyclones are areas of rapid inward air circulation centred on a low-pressure area. Cyclones are usually followed by violent storms and bad weather. India witnesses cyclones in the North Indian Ocean Cyclone Season usually between April and November. The east coast of India is more prone to cyclones than the western coast.

Conditions for the formation of cyclones in tropical regions:

  • Large sea surface with temperature higher than 27° C, which is possible only during the late summers i.e. September, October, and November.
  • A consistent source of heat is necessary as tropical cyclones is thermally induced low-pressure systems.
  • There should be small variations in the vertical wind speed.
  • To create a cyclonic vortex, there should be presence of enough Coriolis force.
  • A pre-existing weak low-pressure area or low-level-cyclonic circulation.
  • Upper divergence above the sea level system.

Measures available for mitigation of harmful impacts of cyclones in India:

  • IMD introduced an impact-based cyclone warning system from the October-December season. It focused on districts and specific locations. It also incorporated factors such as population, infrastructure, land use and settlements.
  • National Cyclone Risk Mitigation Project: The aim of the project is to protect the vulnerable local communities from the impact of cyclones.
  • Integrated Coastal Zone Management (ICZM) Project: It was initiated by the Ministry of Environment, Forest and Climate Change (MoEF&CC) to bring a comprehensive plan for the management of coastal areas.
  • Coastal Regulation Zones (CRZ) Rules: for sustainable development of coastal areas and to protect coastal ecosystems by regulating activities near the coastline.
  • India launched a global Coalition for Disaster Resilient Infrastructure (CDRI) to make the infrastructure resilient in the face of disasters like cyclones.

It is imperative to improve the cyclone warning system and revamp disaster preparedness measures. The Government must widen the cover under shelterbelt plantations and help regenerate mangroves in coastal regions to lessen the impact of cyclones.

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