[Answered] Do you think that ageing is going to be one of the most critical concerns for India? Provide justifications for your arguments. Briefly describe the measures taken by the government for elderlies in India.

Introduction: Contextual introduction.
Body: Write some issues with ageing population and also its benefits.  Also, write some measures taken by the government for elderlies in India.
Conclusion: Write a way forward.

The ageing of the populations is the result of the continued decline in fertility rates and increased life expectancy. Though the proportion of older persons in the overall population is low (8.6%), their overall number is very high (104 million), as per the 2011 census. This is projected to more than double by 2036 to 225 million.

Ageing- a concern:

  • By 2041, older person’s population share is going to range from 11.6% in Bihar to 23.9% in Kerala. This underlines the need for a differentiated approach to planning for older persons across states.
  • Ageing before becoming rich: According to the study of United Nations Population Fund, poverty rates are higher among older persons. e.g. In 2021, almost 10% of the total workers in MGNREGA were 61 years or older.
  • Low service coverage: Social security coverage is 20% while health insurance coverage is around 25%. Also, 85% of pension receivers use their pension for food, other subsistence needs and healthcare.
  • The schemes for the elderly are lacking the depth and financial support to make any meaningful impact.
  • If timely arrangements are not made for the self-sufficiency of older population by measure like social security, it will become a huge burden on the government exchequer.


  • Younger people will have the chance to talk with more senior mentors and raising their social awareness and increasing their knowledge.
  • The importance of the local knowledge and community-organising skills of older people’s associations in disaster relief efforts.
  • It can shift attitudes towards older workers, and permanently reduce age-related discrimination.
  • It can also present opportunities for firms to develop new niche products and services. E.g. attractive savings and pensions products.

Measures taken by the government for elderlies in India:

  • Rashtriya Vayoshri Yojana (RVY): aids and assistive living devices are provided to senior citizens belonging to BPL category who suffer from age-related disabilities such as low vision, hearing impairment, loss of teeth and locomotor disabilities.
  • Pradhan Mantri Vaya Vandana Yojana: to provide social security during old age. This is implemented by the Life Insurance Corporation (LIC) of India.
  • Indira Gandhi National Old Age Pension Scheme (IGNOAPS):A monthly pension of Rs.200/- is given to elderly aged 60-79 years belonging to BPL category. The pension increases to Rs.500/-per month upon attaining the age of 80 years.
  • States such as Kerala, have been addressing the issue with initiatives and budgetary allocations right from the panchayat level.

Many countries already have taken steps toward reforming their old-age social insurance programmes; India should also follow the same. Moreover, financial markets need to be flexible and innovative to meet the needs of aging populations.

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