|Demand of the question|
Introduction. Contextual introduction.
Body. Explain the process of legislation in the Indian Parliament for an ordinary bill. Discuss how a money bill is different from an ordinary bill.
Conclusion. Way forward.
The primary function of legislatures is to make laws for its people. Every bill has to pass through the same stages in each House. A bill is a proposal for legislation and it becomes an act or law when duly enacted.
Process of legislation in the Indian Parliament for an Ordinary Bills:
- First Reading: The ordinary bill can be introduced in either house by a minister/other member. Upon grant of leave by house, the member reads the title and objectives, but no discussion happens on this bill at this stage. Following this, the bill is published in gazette.
- Second Reading: At this stage, the detailed scrutiny of the bill happens and the bill takes full It has 3 sub stages:
- Stage of general discussion: The principles of the bill and its provisions are discussed
generally, but the details of the bill are not discussed.
- Committee stage: The usual practice is to refer the bill to a select committee of the House. This committee examines the bill thoroughly and in detail, clause by clause. It can also amend its provisions, but without altering the principles underlying it. After completing the scrutiny and discussion, the committee reports the bill back to the House.
- Consideration stage: The House, after receiving the bill from the select committee, considers the provisions of the bill clause by clause. Each clause is discussed and voted upon separately. The members can also move amendments and if accepted, they become part of the bill.
- Third Reading: No amendments are allowed anymore and either bill is completely accepted or
If the majority accepts, it is passed and transmitted to the second house.
- In Second house: Bill goes through all 3 stages and House may:
- Pass the bill as sent by the first house (i.e. without amendments).
- Pass the bill with amendments and return it to the first House for reconsideration.
- Reject the bill altogether.
- Not take any action and thus keep the bill pending up to 6 months.
- Provision of joint sitting: In case of deadlock between the house over passing of a bill emerges, the President can summon a joint sitting of Lok Sabha and Rajya Sabha. The members of both houses vote jointly and the bill passes by simple majority.
- Assent of President: After the bill is passed from both the houses, it is presented to the office of
President for assent. The President can exercise any of the following options:
- He may give his assent to the bill.
- He may withhold his assent to the bill.
- He may return the bill for reconsideration of the Houses.
If an assent is given, it becomes an act and is placed on statute book.
Differences between ordinary and money bill:
|Ordinary Bill||Money Bill|
|Can be introduced in either Lok Sabha or|
|Can only be introduced in Lok Sabha.|
|Can be introduced by either minister or|
|Can be introduced only by the minister.|
|Can be introduced without President’s|
|Can be introduced only with President’s|
|Can be amended/rejected by Rajya Sabha.||Rajya Sabha can only return the bill.|
|Rajya Sabha can only detain bill for 6 months||Rajya Sabha can detain bills for max 14 days.|
|Does not require certification of speaker|
when transmitted to Rajya Sabha.
|Requires Speaker’s certification.|
|Sent for President’s assent if passed by both|
houses. In case of deadlock, joint sitting can
|Can be sent for president’s assent even if|
approved only by Lok Sabha. No provision for joint sitting.
|Its defeat in Lok Sabha may lead to resignation of the government.||Defeat in Lok Sabha leads to resignation of the government.|
|Can be rejected, approved or returned for|
reconsideration by the President.
|Can be rejected or approved but cannot be|
returned by the President.
Legislative process is an important part of Indian democracy. Indian constitution has elaborated every provision of different legislative powers related to different bills of Parliament and state legislature, thus, enabling democracy to enable laws for societal benefit.