|Introduction: Contextual introduction.|
Body: Explain how multilateralism has failed in addressing the present global crises. Also write some needs to strengthen multilateralism.Conclusion: Write a way forward.
Multilateralism is also called as a rule-based international order. Since 2008, and after decades of accelerated expansion, the global integration of trade, markets and finance has slowed down and we are in a period of “slowbalization” or even “deglobalization.”
How multilateralism has failed in addressing the present global crises?
- Advanced economies (AEs) are now disenchanted by globalization. For Example, Brexit and inward-looking policies of many developed countries like US.
- The BRICSfailed to determine the dynamics of the future course in the Indo-Pacific.
- In the G7 Summit 2022, the members were preoccupied with its increasing involvement in the war through supply of money, sophisticated weapons, etc. It failed to produce any results on other major issues like climate change etc.
- As the Appellate Body of the WTO is unable to hear new appeals, causing widespread concern in the context of escalating global trade protectionism.
- Despite its massive size, the United Nations has become hostage to geopolitical competition and ideological struggles. g. mostly refrained from criticizing Beijing’s actions against the Uighurs.
- The performance of the World Health Organization during the Covid-19 pandemic, and the ambiguity and lack of transparency of its investigation on the origins of the virus.
- The conflict in Ukraine has exposed fault lines in European security that most multilateral actors had failed to acknowledge.
Need to strengthen:
- The new realities of the digital economy and rapid technological development necessitate coordinated action to address crucial challenges.
- As, the effects of economic slow-down cut across the boundary lines of countries, there is a need to act on the UN general agenda to revive and strengthen our capacity to fight against issues like poverty, equal participation, biodiversity loss, justice etc.
- To improve the fairness of corporate taxation, especially of digital companies, and to shore up the privacy treatment of consumer data across borders.
- Achieving the SDGs, including ambitious targets on climate action, universal healthcare and financing for development, will require stakeholders to work together at all levels in innovative partnerships and initiatives.
- There is also a need to enhance cooperation among the UN, regional organization, international finance institution at both policy and operational levels.
- India needs to support reform not only to expand the permanent members’ category of the Security Council but also to revitalize the role of the General Assembly.
- India, Germany, Japan and Brazil [G-4] have sought to refocus the UN on UNSC reform, they must remain focused and determines even if these changes do not happen easily.