|Demand of the question |
Introduction. What is asymmetric federalism?
Body. How it helped in Indian unity?
Conclusion. Contextual conclusion.
Asymmetric federalism means different constituent states possess different powers in political, administrative and fiscal arrangements between the units constituting a federation.
One or more of the states has considerably more independence than the others, though they have the same constitutional status. The division of powers is not symmetric.
How asymmetric federalism in India helped in ensuring unity and addresses needs of vulnerable communities?
- Guaranteeing rights: These special provisions in the Constitution has helped in protecting fundamental rights and compensated for initial inequalities in the social system.
- Conserve ethnicity and culture: In north-east there is a distinct difference in ethnicity from the rest of India. Article 371 provide special powers to northeastern states. The safeguards provided to these states through special provisions include respect for customary laws, religious and social practices, restrictions on the ownership and transfer of land, and restrictions on the migration non-residents to the State.
- Recognition of differences: It facilitates public recognition of cultural differences and allow certain ethnocultural minorities to have self rule. Thereby ensuring their development.
- Social justice: Allowance for separate laws to govern different religious groups, and provisions for various kinds of affirmative action for extremely disadvantaged groups help in ensuring justice to them.
- Ensure unity in diversity: These provisions respects and preserve diversity of the country by protecting vulnerable group through special powers. This ensure unity in diversity leading to ‘sabka sath sabka vikas’.
- Satisfiy different needs: It act as a solution to satisfy different needs of various federal units, as the result of an ethnic, linguistic or cultural difference. Asymmetric federalism has helped in reducing dissatisfaction among various states.
- Reduced radicalisation: Special powers given to the states help in reducing radicalisation. Many states include several diverse population, with the majority of the population of the state vulnerable and poor. Asymmetric federalism Ensure decision making by these communities which is best for them.
- Better representation in democracy: It has helped in providing representation to minority areas and areas with less population providing them justice.
- Strengthen social fabric: It vent separatist and secessionist activities. By providing special powers and semi-autonomy people feel empowered and do not feel to get separated. It also prevent their exploitation from Political class in name of powers.
The unequal status between various states gave rise to the need for constitutional recognition of inequality, which should be there into the federal polity but in such a way that which protect diversity without sacrificing unity or imposing uniformity. In the Constitution of
In India due to inequality of states and of regions within the state was creating dissatisfaction. Asymmetric federalism and special provisions have helped solving these problems.