Answered: Mains Marathon – UPSC Mains Current Affairs Questions – June 12


1. Mention four attributes that are important for civil service. Justify your answer. (GS 4)


  • Civil servants are the lynchpin between the government and public. So it is very important for the civil servants to have the following attributes :-

1.Emotional Intelligence and empathy :-

  • In a country like India where there are diverse people civil servants need to empathise with the local people and try to convince them for change like convincing them for importance of toilets and making the area open defecation free,trying to convince the people for not aborting the female child,importance of education for children etc.

2.Integrity and honesty:-

  • It is very important for a civil servant to have both these qualities especially in the society ridden with corrupted officials.To teach people to differentiate what is right and what is wrong especially under high pressure situations.A corrupt officer can push the development back and it is one of the worst qualities a civil servant can have according to chanakya.

3.Efficiency :-

  • To be able to get the things done and being accountable to their actions is very important for a civil servant to gain trust from the public.
  • For example in a Boat tragedy in Bihar, the district administration was found not to have taken precautionary measures in advance.

4.Accountability and transparency:-

  • Accountability for their action: A bureaucrat of clean and sound conscience will always take the accountability of her actions. When actions are guided by malafide intentions, accountability diminishes and blame-game picks up.

There are many other attributes which are essential for the civil service as well like openenss, perseverance etc too.

2. Is morality important to lead a happy life? Support your answer with examples. (GS 4)


  • Morality makes a person aware of the difference between right and wrong .It is believed to a large extent that a moral person has a satisfaction to lead a happy life.

Yes morality is important to lead a happy life:-

  • To be happy is to be emotionally and evaluatively satisfied with one’s life .Since there is no definitive proof of what the standard of satisfaction is, being open to the devising and testing of standards by others is part of claiming one’s own standard as a reasoning being. This open-ness is equivalent to being open to and hence respecting and caring for the pursuit of happiness of others. Since such respect and care is what it is to be moral, it follows that one cannot be happy without being moral.
  • A person can lead a fulfilled and happy life because he/she has created great relationships through strong ethical and moral conduct.
  • In administration when one sees the life of Corrupt vs. Honest Officers – Former CAG Mr. Vinod Rai unearthed big scams and was at the receiving end of the then government. However, now he is respected by all. At the same time, a dishonest officer can accumulate huge wealth but will always live in fear.
  • Where a person has high moral standards he receives respect from all quarters and would have a life of no fear leading to a happy life.
  • In personal life there might be many instances where one might be tempted to lie or cheat or chose an easy path for success which is riddled with unethical and immoral means but conscience would constantly remind u and the person would not be happy so ethical and moral life even though it’s tough leads to a happy life.

3. Has the formation of linguistic States strengthened the cause of Indian Unity? (GS 1)


  • Linguistic States has prevented the rise of Ethnic linguistic -Nationalist based demands like in Europe.
  • Creation of Linguistic states has prevented Balkanisation. Eg: Yugoslavia disintegration into Ethnic based states – Serbia , Croatia, Slovenia, Montenegro, Bosnia happened because of inadequate recognition and problems of non-Serbs. So, Linguistic states avoided such situation in India for instance dropping of demands for Dravida Nadu and Separate Tamil Nadu demands due to autonomy provided by creation of Tamil Nadu.
  • States are able to conserve their language and indigenous culture , as the States are allowed to have official language through Constitutional provision.
  • It fulfilled the aspirations of people to have autonomous political units for governance
  • Led to development of vernacular languages and imparting of education in them, thus facilitating literacy.
  • Development and adoption of vernacular language also enabled political participation by the common man and enabled the common man to voice issues of concern in a familiar language.
  • Enabled the preservation of local customs, culture, and festivals. Over time, the people of India have come to cherish the myriad customs of different states. For example, Chhath celebrations have become popular in Gujarat.
  • It did not lead to complaints regarding discrimination in the matter of distribution of resources on the basis of language, nor did it affect the federal structure of the country.
  • It has also led to reduction in protests and demonstration among the groups with same languages bringing them closer and more united.


  • Interstate river water disputes are given Linguistic colours and affects the brotherhood between the Citizens for instance Cauvery water dispute.
  • Greater Land concepts like Nagalim with claim over land from neighbour state’s lands is not liked by neighbour States.
  • But, this formation of linguistic states gave more primacy to regional and local languages and thereby making it difficult for a consensus on a common official language in India.
  • Also, the southern states even today , remain skeptical for inclusion of Hindi as a third language in curriculum.
  • linguistic reorganization also led to several unintended consequences such as regionalism, linguistic chauvinism and foundation of the “Sons of the soil” doctrine.
  • There are several issues that are a threat to India’s integrity – ethnic clashes in the North East, demand for new states on the basis of backwardness such as Marathwada and Saurashtra, militancy in Jammu and Kashmir .
  • But the political leadership of newly independent India had the foresight to visualize the consequences of not acquiescing to popular aspirations. Their decision to linguistically reorganize the states has therefore removed one important factor that would’ve jeopardized India’s integrity and thus strengthened the cause of Indian unity.


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