While impartiality means acting without any bias, non-partisanship is a quality of being politically neutral. These two are considered as essential/foundational values for a civil servant in discharge of his/her duties because:
- It entails that the civil servant will serve the government of the day faithfully without political bias. For example, a resident commissioner may have to serve under governments of differing political ideologies in centre and the state.
- Will help a civil servant to take decision without any fear/favour to any political party and based on constitutional principles. For example, during elections, non-partisanship will aid a DM/DC in discharging the duties of a RO effectively.
- It ensures an effective/professional relationship between the elected representative and the civil servants. For example, non-partisanship, will enhance/maintain the credibility of a chief secretary, irrespective of the party in power.
- Helps a civil servant to make decisions on objective criteria and not on biases and prejudices. For example, impartiality will help the Chairman of the Finance commission, in recommending resources on objective criteria, without a bias to his/her own home state.
- It ensures an amicable and effective relationship between civil servant and the society/citizens. For example, an impartial SDM/DSP will command respect of the people, and thus will gain their cooperation in various conflict management situations.
- It helps build an equal attitude towards everything and everyone. For example, impartiality will aid a DM/DC in implementing benefits under PMMVY without a bias of caste or religion.
Impartiality and non-partisanship are considered as the essential qualities in a civil servant. These are necessary because, civil servants are expected/mandated to act as per law/constitution in a politically neutral manner, without any bias or prejudice.