[Answered] Though subsequent efforts have been taken by the Government, land records still remain in a dilapidated state. Examine. How will National Generic Document Registration System (NGDRS) be helpful in efficient land records management?

Though by the Government of India have been taken subsequent efforts for digitisation of land records through Computerisation of Land Records (CLR, 1987) and Strengthening of Revenue Administration and Updating of Land Records ,1988, the fact remains that digitisation programmes have not been able to provide a unified system for managing land records. Moreover, land is a state subject, each state follows its own distinct system of land administration The information that is contained in the Record of Rights differs from state to state and sometimes there is variation even within a state with respect to the land record information.
Issues with land records management:

  1. Land ownership in India is presumptive-land ownership is primarily established through a registered sale deed means, a record of the property transaction between the buyer and seller, which is presumptive in nature. During such transactions, the burden of checking past ownership records of a property is on the buyer.
  2. Land records are poorly maintained- The data across departments is not updated properly. Maps have not been used to establish actual property boundaries on the ground. Therefore, the property documents do not match the position on the ground.
  3. High litigation: A World Bank study from 2007 states that some estimates suggest that land-related disputes account for two-thirds of all pending court cases in the country. A NITI Aayog paper recommends that land disputes on average take about 20 years to be resolved.
  4. Benami transactions: A benami transaction is one where a property is held by or transferred to a person, but has been provided for or paid by another person.   Unclear titles and non-updated land records enable carrying out property transactions in a non-transparent way.

How National Generic Document Registration System (NGDRS) will be helpful?

NGDRS is a citizen centric software designed for online property registration, uploading of relevant documents, and booking online appointments with the SRO for documents registration.

  1. Time saving: Single window appointment and entire database is stored on cloud server and dashboard gives real time data.
  2. Minimum Interface: reduced visits to sub-registrar office and facility of online query and reply.
  3. Prevention of fraudulent transactions: documents details uploaded online.
  4. Auto calculation of duties: stamp duties and other charges are valued accurately by the software using address details of the property.

Land records management constitutes an important factor to achieve the prospects of growth and economic development, especially in the context of uncontrolled urbanisation, growing population and rural-urban migration. Management of land records is also critical for effective dispute resolution, to remove the discrepancies in the land records information and also for sustainable land-use planning thus for the growth and development of India.

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