[Answered] Throw light on the performance of India and the world in achieving Sustainable Development Goals. What more needs to be done to achieve SDG goals on time?

Introduction: Contextual introduction.
Body: Explain performance of India and the world in achieving Sustainable Development Goals. Also write some measures to achieve SDG goals on time.
Conclusion: Write a way forward.

Sustainable Development Goals is a group of 17 goals with 169 targets and 304 indicators to be achieved by 2030. SDGs are the outcome of the Rio+20 conference (2012) and is a non-binding document. All the countries which are members of the UN agreed to work upon for the better future of the country.

According to Sustainable Development Report, 2022 by Sustainable Development Solutions Network (SDSN), performance of India is as follows:

  • India’s Rank has slipped for the third consecutive year. It has been ranked 121 out of the 163 countries in 2022. India ranked 117 in 2020 and 120 in 2021.
  • India is not placed well to achieve the SDG goals and its preparedness has worsened over the years in comparison with other countries.
  • The country continues to face major challenges in achieving 11 of the 17 SDGs. For instance, SDG 2 on ending hunger, SDG 3 on good health and well-being and SDG 6 on clean water and sanitation.
  • Further, ensuring decent work (SDG 8) has become even more challenging.
  • However, India is on track to achieving SDG 13 on climate action.

According to UN SDGs report 2022” performance of world:  is:

  • Electricity: Around 91% of the world population gained access to electricity, leaving 733 million people in the dark in 2020 compared to 1.2 billion in 2010.
  • Clean Water and Sanitation: the proportion of the global population using safely managed drinking water services increased from 70% in 2015 to 74% in 2020.
  • Moreover, over the same period, the population practising open defecation decreasedby a third, from 739 million people to 494 million. Hence, the world is on track to eliminate open defecation by 2030.
  • Rising global temperatures continue unabated leading to more extreme weather events around the world and that energy-related emissions have increased 6% in 2021 reaching the highest level ever.

What more needs to be done?

  • Use resources effectively: Economic cost-benefit analysis can help identify policies where few resources can help a lot and highlight where even very larger sources achieve little.
  • Localising SDG: Allows developing local solutions and enable each level to play its role.
  • Infrastructure: There is need to invest in new, resilient infrastructure or retrofit existing to make it more sustainable.

Technological democratization, sustainable infrastructure development, and behavioural change will help us restore ecosystems and mitigate the risks posed by climate change in the coming decade. India’s efforts to achieve SDGs will aid India in mitigating Climate change.

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