[Answered] Urbanisation will be the single biggest agent of growth in the next few decades in India. Suggest some measures to promote sustainable urbanisation.

Introduction: Contexual introduction.
Body: Write some measures to achieve sustainable urbanisation.
Conclusion: Give a way forward.

India is already the second-largest urban system in the world. In the economic development of India, its cities have a major role to play. Cities are India’s economic powerhouses and a magnet for a large rural population seeking a better life. The sustainability of cities depends in large part on their physical, social and institutional infrastructure and development plans and processes adopted. Therefore, achieving the targets depends on proper implementation and monitoring of programmes by city governments, agencies, and various special purpose vehicles.

Measures:

  • Vertical development: Tall buildings contribute, not only in facilitating more people, whether it is for working or living but also towards the environment. It averts the loss of agricultural land, freeing up space for plantation of crops. It decreases air pollution, as commuting is vertical, making distances shorter and the transport mechanism much more efficient.
  • Follow master plans: As urban areas continue to expand, green spaces are disappearing. Trees and green areas are essential for improving air quality, mitigating urban temperatures, encouraging physical activity and improving overall health. Therefore, there should be a master plan to address all these issues.
  • Develop transit networks: Prioritizing collective transport with dedicated on-street facilities helps a city move large numbers of people quickly and efficiently. This allows dedicating space within the street for other uses and supports sustainability goals.
  • Urban managers: Their focus should be to tackle the demands of cities and towns which are expanding and rebuild policies for land use, structures, and service networks.
  • Promoting urban agriculture: Producing and selling food within the city itself can reduce the environmental impact of food distribution, increase opportunities for inclusive local supply etc.

Cities need to be planned, designed, and developed to lessen their impact on the environment. It is not only necessary to achieve the Millennium Development Goals but it can also provide stimulus for employment and development. AMRUT scheme is a way to address these goals.

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